Joint


Joint
Typical Joint

A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact.[1] They are constructed to allow movement and provide mechanical support, and are classified structurally and functionally.[2]

Contents

Classification

Depiction of an intervertebral disk, a cartilaginous joint.
Diagram of a synovial (diarthrosis) joint.

Joints are mainly classified structurally and functionally. Structural classification is determined by how the bones connect to each other, while functional classification is determined by the degree of movement between the articulating bones. In practice, there is significant overlap between the two types of classifications.

Terms ending in the suffix -sis are singular and refer to just one joint, while -ses is the suffix for pluralization.

Structural classification

Structural classification names and divides joints according to how the bones are connected to each other.[3] There are three structural classifications of joints:

  • fibrous joint - joined by dense irregular connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers [4]
  • cartilaginous joint - joined by cartilage
  • synovial joint - not directly joined - the bones have a synovial cavity and are united by the dense irregular connective tissue that forms the articular capsule that is normally associated with accessory ligaments.[4]

Functional classification

Joints can also be classified functionally, by the degree of mobility they allow:[5]

Biomechanical classification

Joints can also be classified based on their anatomy or on their biomechanical properties. According to the anatomic classification, joints are subdivided into simple and compound, depending on the number of bones involved, and into complex and combination joints:[7]

  1. Simple Joint: 2 articulation surfaces (e.g. shoulder joint, hip joint)
  2. Compound Joint: 3 or more articulation surfaces (e.g. radiocarpal joint)
  3. Complex Joint: 2 or more articulation surfaces and an articular disc or meniscus (e.g. knee joint)

Anatomical

The joints may be classified anatomically into the following groups:

  1. Articulations of hand
  2. Elbow joints
  3. Wrist joints
  4. Axillary articulations
  5. Sternoclavicular joints
  6. Vertebral articulations
  7. Temporomandibular joints
  8. Sacroiliac joints
  9. Hip joints
  10. Knee joints
  11. Articulations of foot

Joint disorders

A joint disorder is termed an arthropathy, and when involving inflammation of one or more joints the disorder is called an arthritis. Most joint disorders involve arthritis, but joint damage by external physical trauma is typically not termed arthritis.

Arthropathies are called polyarticular when involving many joints and monoarticular when involving only one single joint.

Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in people over the age of 55. There are many different forms of arthritis, each of which has a different cause. The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis (also known as degenerative joint disease) occurs following trauma to the joint, following an infection of the joint or simply as a result of aging. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence that abnormal anatomy may contribute to early development of osteoarthritis. Other forms of arthritis are rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, which are autoimmune diseases in which the body is attacking itself. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection. Gouty arthritis is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint that results in subsequent inflammation. Additionally, there is a less common form of gout that is caused by the formation of rhomboidal shaped crystals of calcium pyrophosphate. This form of gout is known as pseudogout.

See also

References

  1. ^ joint at eMedicine Dictionary[dead link]
  2. ^ Ellis, Harold; Susan Standring; Gray, Henry David (2005). Gray's anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical practice. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. pp. 38. ISBN 0-443-07168-3. 
  3. ^ "Introduction to Joints (3)". anatomy.med.umich.edu. http://anatomy.med.umich.edu/modules/joints_module/joints_03.html. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  4. ^ a b Principles of Anatomy & Physiology, 12th Edition, Tortora & Derrickson, Pub: Wiley & Sons
  5. ^ "Introduction to Joints (2)". anatomy.med.umich.edu. http://anatomy.med.umich.edu/modules/joints_module/joints_02.html. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  6. ^ "synovial joint" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  7. ^ "Introductory Anatomy: Joints". http://www.leeds.ac.uk/chb/lectures/anatomy4.html. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 

External links


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Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • joint — adj 1: common to two or more: as a: involving the combined activity or negligence of two or more a joint tort see also joint tortfeasor compare several b …   Law dictionary

  • joint — joint, ointe 1. (join, join t ) part. passé de joindre. 1°   Il se dit de choses mises à côté l une de l autre, de manière à se toucher, à tenir ensemble. Ces pièces de bois n ont pas été jointes, ne sont pas bien jointes. •   Un voyageur… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • Joint — (joint), n. [F. joint, fr. joindre, p. p. joint. See {Join}.] [1913 Webster] 1. The place or part where two things or parts are joined or united; the union of two or more smooth or even surfaces admitting of a close fitting or junction; junction; …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Joint — (joint), a. [F., p. p. of joindre. See {Join}.] [1913 Webster] 1. Joined; united; combined; concerted; as, joint action. [1913 Webster] 2. Involving the united activity of two or more; done or produced by two or more working together. [1913… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • joint — joint, articulation, suture denote a place where two things are united or the mechanism by which they are united. Joint is the most inclusive of these terms and is freely usable in reference both to anatomical and mechanical structures. In… …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • joint — [joint] n. [OFr < L junctus, pp. of jungere, to join, YOKE] 1. a place or part where two things or parts are joined 2. the way in which two things are joined at such a part 3. one of the parts or sections of a jointed whole 4. a large cut of… …   English World dictionary

  • joint — [dʒɔɪnt] adjective [only before a noun] shared by, owned by, or involving two or more people, organizations, or countries: • The companies made a joint statement last night. • The two men were appointed joint managing directors in June. • The two …   Financial and business terms

  • Joint — Joint, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Jointed}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Jointing}.] [1913 Webster] 1. To unite by a joint or joints; to fit together; to prepare so as to fit together; as, to joint boards. [1913 Webster] Pierced through the yielding planks of… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • JOINT — «JOINT» Sencillo de Mami Kawada del álbum Savia Formato CD Grabación 2007 Género(s) J Pop Duración 17:40 …   Wikipedia Español

  • joint — [adj] shared, combined collective, common, communal, concerted, conjoint, conjunct, consolidated, cooperative, hand in hand, intermutual, joined, mutual, public, united; concepts 577,708 Ant. disjoint, separate, single, uncombined, unshared  … …   New thesaurus

  • joint — ► NOUN 1) a point at which parts are joined. 2) a structure in a body by which two bones are fitted together. 3) the part of a plant stem from which a leaf or branch grows. 4) Brit. a large piece of meat. 5) informal an establishment of a… …   English terms dictionary


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