- The Shepherd of Hermas
"The Shepherd of Hermas" (sometimes just called "The Shepherd") is a
Christianwork of the second century, considered a valuable book by many Christians, and occasionally considered canonical scripture by some of the early Church fathers. The Shepherd had great authority in the second and third centuries. ["The Pastor of Hermas was one of the most popular books, if not the most popular, books, in the Christian Church during the second, third and fourth centuries. It occupied a position analogous in some respects to Bunyan's " Pilgrim's Progress" in modern times." (F. Crombie, translator of Schaff, "op. cit.").] It was cited as Scripture by Irenaeusand Tertullianand was bound with the New Testament in the " Codex Sinaiticus", and it was listed between the Acts of the Apostlesand the Acts of Paulin the stichometrical list of the " Codex Claromontanus". Some early Christians, however, considered the work apocryphal.
The work comprises five visions, twelve mandates, and ten parables.It relies on allegory and pays special attention to the Church, calling the faithful to repent of the sins that have harmed it.
The book was originally written in
Rome, in the Greek language, but a Latin translation was made very shortly afterwards. Some say this was done by the original author as a sign of the authenticity of the translation, though others dispute this. Only the Latin version has been preserved in full; of the Greek, the last fifth or so is missing.
The book consists of five visions granted to Hermas, a former slave. This is followed by twelve mandates or commandments, and ten similitudes, or
parables. It commences abruptly in the first person: "He who brought me up sold me to a certain Rhoda, who was at Rome. After many years I met her again, and began to love her as a sister." As Hermas was on the road to Cumae, he had a vision of Rhoda, who was presumably dead. She told him that she was his accuser in heaven, on account of an unchaste thought the (married) narrator had once had concerning her, though only in passing. He was to pray for forgiveness for himself and all his house. He is consoled by a vision of the Church in the form of an aged woman, weak and helpless from the sins of the faithful, who tells him to do penance and to correct the sins of his children. Subsequently he sees her made younger through penance, yet wrinkled and with white hair; then again, as quite young but still with white hair; and lastly, she shows herself as glorious as a Bride.
This allegorical language continues through the other parts of the work. In the second vision she gives Hermas a book, which she afterwards takes back in order to add to it. The fifth vision, which is represented as taking place twenty days after the fourth, introduces "the Angel of repentance" in the guise of a shepherd, from whom the whole work takes its name. He delivers to Hermas a series of precepts ("mandata", "entolai"), which form an interesting development of early Christian ethics. One point which deserves special mention is the assertion of a husband's obligation to take back an adulterous wife on her repentance. The eleventh mandate, on humility, is concerned with false prophets who desire to occupy the first seats (that is to say, among the
presbyters). Some have seen here a reference to Marcion, who came to Rome c. 140and desired to be admitted among the priests (or possibly even to become bishop of Rome).
After the mandates come ten similitudes ("parabolai") in the form of visions, which are explained by the angel. The longest of these (Similitude 9) is an elaboration of the parable of the building of a tower, which had formed the matter of the third vision. The tower is the Church, and the stones of which it is built are the faithful. But in the third vision it looked as though only the holy are a part of the Church; in Similitude 9 it is clearly pointed out that all the baptized are included, though they may be cast out for grave sins, and can be readmitted only after
In spite of the grave subjects, the book is written in a very optimistic and hopeful tone, like most early Christian works.
In parable 5, the author expresses an
adoptionistview of Jesus Christ, as a virtuous man filled with the Holy Spirit and adopted as the Son ["The Holy Pre-existent Spirit. Which created the whole creation, God made to dwell in flesh that He desired. This flesh, therefore, in which the Holy Spirit dwelt, was subject unto the Spirit, walking honorably in holiness and purity, without in any way defiling the Spirit. When then it had lived honorably in chastity, and had labored with the Spirit, and had cooperated with it in everything, behaving itself boldly and bravely, He chose it as a partner with the Holy Spirit; for the career of this flesh pleased [the Lord] , seeing that, as possessing the Holy Spirit, it was not defiled upon the earth. He therefore took the son as adviser and the glorious angels also, that this flesh too, having served the Spirit unblamably, might have some place of sojourn, and might not seem to have lost the reward for its service; for all flesh, which is found undefiled and unspotted, wherein the Holy Spirit dwelt, shall receive a reward." [http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/shepherd-lightfoot.html] ] . In the 2nd century, adoptionism was one of two competing doctrines about the nature of Jesus Christ, the other being that he pre-existed as a divine spirit ( Logos) ["Jesus was either regarded as the man whom God hath chosen, in whom the Deity or the Spirit of God dwelt, and who, after being tested, was adopted by God and invested with dominion, (Adoptian Christology); or Jesus was regarded as a heavenly spiritual being (the highest after God) who took flesh, and again returned to heaven after the completion of his work on earth (pneumatic Christology)." Adolf von Harnack, History of Dogma [http://www.ccel.org/ccel/harnack/dogma1.ii.iii.iii.html] ] .
Authorship and date
The evidence for the place and date of this work are in the language and theology of the work. The reference to Clement of Rome suggests a date between
88and 97for at least the historicised setting of the first two visions. Since Paul sent greetings to a Hermas, a Christian of Rome ("Romans" 16:14), a minority have followed Origen of Alexandria's opinion that he was the author of this religious allegory. [ Philip Schaffwrote hopefully, "It would not be a very bold conjecture, that Hermas and his brother were elderly grandchildren of the original Hermas, the friend of St. Paul. The Shepherd, then, might be based upon personal recollections, and upon the traditions of a family which the spirit of prophecy had reproved, and who were monuments of its power." (Schaff, "Fathers of the Second Century: Hermas, Tatian, Athenagoras, Theophilus, and Clement of Alexandria", introduction to "the Pastor of Hermas").] However, textual criticism, the nature of the theology, and the author's apparent familiarity with " Revelation" and other Johannine texts, set the date of composition securely in the 2nd century.
Three ancient witnesses, one of whom claims to be contemporary, declare that Hermas was the brother of
Pope Pius I, whose pontificate was not earlier than 140- 155, which corresponds to the date range offered by J.B. Lightfoot (Lightfoot 1891). The witnesses are the following:
Muratorian fragmentis a list written "c." 170, that is the earliest canon of New Testament writings. It identifies Hermas, the author of "The Shepherd," as the brother of Pius I, bishop of Rome:
::But Hermas wrote The Shepherd very recently, in our times, in the city of Rome, while bishop Pius, his brother, was occupying the chair of the church of the city of Rome. And therefore it ought indeed to be read; but it cannot be read publicly to the people in church either among the Prophets, whose number is complete, [This is a specific refutation of the continuing revelations ("charismata") expressed by the Montanists.] or among the Apostles, for it is after their time.
Liberian Catalogueof Popes, a record that was later used in the writing of the " Liber Pontificalis", states in a portion under the heading of 235: "Under his [Pius'] episcopate, his brother Ermes wrote a book in which are contained the precepts which the angel delivered to him, coming to him in the guise of a Shepherd."
* A poem written against Marcion from the 3rd or 4th century, by a writer adopting the name and "persona" of
Tertullian— and sometimes therefore referred to as "Pseudo-Tertullian" — states "Then, after him, Pius, whose brother according to the flesh was Hermas, the angelic shepherd, because he spoke the words given to him."
These authorities may be citing the same source, perhaps
Hegesippus, [A suggestion made by Bunsen, "Hippolyrus and His Age", vol. I p 315.] whose lost history of the early Church provided material for Eusebius of Caesarea. As Pseudo-Tertullianquotes some details from this list which are absent from the Liberian Catalogue, it would seem that he is independent of it. That Hermas wrote during his brother's pontificate may similarly be inferenced from the fact that it was in a list of popes that the writer found the information that Hermas was that pope's brother. In order to attribute the earliest possible date for "The Shepherd", it has been speculated that he may have been an elder brother of the pope, and that the Pius was probably an old man in 140. Hence it is possible that Hermas might have been past thirty when Clement died, at the time of his first and second visions.
Secular readers understand the "visions" as a literary device.
"The Shepherd" makes many indirect citations from the Old Testament. According to
Henry Barclay Swete, Hermas never cites the Septuagint, but he uses a translation of "Daniel" akin to the one made by Theodotion. He shows acquaintance with one or another of the Synoptic Gospels, and, since he also uses the " Gospel of John", he probably knew all four. He appears to employ Ephesiansand other Epistles, including perhaps 1 Peterand Hebrews. But the books he most certainly and most often uses are the " Epistle of James" and the " Book of Revelation".
Place in Christian literature
Remarks of Tertullian and
Clement of Alexandriagive a sense of resistance to the "Shepherd" among its hearers, and of a sense of controversy about it. Tertullian implies that Pope Callixtus Ihad quoted it as an authority (though evidently not as one of the books of the Bible), for he replies: "I would admit your argument, if the writing of the Shepherd had deserved to be included in the Divine Instrument, and if it were not judged by every council of the Churches, even of your own Churches, among the apocryphal and false." And again, he says that the " Epistle of Barnabas" is "more received among the Churches than that apocryphal Shepherd" ("De pudicitia", 10 and 20). Though Clement of Alexandria constantly quotes with reverence a work that seems to him to be very useful, and inspired; yet he repeatedly apologizes, when he has occasion to quote it, on the ground that "many people despise it". Two controversies divided the mid-century Roman Christian communities. One was Montanism, the ecstatic inspired outpourings of continuing pentecostalrevelations, such as the visions recorded in the "Shepherd" may have appeared to encourage. The other was Docetismthat taught that the Christ had existed since the beginning and the corporeal reality of Jesus the man was simply an apparition. Cyprianmakes no reference to this work, so it would seem to have gone out of use in Africa during the early decades of the third century. Somewhat later it is quoted by the author of the pseudo-Cyprianic tract "Adversus aleatores" as "Scriptura divina", but in Jerome's day it was "almost unknown to the Latins". Curiously, it went out of fashion in the East, so that the Greek manuscripts of it are but two in number; whereas in the West it became better known and was frequently copied in the Middle Ages.
The Greek text is edited by Gebhardt and Harnack (Leipzig, 1877), by Funk (Tübingen, 1901), and, with its English translation, by Lightfoot, "Apostolic Fathers", edited by Harmon (London, 1893); the "Codex Sinaiticus" of Hermas was edited by Lake (Oxford, 1911). An English translation is given in volume i of the American edition of "Ante-Nicene Fathers", edited by Roberts and Donaldson (Buffalo, 1886). In general, consult:
* Cruttwell, "Literary History of Early Christianity", volume ii (London, 1893)
* Krüger, "History of Early Christian Literature" (New York, 1897)
* Harnack, "Chronologie der altchristlichen Literatur", volume i (Leipzig, 1897)
* Taylor, "The Shepherd of Hermas" (New York, 1901)
* [http://www.ccel.org/l/lake/fathers/shepherd_a.htm Greek text of "The Shepherd of Hermas"]
* [http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.toc.html#P147_2378 Schaff, Philip, "Fathers of the Second Century: Hermas, Tatian, Athenagoras, Theophilus, and Clement of Alexandria"]
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20080116134620/http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/shepherd.html "The Shepherd of Hermas"] (English Translation) Early Christian Writings
* [http://www.monachos.net/patristics/hermas/index.shtml J.B. Lightfoot, introduction to "The Shepherd of Hermas"]
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07268b.htm "Hermas"] article from the "
* [http://www.earlychurch.org.uk/hermas.php Hermas' "Shepherd" on earlychurch.org.uk] Bibliography and links to on-line articles.
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