Daniel Barenboim


Daniel Barenboim
Daniel Barenboim

Daniel Barenboim in Vienna, 2008
Born November 15, 1942 (1942-11-15) (age 69)
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Citizenship Argentinian-Israeli
Occupation Pianist and conductor
Religion Jewish
Website
www.danielbarenboim.com

Daniel Barenboim KBE (born 15 November 1942) is an Argentinian-Israeli pianist and conductor. He has served as music director of several major symphonic and operatic orchestras and made numerous recordings.

Currently, he is general music director of La Scala in Milan,[1] the Berlin State Opera, and the Staatskapelle Berlin; he previously served as Music Director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the Orchestre de Paris. Barenboim is also known for his work with the West-Eastern Divan Orchestra, a Sevilla-based orchestra of young Arab and Israeli musicians, and as an outspoken critic of the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories.

Barenboim has received numerous awards and prizes, including Britain's Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire,[2] France's Légion d'honneur both as a Commander and Grand Officier, the German Großes Bundesverdienstkreuz and Willy Brandt Award,[3] and, together with the Palestinian-American scholar Edward Said, Spain's Prince of Asturias Concord Award. He has won seven Grammy awards for his work and discography.

Contents

Biography

Daniel Barenboim, age 11, with composer Eithan Lustig and the Gadna Youth orchestra (1953)

Daniel Barenboim was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina to parents of Russian Jewish descent. He started piano lessons at the age of five with his mother, continuing to study with his father, who remained his only teacher. On August 19, 1950, at the age of seven, he gave his first formal concert in his hometown, Buenos Aires.[4]

In 1952, Barenboim moved to Israel with his family. Two years later, in the summer of 1954, his parents took him to Salzburg to take part in Igor Markevitch's conducting classes. During that summer he also met and played for Wilhelm Furtwängler, who has remained a central musical influence and ideal for Barenboim.[5] Furtwängler called the young Barenboim a "phenomenon" and invited him to perform the Beethoven First Piano Concerto with the Berlin Philharmonic, but Barenboim's father considered it too soon after the second world war for a child of Jewish parents to be performing in Berlin.[6] In 1955 Barenboim studied harmony and composition with Nadia Boulanger in Paris.[4]

Barenboim (right) with his wife, cellist Jacqueline du Pré (ca. 1968)

In June 1967 Barenboim married British cellist Jacqueline du Pré, who had converted to Judaism. The ceremony took place at the Western Wall in Jerusalem, a few days after it was captured by the Israeli troops during the Six Day War.[7] The marriage lasted until du Pré's death from multiple sclerosis (MS) in 1987. Du Pré retired from music in 1973, after being diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. In the early 1980s, Barenboim began a relationship with the Russian pianist Elena Bashkirova, with whom he has two sons born in Paris prior to du Pré's death: David Arthur, born 1983, and Michael, born 1985. Barenboim tried to keep his relationship with Bashkirova hidden from du Pré and believed he had succeeded. He and Bashkirova married in 1988. Their son David is a manager-writer for the German hip-hop band Level 8, and Michael is a classical violinist.[8]

Barenboim holds citizenship of Argentina and Israel, as well as citizenship of Spain and Palestine,[9] and lives in Berlin.[10]

Music career

(l-r) Peter Kirchner, President of Germany Richard von Weizsäcker, and Barenboim visit Jewish cemetery in Berlin-Weissensee (1990)

After performing in Buenos Aires, Barenboim made his international debut as a pianist in 1952 in Vienna and Rome. In 1955 he performed in Paris, in 1956 in London, and in 1957 in New York under the baton of Leopold Stokowski. Regular concert tours of Europe, the United States, South America, Australia and the Far East followed thereafter.

His friendship with musicians Itzhak Perlman, Zubin Mehta, and Pinchas Zukerman, and marriage to du Pré led to the 1969 film by Christopher Nupen of their Schubert "Trout" Quintet.[11]

Following his debut as a conductor with the English Chamber Orchestra in Abbey Road Studios, London in 1966, Barenboim was invited to conduct by many European and American symphony orchestras. Between 1975 and 1989 he was music director of the Orchestre de Paris, where he conducted much contemporary music.

Barenboim made his opera conducting debut in 1973 with a performance of Mozart's Don Giovanni at the Edinburgh Festival. He made his debut at Bayreuth in 1981, conducting there regularly until 1999. In 1988 he was appointed artistic and musical director of the Opera-Bastille in Paris, scheduled to open in 1990, but was fired in January 1989 by the opera's chairman Pierre Bergé.[12] Barenboim was then appointed music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, a post he held until 17 June 2006. He expressed frustration with the need for fund-raising duties in the United States as part of being a music director of an American orchestra.[8]

Since 1992 he has been music director of the Staatsoper Unter den Linden (Berlin State Opera) and the Berlin Staatskapelle, succeeding in maintaining the independent status of the Staatsoper. He has tried to maintain the orchestra's traditional sound and style.[13] In autumn 2000 he was made conductor for life of the Berlin Staatskapelle.[14] On 15 May 2006 Barenboim was named principal guest conductor of La Scala opera house, in Milan, after Riccardo Muti's resignation.[15] In October 2011 he took over as music director,[1] lining up a starry opening cast in Mozart's Don Giovanni.[16]

Daniel Barenboim leads a rehearsal of the West-East Divan in Sevilla, Spain, 2005
Rehearsal of the West-East Divan under the lead of Daniel Barenboim, 2005

In 2006, Barenboim was the BBC Reith Lecturer, giving five lectures called 'In the Beginning was Sound' from London, Chicago, Berlin, and twice from Jerusalem in which he meditated on music.[17] In the autumn of 2006, Barenboim gave the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures at Harvard University entitled 'Sound and Thought'.[18]

In November 2006, Lorin Maazel submitted Barenboim's name as his nominee to succeed him as the NYP's music director.[19] Barenboim said he was flattered but "nothing could be further from my thoughts at the moment than the possibility of returning to the United States for a permanent position."[20] In January 2007, Barenboim further demurred on this question by stating his lack of interest in any United States music directorship, "at the moment."[21] In April 2007, Barenboim stated he was not interested in the New York Philharmonic's music directorship or their newly created principal conductor position.[22]

Barenboim made his conducting debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York for the House's 450th performance of Wagner's Tristan und Isolde on 28 November 2008. In 2009, he conducted the New Year Concert of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra.[23]

Musical style

Barenboim has rejected musical fashions based on current musicological research, such as the authentic performance movement. A notable example is his preference for some conventional practices, rather than fully adhering to Bärenreiter's new edition (edited by Jonathan Del Mar) of Beethoven's symphonies, in his recording of those works.[24]

Barenboim has opposed the practice of choosing the tempo of a piece based on historical evidence, such as composer metronome marks. He argues instead for finding the tempo from within the music, especially from its harmony and harmonic rhythm. The general tempi chosen in his recording of Beethoven's symphonies, reflecting this belief, usually adhere to early twentieth-century practices, and are not influenced by faster tempos chosen by other conductors such as David Zinman and authenic movement advocate Roger Norrington. In Barenboim's recording of the Well-Tempered Clavier he makes frequent use of the right-foot sustaining pedal, a device absent from the keyboard instruments of Bach's time (although the harpsichord was highly resonant), producing a sonority very different from the "dry" and often staccato sound favored by the influential (and highly individual) pianist Glenn Gould. Moreover, in the fugues, one voice is often played considerably louder than the others, a practice impossible on a harpsichord, which according to some scholarship, began in Beethoven's time (see, for example, Matthew Dirst's book The Iconic Bach). Indeed, when justifying his interpretation of Bach, Barenboim claims that he is interested in the long tradition of playing Bach, that has existed for two and a half centuries, rather than in the exact style of performance that existed in Bach's time:

The study of old instruments and historic performance practice has taught us a great deal, but the main point, the impact of harmony, has been ignored. This is proved by the fact that tempo is described as an independent phenomenon. It is claimed that one of Bach's gavottes must be played fast and another one slowly. But tempo is not independent! ... I think that concerning oneself purely with historic performance practice and the attempt to reproduce the sound of older styles of music-making is limiting and no indication of progress. Mendelssohn and Schumann tried to introduce Bach into their own period, as did Liszt with his transcriptions and Busoni with his arrangements. In America Leopold Stokowski also tried to do it with his arrangements for orchestra. This was always the result of "progressive" efforts to bring Bach closer to the particular period. I have no philosophical problem with someone playing Bach and making it sound like Boulez. My problem is more with someone who tries to imitate the sound of that time...[25]

Barenboim's performances have also been criticized. Among musicians, he has a reputation for arrogance and aloofness. Reviews of his work often cite inconsistencies in interpretation and tempo.[26]

Recordings

Daniel Barenboim, 2010

In the beginning of his career, Barenboim concentrated on music of the classical era, as well as some romantic composers. He made his first recording in 1954. Notable classical recordings include the complete cycles of Mozart's and Beethoven's piano sonatas, and Mozart's piano concertos (in the latter, taking part as both soloist and conductor). Notable Romantic recordings include: Brahms's piano concertos (with John Barbirolli), Mendelssohn's Lieder ohne Worte, and Chopin's nocturnes. Barenboim also recorded many chamber works, especially in collaboration with his first wife, Jacqueline du Pré, the violinist Itzhak Perlman, and the violinist and violist Pinchas Zukerman. Noted performances include: the complete Mozart violin sonatas (with Perlman), Brahms's violin sonatas (live concert with Perlman, previously in the studio with Zukerman), Beethoven's and Brahms's cello sonatas (with du Pré), Beethoven's and Tchaikovsky's piano trios (with du Pré and Zukerman), and Schubert's Trout Quintet (with du Pré, Perlman, Zukerman, and Zubin Mehta).

Notable recordings as a conductor include: the complete symphonies of Beethoven, Brahms, Bruckner, Franz Schubert and Schumann, the Da Ponte operas of Mozart, numerous operas by Wagner, including the complete Ring Cycle, and various concertos. Barenboim has written about his changing attitude to the music of Gustav Mahler;[27] he has recorded Mahler's Fifth, Seventh and Ninth Symphonies and Das Lied von der Erde. He has also performed and recorded the Concierto de Aranjuez by Joaquín Rodrigo and Heitor Villa-Lobos guitar concerto with John Williams as the guitar soloist.

By the late 1990s, Barenboim had widened his concert repertoire, performing works by baroque as well as twentieth-century classical composers. Examples include: Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier (which he has played since childhood) and Goldberg Variations, Albeniz's Iberia, and Debussy's preludes. In addition, he turned to other musical genres, such as jazz,[28] and the folk music of his birthplace, Argentina. He conducted the 2006 New Year's Eve concert in Buenos Aires, in which tangos were played.[29]

Barenboim has continued to perform and record chamber music, sometimes with members of the orchestras he has led. Some examples include the Quartet for the End of Time by Messiaen with members of the Orchestre de Paris during his tenure there, Richard Strauss with members of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra during his tenure there, and the Clarinet Trio of Mozart with members of the Berlin Staatskapelle.

Conducting Wagner in Israel

Daniel Barenboim, 2010

Wagner's music was unofficially tabooed in Israel's concert halls because of the use Nazi Germany had made of Wagner. Previously, the Palestine Philharmonic had performed Wagner's music, in spite of his known Antisemitism. Barenboim has long opposed the ban, regarding it as reflecting what he calls a "diaspora" mentality that is no longer appropriate to Israel. In a conversation with Edward Said, Barenboim said that "Wagner, the person, is absolutely appalling, despicable, and, in a way, very difficult to put together with the music he wrote, which so often has exactly the opposite kind of feelings ... noble, generous, etc." He called Wagner's anti-Semitism obviously "monstrous", and feels it must be faced, and argues that "Wagner did not cause the Holocaust."

At the Israel Festival in Jerusalem in July 2001, Barenboim had scheduled to perform the first act of Die Walküre with three singers, including tenor Plácido Domingo. However, strong protests by some Holocaust survivors, as well as the Israeli government, led the festival authorities to ask for an alternative program. (The Israel Festival's Public Advisory board, which included some Holocaust survivors, had originally approved the program.) [30] Barenboim agreed to substitute music by Robert Schumann and Igor Stravinsky. At the end of the concert with the Berlin Staatskapelle, he announced that he would like to play Wagner as a second encore and invited those who objected to leave, saying, "Despite what the Israel Festival believes, there are people sitting in the audience for whom Wagner does not spark Nazi associations. I respect those for whom these associations are oppressive. It will be democratic to play a Wagner encore for those who wish to hear it. I am turning to you now and asking whether I can play Wagner." A half-hour debate ensued, with some audience members calling Barenboim a "fascist." In the end, a small number of attendees walked out and the overwhelming majority remained, applauding loudly after the performance of the Tristan und Isolde ouverture.[31]

Barenboim regarded the performance of Wagner as a political statement, and said he had decided to defy the taboo on Wagner when a news conference he held the previous week was interrupted by the ringing of a mobile phone to the tune of Wagner's Ride of the Valkyries.[32] "I thought if it can be heard on the ring of a telephone, why can't it be played in a concert hall?" he said. Barenboim was declared "a cultural persona non grata in Israel" by the Knesset education committee shortly after the concert, a move condemned by the musical director of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra Zubin Mehta and members of Knesset.[33]

In 2005, Barenboim gave the inaugural Edward Said Memorial Lecture at Columbia University, entitled "Wagner, Israel and Palestine".[34]

In 2010, before conducting Wagner's Die Walküre for the gala premiere of La Scala's season in Milan, he said that the perception of Wagner was unjustly influenced by the fact that he was Hitler's favorite composer: "I think a bit of the problem with Wagner isn't what we all know in Israel, anti-Semitism, etc... It is how the Nazis and Hitler saw Wagner as his own prophet... This perception of Wagner colors for many people the perception of Wagner... We need one day to liberate Wagner of all this weight".[35]

Political views

Barenboim, a supporter of Palestinian rights, is an outspoken critic of Israel's right-wing governments and the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories. In an interview with the British music critic Norman Lebrecht in 2003, Barenboim accused Israel of behaving in a manner which was, "morally abhorrent and strategically wrong", and, "putting in danger the very existence of the state of Israel."[36] However, in 1967 at the start of the Six-Day War, Barenboim and du Pré performed for the Israeli troops on the front lines, as well as during the Yom Kippur war in 1973. During the Gulf War, he and an orchestra performed in Israel in gas masks.[37]

West-Eastern Divan

In 1999, Barenboim and Palestinian-American intellectual Edward Said jointly founded the West-Eastern Divan orchestra.[38][39] It is an initiative to bring together, every summer, a group of young classical musicians from Israel, the Palestinian territories and Arab countries to promote mutual reflection and understanding.[40][41][42] Barenboim and Said were recipients of the 2002 Prince of Asturias Awards for their work in "improving understanding between nations." Together they wrote the book Parallels and Paradoxes, based on a series of public discussions held at New York's Carnegie Hall.[43]

In September 2005, presenting the book written with Said, Barenboim refused to be interviewed by uniformed Israel Defense Forces Radio reporter Dafna Arad, considering the wearing of the uniform insensitive for the occasion. In response, Israeli Education Minister Limor Livnat of the Likud party called him "a real Jew hater" and "a real anti-Semite.".[44] In July 2012, Barenboim and the orchestra will play a pivotal role at the BBC Proms, performing a cycle of Beethoven's nine symphonies, the ninth timed to coincide with the opening of the London Olympic Games.[45]

Wolf Prize

In May 2004, Barenboim was awarded the Wolf Prize at a ceremony at the Israeli Knesset. Education Minister Livnat held up the nomination until Barenboim apologized for his performance of Wagner in Israel.[46] Barenboim called Livnat's demand "politically motivated", adding "I don't see what I need to apologize about. If I ever hurt a person privately or in public, I am sorry, because I have no intention of hurting people...", which was good enough for Livnat,[47] but the ceremony was boycotted by Knesset Speaker Reuven Rivlin, also a member of the Likud party.[48] In his acceptance speech, Barenboim took the opportunity to express his opinions on the political situation, referring to the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948:

"I am asking today with deep sorrow: Can we, despite all our achievements, ignore the intolerable gap between what the Declaration of Independence promised and what was fulfilled, the gap between the idea and the realities of Israel? Does the condition of occupation and domination over another people fit the Declaration of Independence? Is there any sense in the independence of one at the expense of the fundamental rights of the other? Can the Jewish people whose history is a record of continued suffering and relentless persecution, allow themselves to be indifferent to the rights and suffering of a neighboring people? Can the State of Israel allow itself an unrealistic dream of an ideological end to the conflict instead of pursuing a pragmatic, humanitarian one based on social justice?"[49]

Israel's President Moshe Katsav and Education Minister Livnat criticized Barenboim for his speech. Livnat accused him of attacking the state of Israel, to which Barenboim replied that he had not done so, but that he instead had merely cited the text of the Israeli Declaration of Independence.[50] In March 2007, Barenboim said: "The whole subject of Wagner in Israel has been politicized and is a symptom of a malaise that goes very deep in Israeli society..."[51]

Performing in the West Bank and Gaza Strip

Barenboim has performed several times in the West Bank, in 1999 at Bir Zeit University and several times in Ramallah.[52]

In December 2007, Barenboim and 20 musicians from England, the United States, France and Germany, and one Palestinian were scheduled to play a baroque music concert in Gaza.[53] Although they had received authorization from Israeli authorities, the Palestinian was stopped at the Israel-Gaza border and told that he needed individual permission to enter.[53] The group waited seven hours at the border, and then canceled the concert in solidarity.[53] Barenboim commented: "A baroque music concert in a Roman Catholic church in Gaza – as we all know – has nothing to do with security and would bring so much joy to people who live there in great difficulty."[53]

In January 2008, after performing in Ramallah, Barenboim accepted honorary Palestinian citizenship, becoming the first Jewish Israeli citizen to be offered the status. Barenboim said he hoped it would serve as a public gesture of peace.[54] Some Israelis criticized Barenboim's decision to accept Palestinian citizenship. The parliamentary faction chairman of the Shas party demanded that Barenboim be stripped of his Israeli citizenship, but the Interior Minister told the media that "the matter is not even up for discussion."[55]

In January 2009, Barenboim cancelled two concerts of the West-Eastern Divan Orchestra in Qatar and Cairo "due to the escalating violence in Gaza and the resulting concerns for the musicians’ safety."[56]

In May 2011, Barenboim conducted the "Orchestra for Gaza" composed of volunteers from the Berlin Philharmonic, the Berlin Staatskapelle, the Orchestra of La Scala in Milan, the Vienna Philharmonic and the Orchestre de Paris — at al-Mathaf Cultural House. The concert, held in Gaza City was co-ordinated in secret with the United Nations. The orchestra flew from Berlin to Vienna and from there to El Arish on a plane chartered by Barenboim, entering the Gaza Strip at the Egyptian Rafah Border Crossing. The musicians were escorted by a convoy of United Nations vehicles.[57] The concert, the first performance by an international classical ensemble in the strip, was attended by an invited audience of several hundred schoolchildren and NGO workers, who greeted Barenboim with applause.[58] The orchestra played Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusik and Symphony No. 40, also familiar to an Arab audience as basis of one of the songs of the famous Arab singer Fairuz. In his speech Barenboim said: "Everyone has to understand that the Palestinian cause is a just cause therefore it can be only given justice if it is achieved without violence. Violence can only weaken the righteousness of the Palestinian cause".[59]

Awards and recognition

Honorary degrees

Grammy Award for Best Opera Recording:

Grammy Award for Best Chamber Music Performance:

Grammy Award for Best Orchestral Performance:

Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Soloist(s) Performance (with orchestra):

Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Soloist(s) Performance (with orchestra):

In 2005, he was voted the 111th-greatest Israeli of all time, in a poll by the Israeli news website Ynet to determine whom the general public considered the 200 Greatest Israelis.[72]

References

  1. ^ a b "Daniel Barenboim to be La Scala's musical director". AFP. October 2011. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5gfqtpIoH8w6bqQ51AtdzNIhttuXw?docId=CNG.8d379ab35fae43da3f5517d7bf0e1907.c1. 
  2. ^ http://www.artsjournal.com/slippeddisc/2011/06/news-just-in-barenboim-is-knighted.html
  3. ^ http://www.artsjournal.com/slippeddisc/2011/09/socialist-award-for-daniel-barenboim.html
  4. ^ a b "Daniel Barenboim". danielbarenboim.com. http://www.danielbarenboim.com/index.php?id=7. Retrieved 4 May 2011. 
  5. ^ Daniel Barenboim (November 2004). Daniel Barenboim "Why Wilhelm Furtwängler Still Moves Us Today". danielbarenboim.com. Translation from an article originally published in Der Tagesspiegel. http://www.danielbarenboim.com/journal_furtwangler.htm Daniel Barenboim. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  6. ^ "Festrede von Daniel Barenboim beim Festakt zur Eröffnung der Salzburger Festspiele 2010" (in german). Land Salzburg, Präsidialabteilung. 26 July 2010. https://service.salzburg.gv.at/WebRoot/LandSalzburgDB/Shops/Landversand/4C4D/6F54/5030/CFC4/1151/0A01/047B/1C31/barenboim10.pdf#page=5. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  7. ^ Jan Moir (6 April 2006). "The maestro and his demons". The Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2006/04/06/bmdan06.xml. Retrieved 23 April 2007. 
  8. ^ a b Michael Shelden (15 July 2004). "My affair? I don't think Jackie knew". Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2004/07/15/bmbare15.xml. Retrieved 23 April 2007. 
  9. ^ AFP. "Conductor Barenboim to be Nobel nominee". Argentina: Dawn.com. http://www.dawn.com/2011/08/11/conductor-barenboim-to-be-nobel-nominee.html. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  10. ^ "Israeli conductor Daniel Barenboim to perform with orchestra in Gaza". Haaretz. 2 May 2011. http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/israeli-conductor-daniel-barenboim-to-perform-with-orchestra-in-gaza-1.359476. Retrieved 4 May 2011. 
  11. ^ Julian Lloyd Webber (21 July 2005). "Why make war when you can make music?". Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2005/07/21/bmjulian21.xml. Retrieved 23 April 2007. 
  12. ^ John von Rhein (14 May 1989). "Barenboim Backlash. The Cso's Henry Fogel Defends Solti's Successor". Chicago Tribune. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1989-05-14/entertainment/8902010053_1_bastille-opera-paris-opera-french-culture. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  13. ^ Kate Connolly (15 November 2002). "Barenboim in battle to save Berlin opera house". Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/germany/1413393/Barenboim-in-battle-to-save-Berlin-opera-house.html. Retrieved 23 April 2007. 
  14. ^ Michael Henderson (20 June 2006). "Goodbye Chicago, hello world". Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2006/06/20/bmboim20.xml. Retrieved 23 April 2007. 
  15. ^ Barbara McMahon (16 May 2006). "Barenboim to be La Scala's guest". The Guardian (London). http://arts.guardian.co.uk/news/story/0,,1775781,00.html. Retrieved 23 April 2007. 
  16. ^ http://www.artsjournal.com/slippeddisc/2011/10/breaking-barenboim-to-open-as-la-scala-boss-with-netrebko-debut.html
  17. ^ a) Michael Henderson (1 April 2006). "Daniel in the circus lions' den". Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/opinion/main.jhtml?xml=/opinion/2006/04/01/do0106.xml. Retrieved 23 April 2007. 
    b) Kate Connolly (9 March 2006). "Maverick maestro plays a different tune". London: Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/03/09/blberlin09.xml&view=BLOGDETAIL&grid=P30&blog=berlin. Retrieved 23 April 2007. 
    c) Daniel Barenboim (8 April 2006). "In the beginning, there was sound. Then came Muzak". Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2006/04/08/bmbaren08.xml. Retrieved 23 April 2007. 
    d) Peter Beaumont (2 April 2006). "Maestro of the Middle East". The Observer (London). http://arts.guardian.co.uk/features/story/0,,1745075,00.html. Retrieved 23 April 2007. 
  18. ^ Richard Dyer (January–February 2007). "Ideas, Appassionato". Harvard Magazine: pp. 14–15. http://www.harvardmagazine.com/on-line/010773.html. Retrieved 23 April 2007. 
  19. ^ Daniel J. Wakin (29 November 2006). "Unprompted, Lorin Maazel Nominates His Successor". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/29/arts/music/29phil.html?ex=1167973200&en=f112858e726b9c69&ei=5070. Retrieved 23 April 2007. 
  20. ^ Mark Landler (30 November 2006). "Proposed Philharmonic Candidate Is Flattered, if Coy". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/30/arts/music/30bare.html?ex=1322542800&en=9ce05f6877e2282c&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss. Retrieved 23 April 2007. 
  21. ^ Oestreich, James R. (2 March 2007). "Musing on the Barenboim X-Factor". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/02/arts/music/02bare.html?ex=1173675600&en=ddf6b503ff93d0f4&ei=5070. Retrieved 23 April 2007. 
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  24. ^ Barenboim's liner notes for his recording of Beethoven's symphonies, Teldec, ASIN B00004S1EV, 2000.
  25. ^ Ich bin mit Bach aufgewachsen ("I was reared on Bach"), Barenboim's liner notes for his recordings of Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier. Translated by Gery Bramall.
  26. ^ "A conversation with Daniel Barenboim". http://www.chicagoreader.com/chicago/a-conversation-with-daniel-barenboim/Content?oid=885581. 
  27. ^ Daniel Barenboim (31 August 2001). "Love, the hard way". guardian.co.uk. http://arts.guardian.co.uk/fridayreview/story/0,,734719,00.html. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  28. ^ Stephen Moss "Daniel in the lion's den", The Guardian, 22 October 1999.
  29. ^ Article in Argentinian newspaper "Clarín", 31 December 2006 (in Spanish)
  30. ^ Gozani, Ohad (14 May 2001). "Israeli battle over Wagner". Telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2001/05/14/wagna14.xml. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  31. ^ Zipi Shohat (18 July 2001). "Wagner gets in through the back door. Some are angry about Daniel Barenboim's decision to conduct Wagner, but call it a historic occasion nonetheless". http://www.haaretz.com/culture/arts-leisure/wagner-gets-in-through-the-back-door-1.64151. 
    Inigo Gilmore "Barenboim shatters Israel taboo on Wagner", Daily Telegraph, 9 July 2001
    Will Hodgkinson , "Orchestral manoeuvres", The Guardian, 13 August 2004
  32. ^ Daniel Barenboim "Those who want to leave, do so", The Guardian, 6 September 2002
  33. ^ Zipi Shohat (26 July 2001). "Mehta slams Knesset boycott of Barenboim". Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/culture/arts-leisure/mehta-slams-knesset-boycott-of-barenboim-1.65173. 
  34. ^ "Daniel Barenboim Discusses Music as a Bridge for Peace in the Middle East". Columbia University. 24 January 2005. http://calendar.columbia.edu/sundial/webapi/get.php?vt=detail&id=1891&con=embedded&br=ais. Retrieved 6 December 2009. 
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  36. ^ "Norman Lebrecht, "Daniel Barenboim – Playing Politics". ''La Scena Musicale". Scena.org. 3 December 2003. http://www.scena.org/columns/lebrecht/031203-NL-Barenboim.html. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  37. ^ "Conducting a one-man experiment in peace. Profile: Daniel Barenboim". The Sunday Times (London). 21 August 2005. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/article557356.ece?token=null&offset=12&. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  38. ^ Suzie Mackenzie (5 April 2003). "In harmony". guardian.co.uk. http://arts.guardian.co.uk/features/story/0,,928744,00.html. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  39. ^ Daniel Barenbolm (25 October 2004). "Sound and vision". Arts.guardian.co.uk. http://arts.guardian.co.uk/features/story/0,,1335260,00.html. Retrieved 1 September 2011. 
  40. ^ Martin Kettle, "Everything to play for". The Guardian, 4 August 2001
  41. ^ Geraldine Bedell, "Daniel's codes of conduct". The Observer, 17 August 2003
  42. ^ Avi Shlaim, "Playing for peace". New Statesman, 31 October 2005
  43. ^ Michael Kennedy, "A duet for solo voice". Telegraph, 23 February 2003
  44. ^ "Conductor Barenboim in radio row". BBC. 3 September 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/music/4211444.stm. 
  45. ^ http://www.artsjournal.com/slippeddisc/2011/09/breaking-barenboim-to-open-2012-olympics-with-beethoven-9th.html
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External links

Preceded by
Sir Georg Solti
Music Director, Orchestre de Paris
1975–1989
Succeeded by
Semyon Bychkov
Preceded by
Sir Georg Solti
Music Director, Chicago Symphony Orchestra
1991–2006
Succeeded by
Riccardo Muti
Preceded by
Otmar Suitner
Music Director, Berlin State Opera
1992–present
Succeeded by
incumbent

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