Natural theology


Natural theology

Natural theology is a branch of theology based on reason and ordinary experience. Thus it is distinguished from revealed theology (or revealed religion) which is based on scripture and religious experiences of various kinds; and also from transcendental theology, theology from a priori reasoning.

Marcus Terentius Varro (116–27 BC) in his (lost) Antiquitates rerum humanarum et divinarum established a distinction of three kinds of theology: civil (political) (theologia civilis), natural (physical) (theologia naturalis) and mythical (theologia mythica). The theologians of civil theology are "the people", asking how the gods relate to daily life and the state (imperial cult). The theologians of natural theology are the philosophers, asking for the nature of the gods, and the theologians of mythical theology are the poets, crafting mythology. The terminology entered Stoic tradition and is used by Augustine of Hippo.

Natural theology, thus, is that part of the philosophy of religion dealing with describing the nature of the gods, or, in monotheism, arguing for or against attributes or non-attributes of God, and especially the existence of God, purely philosophically, that is, without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. Physico-theology is the term for a theology based on the constitution of the natural world, especially derived from perceived elements of "design", which gave rise to the argument from design for the existence of God, beginning with the "fifth way" of the Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas (d. 1274).

Contents

Key proponents

Besides Zarathushtra's Gathas, Plato gives the earliest surviving account of a "natural theology", around 360 BC, in his dialogue "Timaeus" he states "Now the whole Heaven, or Cosmos, ...we must first investigate concerning it that primary question which has to be investigated at the outset in every case,—namely, whether it has existed always, having no beginning of generation, or whether it has come into existence, having begun from some beginning".[1] He continues in his Laws establishing the existence of the gods by rational argument, stating "...which lead to faith in the gods? ...One is our dogma about the soul...the other is our dogma concerning the ordering of the motion of the stars".[2] Aristotle in his Metaphysics argues for the existence of an "unmoved mover", an argument taken up in medieval scholastics.[citation needed]

From the 8th century, the Mutazilite school of Islam, compelled to defend their principles against the orthodox Islam of their day, looked for support in philosophy, and are among the first to pursue a rational Islamic theology, called Ilm-al-Kalam (scholastic theology). The teleological argument was presented by the early Islamic philosophers, Alkindus and Averroes (founder of Averroism), while Avicenna (founder of the Avicennism school of Islamic philosophy) presented both the cosmological argument and ontological argument in The Book of Healing (1027).[citation needed]

Thomas Aquinas (c.1225–1274), wrote Summa Theologica and Summa Contra Gentiles which both present various versions of the Cosmological argument and Teleological argument, respectively. The Ontological argument is also presented, but rejected in favor of proofs dealing with cause and effect alone.

Thomas Barlow, Bishop of Lincoln wrote Execreitationes aliquot metaphysicae de Deo (1637) and spoke often of natural theology during the reign of Charles II.[citation needed]

John Ray (1627–1705) also known as John Wray, was an English naturalist, sometimes referred to as the father of English natural history. He published important works on plants, animals, and natural theology.

William Derham (1657–1735), was a friend and disciple of John Ray. He continued Ray's tradition of natural theology in two of his own works, The Physico-Theology, published in 1713, and the Astro-Theology, 1714.[citation needed] These would later help influence the work of William Paley (see below).[citation needed]

In An Essay on the Principle of Population, the first edition published in 1798, Thomas Malthus ended with two chapters on natural theology and population. Malthus—a devout Christian—argued that revelation would "damp the soaring wings of intellect", and thus never let "the difficulties and doubts of parts of the scripture" interfere with his work.

William Paley gave a well-known rendition of the teleological argument for God. In 1802 he published Natural Theology, or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity collected from the Appearances of Nature. In this he described the Watchmaker analogy, for which he is probably best known. Searing criticisms of arguments like Paley's are found in David Hume's posthumous Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion.[citation needed]

Thomas Paine wrote the definitive book on the natural religion of Deism, The Age of Reason (1794–1807). In it he uses reason to establish a belief in Nature's Designer who man calls God. He also establishes the many instances that Christianity and Judaism require us to give up our God-given reason in order to accept their claims to revelation.[citation needed]

American education reformer and abolitionist, Horace Mann (1796–1859) taught political economy, intellectual and moral philosophy, and natural theology.[citation needed]

Professor of chemistry and natural history, Edward Hitchcock also studied and wrote on natural theology. He attempted to unify and reconcile science and religion, focusing on geology. His major work in this area was The Religion of Geology and its Connected Sciences (1851).[3][page needed]

The Gifford Lectures are lectures established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford. They were established to "promote and diffuse the study of Natural Theology in the widest sense of the term—in other words, the knowledge of God." The term natural theology as used by Gifford means theology supported by science and not dependent on the miraculous.[4]

The Bridgewater Treatises

Debates over the applicability of teleology to scientific questions came to a head in the nineteenth century, as Paley's argument about design came into conflict with radical new theories on the transmutation of species. In order to support the canonical scientific views at the time, which explored the natural world within Paley's framework of a divine designer, The Earl of Bridgewater, a gentleman naturalist, commissioned eight Bridgewater Treatises upon his deathbed to explore 'the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God, as manifested in the Creation.'[5] They first appeared during the years 1833 to 1840, and afterwards in Bohn's Scientific Library. The treatises are:

  1. The Adaptation of External Nature to the Moral and Intellectual Condition of Man, by Thomas Chalmers, D. D.
  2. On The Adaptation of External Nature to the Physical Condition of Man, by John Kidd, M. D.
  3. Astronomy and General Physics considered with reference to Natural Theology, by William Whewell, D. D.
  4. The hand, its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as evincing Design, by Sir Charles Bell.
  5. Animal and Vegetable Physiology considered with reference to Natural Theology, by Peter Mark Roget.
  6. Geology and Mineralogy considered with reference to Natural Theology, by William Buckland, D.D.
  7. The Habits and Instincts of Animals with reference to Natural Theology, by William Kirby.
  8. Chemistry, Meteorology, and the Function of Digestion, considered with reference to Natural Theology, by William Prout, M.D.

In response to the claim in Whewell's treatise that "We may thus, with the greatest propriety, deny to the mechanical philosophers and mathematicians of recent times any authority with regard to their views of the administration of the universe", Charles Babbage published what he called The Ninth Bridgewater Treatise, A Fragment.[6] As his preface states, this volume was not part of that series, but rather his own reflections on the subject. He draws on his own work on calculating engines to consider God as a divine programmer setting complex laws underlying what we think of as miracles, rather than miraculously producing new species on a Creative whim. There was also a fragmentary supplement to this, posthumously published by Thomas Hill.

The works are of unequal merit; several of them took a high rank in apologetic literature, but they attracted considerable criticism. One notable critic of the Bridgewater Treatises was Edgar Allan Poe, who wrote Criticism.[7] Robert Knox, an Edinburgh surgeon and leading advocate of radical morphology, referred to them as the "Bilgewater Treatises", to mock the "ultra-teleological school". Though memorable, this phrase overemphasises the influence of teleology in the series, at the expense of the idealism of the likes of Kirby and Roget.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Plato, Timaeus
  2. ^ Plato, Laws
  3. ^ Hitchcock, Edward. "Making of America Books: The religion of geology and its connected sciences:". quod.lib.umich.edu. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=moa;cc=moa;sid=6730fe66e24262cb615a418fad16efb8;rgn=full%20text;idno=AFY7120.0001.001;view=image;seq=0017. Retrieved 2009-08-08. 
  4. ^ See Gifford Lectures online database accessed October 15, 2010.
  5. ^ Robson, John, 'The Fiat and Finger of God: The Bridgewater Treatises', Lightman, Bernard, and Frank Turner ed., Victorian Faith in Crisis: Essays on Continuity and Change in Nineteenth-Century Religious Belief. 1990
  6. ^ The Ninth Bridgewater Treatise, A Fragment, Charles Babbage
  7. ^ Criticism, Edgar Allan Poe, (1850)
  8. ^ Alexander, Denis; Numbers, Ronald L. (2010). Biology and Ideology from Descartes to Dawkins. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 107. ISBN 0226608417. 

Further reading

External links

The Bridgewater Treatises

  1. The Adaptation of External Nature to the Moral and Intellectual Condition of Man, by Thomas Chalmers, D. D.
  2. On The Adaptation of External Nature to the Physical Condition of Man, by John Kidd, M. D.
  3. Astronomy and General Physics considered with reference to Natural Theology, by William Whewell, D. D.
  4. The hand, its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as evincing Design, by Sir Charles Bell.
  5. Animal and Vegetable Physiology, Considered with Reference to Natural Theology Animal and Vegetable Physiology considered with reference to Natural Theology, by Peter Mark Roget.
  6. Geology and Mineralogy considered with reference to Natural Theology, by William Buckland, D.D.
  7. The Habits and Instincts of Animals with reference to Natural Theology, Vol. 2, by William Kirby.
  8. Chemistry, Meteorology, and the Function of Digestion, considered with reference to Natural Theology, by William Prout, M.D.

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Natural theology — Theology The*ol o*gy, n.; pl. {Theologies}. [L. theologia, Gr. ?; ? God + ? discourse: cf. F. th[ e]ologie. See {Theism}, and {Logic}.] The science of God or of religion; the science which treats of the existence, character, and attributes of God …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Natural theology — Natural Nat u*ral (?; 135), a. [OE. naturel, F. naturel, fr. L. naturalis, fr. natura. See {Nature}.] 1. Fixed or determined by nature; pertaining to the constitution of a thing; belonging to native character; according to nature; essential;… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • natural theology — n. theology that seeks knowledge of God, the soul, immortality, and natural law through reason and the observation of natural processes, unaided by revelation …   English World dictionary

  • natural theology — natural theologian. theology based on knowledge of the natural world and on human reason, apart from revelation. Cf. revealed theology. [1670 80] * * * …   Universalium

  • natural theology — nat′ural theol′ogy n. rel theology based on knowledge of the natural world and on human reason, apart from revelation • Etymology: 1670–80 …   From formal English to slang

  • natural theology —    see theology, natural …   Christian Philosophy

  • natural theology — noun a theology that holds that knowledge of God can be acquired by human reason without the aid of divine revelation • Hypernyms: ↑theology, ↑theological system …   Useful english dictionary

  • natural theology — noun Date: 1675 theology deriving its knowledge of God from the study of nature independent of special revelation …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • natural theology — noun theology or knowledge of God based on observed facts and experience apart from divine revelation …   English new terms dictionary

  • natural theology —    This term refers to a study of God and creation that relies on the abilities of human reason and data entirely accessible to human reason rather than on Revelation or the Scriptures.    See philosophical theology …   Glossary of theological terms


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