32nd century BC


32nd century BC

Events

* c. 3150 BC — According to the legend, Narmer (First Dynasty) started to rule in Ancient Egypt.
* c. 3125 BCNarmer died.
* 29 June 3123 BC — An asteroid approach on collision course is documented by a Sumerian astronomer (collision happened near modern Koefels, Austria) [ [http://www.physorg.com/news126183668.html Cuneiform clay tablet translated for the first time ] ]
*Varna Necropolis: what have been claimed to be the earliest-known worked gold artifacts are manufactured.
*Malta: Construction of the Ħaġar Qim megalithic temples, featuring both solar and lunar alignments. "Tarxien period" of megalithic temple construction reaches its apex.
*Ancient Egypt: Earliest known Egyptian hieroglyphs, beginning of the Early Dynastic Period.
*Crete: Rise of Minoan civilization.
*Neolithic settlement built at Skara Brae in the Orkney Islands, Scotland. (pictured)
*New Stone Age people in Ireland build the 250,000 ton (226,796.2 tonne) Newgrange solar oriented passage tomb.

ignificant persons

*Enoch, son of Jared, (3138 BC–2873 BC?) according to the Hebrew Calendar
*Narmer, successor of King Scorpion and founder of the First dynasty of Ancient Egypt

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

*3114 BC — According to the most widely-accepted correlations between the Western calendar and the calendar systems of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, the mythical starting point of the current Mesoamerican Long Count calendar cycle occurs in this year. [See Finley (2002), Houston (1989, pp.49–51), Miller and Taube (1993, pp.50–52), Schele and Freidel (1990, pp.430 "et seq."), Voss (2006, p.138), Wagner (2006, pp.281–283). Note that Houston 1989 mistakenly writes "3113 BC" (when "-3113" is meant), and Miller and Taube 1993's mention of "2 August" is a (presumed) erratum.] The Long Count calendar, used and refined most notably by the Maya civilization but also attested in some other (earlier) Mesoamerican cultures, consisted of a series of interlocked cycles or periods of day-counts, which mapped out a linear sequence of days from a notional starting point. The system originated sometime in the Mid- to Late Preclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology, during the latter half of the 1st millennium BC. [Miller and Taube (1993, p.50), Schele and Freidel (1990)] The starting point of the most commonly used highest-order cycle [Most commonly used in the Classic period Maya inscriptions; some other Maya calendar inscriptions of this period note even longer cycles, while later Postclassic-era inscriptions in Maya cities of northern Yucatán generally used an abbreviated form known as the Short Count. See Miller and Taube (1993, p.50); Voss (2006, p.138).] — the "b'ak'tun"-cycle consisting of thirteen b'ak'tuns of 144,000 days each — was projected back to an earlier, mythical date. This date is equivalent to 11 August 3114 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar (or 6 September in the proleptic Julian calendar), using the correlation known as the "Goodman-Martinéz-Thompson (GMT) correlation". The GMT-correlation is worked out with the Long Count starting date equivalent to the Julian Day Number (JDN) equal to 584283, and is accepted by most Mayanist scholars as providing the best fit with the ethnohistorical data.See survey by Finley (2002).] Two succeeding dates, the 12th and 13th of August (Gregorian) have also been supported, with the 13th (JDN = 584285, the "astronomical" or "Lounsbury" correlation) attracting significant support as according better with astronomical observational data. [ After a modified proposal championed by Floyd Lounsbury; sources that have used this 584285 correlation include Houston (1989, p.51), and in particular Schele and Freidel (1990, pp.430 "et seq."). See also commentary by Finley (2002), who although making an assessment that the " [584285 correlation] is now more popular with Mayanists", expresses a personal preference for the 584283 correlation.] Although it is still contended which of these three dates forms the actual starting base of the Long Count, the correlation to one of this triad of dates is definitively accepted by almost all contemporary Mayanists. All other earlier or later correlation proposals are now discounted.
*3102 BCYear 0 of the Kali Yuga begins.
*c. 3100 BC — the earliest phase of Stonehenge construction begins.

Decades and years

Notes

References

: cite web |author=Finley, Michael |year=2002 |title=The Correlation Question |work=The Real Maya Prophecies: Astronomy in the Inscriptions and Codices |url=http://members.shaw.ca/mjfinley/corr.html |publisher=Maya Astronomy |accessdate=2007-06-04 : cite book |author=Miller, Mary |authorlink=Mary Miller |coauthors=and Karl Taube |year=1993 |title=The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya |publisher=Thames and Hudson |location=London |isbn=0-500-05068-6 : cite book |author=Schele, Linda |authorlink=Linda Schele |coauthors= and David Freidel |year=1990 |title=A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya |publisher=William Morrow |location=New York |isbn=0-688-07456-1 : cite book |author=Voss, Alexander |year=2006 |chapter=Astronomy and Mathematics |pages=pp.130–143 |editor= Nikolai Grube (Ed.) |others=Eva Eggebrecht and Matthias Seidel (assistant eds.) |title=Maya: Divine Kings of the Rain Forest |location=Cologne |publisher=Könemann Press |isbn=3-8331-1957-8 |oclc=71165439: cite book |author=Wagner, Elizabeth |year=2006 |chapter=Maya Creation Myths and Cosmography |pages=pp.280–293 |editor= Nikolai Grube (ed.) |others=Eva Eggebrecht and Matthias Seidel (Assistant Eds.) |title=Maya: Divine Kings of the Rain Forest |location=Cologne |publisher=Könemann Press |isbn=3-8331-1957-8 |oclc=71165439


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