- Charles II, Duke of Parma
Charles II / Charles Louis King of Etruria Reign 27 May 1803 - 10 December 1807 (4 years, 197 days) Predecessor Louis I Duke of Lucca Reign 13 March 1824 - 17 December 1847 (23 years, 279 days) Predecessor Maria Louisa of Spain Duke of Parma Reign 17 December 1847 - 17 May 1849 (1 year, 151 days) Predecessor Marie Louise, Empress of the French Successor Charles III Spouse Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy Issue Princess Luisa
Father Louis of Etruria Mother Maria Louisa, Duchess of Lucca Born 22 December 1799 Died 16 April 1883(aged 83)
Early life and marriage
Charles Louis was born in Madrid as the only son of Louis, Prince of Piacenza, son and heir of Ferdinand, Duke of Parma, and his wife Infanta Maria Louisa of Spain, daughter of King Charles IV of Spain. In 1801, Charles Louis became Crown Prince of the newly-created Kingdom of Etruria as heir to his father, whom Napoleon had made King of Etruria. After his father's death in 1803, Charles Louis succeeded as King Charles Louis under the regency of his mother Maria Louisa. In 1807, Napoleon dissolved the kingdom and had Charles Louis and his mother brought to France. Charles Louis was promised the throne of a new Kingdom of Northern Lusitania (in the North of Portugal), but this plan never materialized, due to the break between Napoleon and the Spanish Bourbons in 1808.
After Napoleon's downfall in 1815, the House of Bourbon was not restored to the Duchy of Parma, which was instead given to Napoleon's wife, the Empress Marie Louise. The Congress of Vienna compensated the Bourbons with the Duchy of Lucca, which was given to Charles Louis' mother, with Charles Louis as her heir with the title Prince of Lucca. He was also promised the right of succession to Parma upon Empress Marie Louise's death.
On September 5, 1820, in Lucca, Charles Louis married Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy (1803–1879), daughter of King Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia. They had two children:
- Luisa Francesca di Paola Teresa Maria Anna Clothilde Beatrice (October 29, 1821 – September 8, 1823)
- Carlo Giuseppe Maria Vittorio Baldasarre, Duke of Parma (1823–1854)
They were a mismatched couple who lived most of their married life apart from each other.
Duke of Lucca
On March 13, 1824 Charles Louis' mother died and he succeeded her as Charles I, Duke of Lucca. For the first few years of his reign he was largely absent from the duchy, leaving its government to his ministers led by Ascanio Mansi. From 1824 to 1827 Charles Louis travelled throughout Italy. From 1827 to 1833 he travelled in Germany where he owned two castles: Uchendorff and Weisstropp (near Dresden).
In the early 1830s Charles Louis began to take an increased interest in state affairs. In 1833 he granted a general amnesty in Lucca.
In foreign relations, Charles Louis recognised the King Louis Philippe of France, who had come to power in the July Revolution of 1830. He was also allied with the Carlists in Spain. In 1834, his uncle the Carlist claimant Carlos V made Charles Louis an Infante of Spain.
Duke of Parma and abdication
In 1847, the Empress Marie Louise died. Charles Louis succeeded as Charles II, Duke of Parma. The Duchy of Lucca was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, while Parma lost Guastalla but acquired Lunigiana.
In 1848, revolution broke out in Parma. On 19 April 1848 Charles abdicated in favor of his son, who had himself escaped. Later, Austrian troops led by Marshall Radetzki occupied the duchy and restored Charles II, but a second offensive by the Kingdom of Sardinia obliged Charles' final resignation on May 17, 1849. He lived the rest of his life in France, where he used the title Count of Villafranca. He died at Nice.
Ancestors of Charles II, Duke of Parma 16. Philip V of Spain 8. Philip, Duke of Parma 17. Elisabeth of Parma 4. Ferdinand, Duke of Parma 18. Louis XV of France 9. Princess Louise Élisabeth of France 19. Maria Leszczyńska 2. Louis of Etruria 20. Leopold, Duke of Lorraine 10. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor 21. Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans 5. Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria 22. Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor 11. Maria Theresa of Austria 23. Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 1. Charles II, Duke of Parma 24. Philip V of Spain = 16 12. Charles III of Spain 25. Elisabeth of Parma = 17 6. Charles IV of Spain 26. Augustus III of Poland 13. Maria Amalia of Saxony 27. Maria Josepha of Austria 3. Maria Luisa of Spain, Duchess of Lucca 28. Philip V of Spain = 16 14. Philip, Duke of Parma = 8 29. Elisabeth of Parma = 17 7. Maria Luisa of Parma 30. Louis XV of France = 18 15. Princess Louise Élisabeth of France = 9 31. Maria Leszczyńska = 19
Lucarelli, Giuliano. Lo sconcertante duca di Lucca: Carlo Ludovico di Borbone Parma. Lucca: Fazzi, 1986.
Trebiliani, M.L. "Carlo II di Borbone", Dizionario biografico degli italiani, 20: 251-258. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana. Text also available in the Dizionario biografico degli Parmigiani.Charles II, Duke of ParmaCadet branch of the House of CapetBorn: 22 December 1799 Died: 16 April 1883
Regnal titles Preceded by
King of Etruria
(as Charles Louis)
annexed by France
Duke of Lucca
(as Charles Louis)
annexed by Tuscany
Duke of Parma
(as Charles II)
2nd GenerationPrince Carlo · Alexander, Duke of Parma 3rd Generation 4th GenerationOdoardo, Duke of Parma · Cardinal-Prince Francesco Maria 5th GenerationRanuccio II, Duke of Parma · Prince Alessandro · Prince Orazio · Prince Pietro 6th Generation 7th Generationnone 8th Generationnone 9th Generation 10th GenerationLouis I of Etruria · Prince Philip 11th GenerationCharles II, Duke of Parma 12th Generation 13th Generation 14th Generation 15th Generation 16th Generation 17th GenerationPrince Michael · Prince Henry · Prince Amaury *also prince of Luxembourg
^also prince of NassauPier Luigi (1545-1547) · Ottavio (1556-1586) · Alexander (1586–1592) · Ranuccio I (1592–1622) · Odoardo (1622–1646) · Ranuccio II (1646–1694) · Francesco (1694–1727) · Antonio (1727–1731) · Charles I (1731-1734) · Charles II (1735-1740) · Maria Theresa (1740–1748) · Philip (1748-1765) · Ferdinand (1765–1802) · Marie Louise (1814–1847) · Charles Louis (1847–1849) · Charles III (1849–1854) · Robert I* (1854–1907) · Henry* (1907-1939) · Joseph* (1939-1950) · Elias* (1950-1959) · Robert II* (1959-1974) · Xavier* (1974-1977) · Carlos Hugo* (1977-2010) · Carlos* (2010-)
*denotes titular Duke Infantes of Spain The generations indicate descent from Charles I, under whom the crowns of Castile and Aragon were united, forming the Kingdom of Spain. Previously, the title Infante had been largely used in the different realms. 1st Generation 2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th Generation 5th Generationnone 6th Generationnone 7th Generation 8th Generation 9th Generation 10th Generation 11th Generation 12th Generation 13th Generation 14th Generation 15th Generation 16th Generationnone *title granted by Royal Decree
**consort to an Infanta who was naturalized as a Spanish Infante
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