Kneading


Kneading

:"For kneading of clay, see wedging"Kneading is a process in the making of bread, used to mix together the ingredients and add strength to the bread. Its importance lies in the mixing of flour with water. When these two ingredients are combined and kneaded, the gliadin and glutenin proteins in the flour expand and form strands of gluten, which gives bread its texturecite web |title=Scientific Insight into Breadmaking |accessdate=2007-06-12 |url=http://www.zum.de/earthquake/bread.html] . (To aid gluten production, many recipes use bread flour, which is higher in protein than all-purpose flour.) The kneading process warms and stretches these gluten strands, eventually creating a springy and elastic dough. If the dough is not kneaded enough, it will not be able to hold the tiny pockets of air (CO2) created by the leavening agent (such as yeast or baking powder), and will collapse, leaving a heavy and dense loaf.

Kneading can be performed with a breadmaker, a mixer, a dough hook or by hand. The dough (which usually consists of flour, salt, water, fat and yeast) is put on a floured surface, pressed and stretched with the heel of the hand, folded over, and rotated through 90º repeatedly. This process continues until the dough is elastic and smooth. The dough can then be allowed to rise or "prove".

Similar to kneading is knocking back or punching down, which is done to the dough after proving. The dough is punched once or twice, after which it is kneaded gently for a short time. The aim of this is to remove any large air pockets which have formed in the dough, create an even texture in the bread and redistribute the nutrients for the yeast, thus allowing fermentation to continue. The dough can then be proved a second time. Another method of knocking back (also known as "folding") is to gently stretch and pat out the proved dough before folding the sides in towards the centre.

Footnotes

ee also

*Rolling pin

External links

* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D_Br17PIUhQ&feature=related Short video of kneading machine in a bakery.]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Kneading — Knead Knead (n[=e]d), v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Kneaded}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Kneading}.] [OE. kneden, As. cnedan; akin to D. kneden, G. kneten, Sw. kn[*a]da, Icel. kno[eth]a; cf. OSlav. gnesti.] 1. To work and press into a mass, usually with the hands;… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • kneading — n. see petrissage * * * knead·ing (nēdґing) pйtrissage …   Medical dictionary

  • kneading — n. act of squeezing and shaping (clay, dough, etc.); massage nɪːd v. squeeze, shape, blend (clay, dough, etc.); massage …   English contemporary dictionary

  • kneading — n.; see petrissage …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • kneading — …   Useful english dictionary

  • Kneading (cats) — Kneading is an activity common to all domestic catsFact|date=October 2008 whereby, when in a state of contentment, they alternatively push out and pull in their front paws, often alternating between right and left limbs. HistoryThis may have an… …   Wikipedia

  • Kneading trough — Knead Knead (n[=e]d), v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Kneaded}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Kneading}.] [OE. kneden, As. cnedan; akin to D. kneden, G. kneten, Sw. kn[*a]da, Icel. kno[eth]a; cf. OSlav. gnesti.] 1. To work and press into a mass, usually with the hands;… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Kneading-trough — A Kneading trough is a Bible term for the vessel in which dough, after being mixed and leavened, was left to swell or ferment (). The dough in the vessels at the time of The Exodus was still unleavened, because the people were compelled to… …   Wikipedia

  • kneading trough — noun A (usually wooden) trough in which dough is kneaded before baking into bread. The people tooke their dough before it was leauened, their kneading troughes being bound up in their clothes vpon their shoulders …   Wiktionary

  • Kneading-trough —    The vessel in which the dough, after being mixed and leavened, was left to swell or ferment (Ex. 8:3; 12:34; Deut. 28:5, 7). The dough in the vessels at the time of the Exodus was still unleavened, because the people were compelled to withdraw …   Easton's Bible Dictionary


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