Speech


Speech

Speech refers to the processes associated with the production and perception of sounds used in spoken language. A number of academic disciplines study speech and speech sounds, including acoustics, psychology, speech pathology, linguistics, cognitive science and computer science.

peech production

In linguistics (articulatory phonetics), manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs are involved in making a sound make contact. Often the concept is only used for the production of consonants. For any place of articulation, there may be several manners, and therefore several homorganic consonants.

peech perception

Speech perception refers to the processes by which humans are able to interpret and understand the sounds used in language. The study of speech perception is closely linked to the fields of phonetics and phonology in linguistics and cognitive psychology and perception in psychology. Research in speech perception seeks to understand how human listeners recognize speech sounds and use this information to understand spoken language. Speech research has applications in building computer systems that can recognize speech, as well as improving speech recognition for hearing- and language-impaired listeners.

Problems involving speech

There are several biological and psychological factors that can affect speech. Among these are:

#Diseases and disorders of the lungs or the vocal cords, including paralysis, respiratory infections, vocal fold nodules and cancers of the lungs and throat.
#Diseases and disorders of the brain, including alogia, aphasias, dysarthria, dystonia and speech processing disorders, where impaired motor planning, nerve transmission, phonological processing or perception of the message (as opposed to the actual sound) leads to poor speech production.
#Hearing problems, such as otitis media effusion can lead to phonological problems.
#Articulatory problems, such as stuttering, lisping, cleft palate, ataxia, or nerve damage leading to problems in articulation. Tourette syndrome and tics can also affect speech. A lot of people also have a slur in thier voice
#In addition to aphasias, anomia and certain types of dyslexia can impede the quality of auditory perception, and therefore, expression. Hearing impairments and deafness can be considered to fall into this category.

ee also

*Esophageal speech
*Speech synthesis
*Speech recognition
*Speech encoding
*Speech delay
*Freedom of speech
*Vocalization
*Oracy
*phonation
*human voice
*vocology


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Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • speech — /speech/, n. 1. the faculty or power of speaking; oral communication; ability to express one s thoughts and emotions by speech sounds and gesture: Losing her speech made her feel isolated from humanity. 2. the act of speaking: He expresses… …   Universalium

  • speech — [ spitʃ ] n. m. • 1829; mot angl. ♦ Vieilli Petite allocution de circonstance, notamment en réponse à un toast. ⇒ discours; fam. laïus, topo. Il y eut quelques speechs (ou speeches) amusants. « en mourant, tous les hommes célèbres font un dernier …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • speech — W2S2 [spi:tʃ] n [: Old English; Origin: sprAc, spAc] 1.) a talk, especially a formal one about a particular subject, given to a group of people ▪ a campaign speech give/make/deliver a speech ▪ Each child had to give a short speech to the rest of… …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • speech — [ spitʃ ] noun *** 1. ) count a formal occasion when someone speaks to an audience: He began his speech by outlining his plans for the coming year. make/give/deliver a speech: The queen made a wonderful speech in reply. a ) the words that someone …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • Speech — Speech, n. [OE. speche, AS. sp?c, spr?, fr. specan, sprecan, to speak; akin to D. spraak speech, OHG. spr[=a]hha, G. sprache, Sw. spr?k, Dan. sprog. See {Speak}.] 1. The faculty of uttering articulate sounds or words; the faculty of expressing… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • speech — speech; speech·ful; speech·ifi·ca·tion; speech·ifi·er; speech·ify; speech·less; speech·less·ly; speech·less·ness; speech·ful·ness; …   English syllables

  • speech — [spēch] n. [ME speche < OE spæc, spræc < base of sprecan, to speak: see SPEAK] 1. the act of speaking; expression or communication of thoughts and feelings by spoken words 2. the power or ability to speak 3. the manner of speaking [her… …   English World dictionary

  • speech — n: words or conduct used to communicate or express a thought: expression see also commercial speech, freedom of speech, free speech …   Law dictionary

  • speech — 1 *language, tongue, dialect, idiom 2 Speech, address, oration, harangue, lecture, talk, sermon, homily designate a discourse delivered to an audience. Speech can apply to a public discourse irrespective of its quality or its degree of… …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • Speech — 〈[ spi:tʃ] f.; , es〉 Rede, Ansprache [engl., „Sprache, Rede“; zu speak „sprechen“] * * * Speech [spi:t̮ʃ], der; es, e u. es u. die; , e u. es […ɪs] [engl. speech] (selten): Rede, Ansprache: einen kleinen/eine kleine S. halten. * * * Speech… …   Universal-Lexikon


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