Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate


Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate
USS Oliver Hazard Perry
USS Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG 7) underway in the Great Lakes
Class overview
Name: Oliver Hazard Perry
Builders: Bath Iron Works
Todd Pacific Shipyards San Pedro
Todd Pacific Shipyards Seattle
Australian Marine Engineering Consolidated
Bazan
China Shipbuilding
Operators: United States Navy
Royal Australian Navy
Armada Española
Republic of China Navy
Pakistan Navy
Royal Bahrain Naval Force
Egyptian Navy
Polish Navy
Turkish Navy
Preceded by: Brooke-class frigate
Succeeded by: Freedom-class littoral combat ship
Independence-class littoral combat ship
Subclasses: Adelaide-class (Australia)
Santa María-class (Spain)
Cheng Kung-class (Taiwan)
Built: 1975 – 2004
In commission: 1977 – Present
Completed: 71
General characteristics
Type: Frigate
Displacement: 4,100 long tons (4,200 t) full load
Length: 408 ft (124 m) waterline,
445 ft (136 m) overall,
453 ft (138 m) for "long-hull" frigates
Beam: 45 ft (14 m)
Draft: 22 ft (6.7 m)
Propulsion: 2 × General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and variable pitch propeller
2 × Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (260 kW) retractable electric azipods for maneuvering and docking.
Speed: over 29 knots (54 km/h)
Range: 4,500 nmi (8,300 km; 5,200 mi) at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph)
Complement: 176
Sensors and
processing systems:
Radar: AN/SPS-49, AN/SPS-55, Mk 92 fire control system
Sonar: SQS-56, SQR-19 Towed Array
Electronic warfare
and decoys:
SLQ-32(V)2, Flight III with sidekick,
Mark 36 SRBOC
AN/SLQ-25 Nixie
Armament: One single-arm Mk 13 Missile Launcher with a 40-missile magazine that contains SM-1MR anti-aircraft guided missiles and Harpoon anti-ship missiles. Removed from the U.S. Navy ships starting in 2003, due to the retirement of the SM-1 missile from American service
Two triple Mark 32 Anti-submarine warfare torpedo tubes with Mark 46 or Mark 50 anti-submarine warfare torpedoes
One OTO Melara 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun
One 20 mm Phalanx CIWS rapid-fire cannon
Eight Hsiung Feng II SSM or four HF-2 and 4 HF-3 supersonic AShM, plus 2 Bofors 40mm/L70 guns on Taiwanese vessels only)
Aircraft carried: Two LAMPS multi-purpose helicopters (the SH-2 Seasprite LAMPS I on the short-hulled ships or the SH-60 Seahawk LAMPS III on the long-hulled ships)

The Oliver Hazard Perry class is a class of frigates named after the American Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, the hero of the naval Battle of Lake Erie. Also known as the Perry or FFG-7 class, the warships were designed in the United States in the mid-1970s as general-purpose escort vessels inexpensive enough to be bought in large quantities to replace World War II-era destroyers and 1960s-era Knox (FF-1052) class frigates. Intended to protect amphibious landing forces, supply and replenishment groups, and merchant convoys from submarines, they also later were part of battleship-centric surface action groups and aircraft carrier battle groups/strike groups.[1] Fifty-five ships were built in the United States: 51 for the United States Navy and four for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). In addition, eight were built in the Republic of China (Taiwan), six in Spain, and two in Australia for their navies. Former U.S. Navy warships of this class have been sold or donated to the navies of Bahrain, Egypt, Poland, Pakistan, and Turkey.

Contents

Design and construction

Blueprint of "long-hull" design USS Rodney M. Davis (FFG-60).

The ships were designed by the Bath Iron Works shipyard in Maine in partnership with the New York-based naval architects Gibbs & Cox.

The Oliver Hazard Perry-class ships were produced in 445-foot (136 meter) long "short-hull" (Flight I) and 453-foot (138 meter) long "long-hull" (Flight III) variants. The long-hull ships (FFG 8, 28, 29, 32, 33, and 36-61) carry the larger SH-60 Seahawk LAMPS III helicopters, while the short-hulled warships carry the smaller and less-capable SH-2 Seasprite LAMPS I. Aside from the lengths of their hulls, the principal difference between the versions is the location of the aft capstan: on long-hull ships, it sits a step below the level of the flight deck in order to provide clearance for the tail rotor of the longer Seahawk helicopters. The long-hull ships also carry the RAST (Recovery Assist Securing and Traversing) system for the Seahawk, a hook, cable, and winch system that can reel in a Seahawk from a hovering flight, expanding the ship's pitch-and-roll range in which flight operations are permitted. The FFG 8, 29, 32, and 33 were built as "short-hull" warships but were later modified into "long-hull" warships.

American shipyards constructed Oliver Hazard Perry-class ships for the U.S. Navy and the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Early American-built Australian ships were originally built as the "short-hull" version, but they were modified during the 1980s to the "long-hull" design. Shipyards in Australia, Spain, and the Republic of China have produced several warships of the "long-hull" design for their navies.

Scheme of the combat systems of the Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate.

Although the per-ship costs rose greatly[citation needed] over the period of production, all 51 ships planned for the U.S. Navy were built. Some Oliver Hazard Perry-class warships are planned to remain in American service for years, but some of the older ships have been decommissioned and some scrapped. Others of these decommissioned ships have been transferred to the navies of other countries, including Bahrain, Egypt, Poland, Pakistan, and Turkey. Several of these have replaced old Second World War-built American destroyers that had been given to those countries.

During the design phase of the Oliver Hazard Perry class, head of the Royal Corps of Naval Constructors, R.J. Daniels, was invited by an old friend, US Chief of the Bureau of Ships, Adm Robert C Gooding, to advise upon the use of variable-pitch propellers in the class. During the course of this conversation, Daniels warned Gooding against the use of aluminium in the superstructure of the FFG-7 class as he believed it would lead to structural weaknesses. A number of ships subsequently developed structural cracks, including a 40 ft fissure in USS Duncan, before the problems were remedied.[2]

The Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates were designed primarily as anti-aircraft and anti-submarine warfare guided-missile warships intended to provide open-ocean escort of amphibious warfare ships and merchant ship convoys in moderate threat environments in a potential war with the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries. They could also provide air defense against 1970s- and 1980s-era aircraft and anti-ship missiles. These warships are equipped to escort and protect aircraft carrier battle groups, amphibious landing groups, underway replenishment groups, and merchant ship convoys. They can conduct independent operations to perform such tasks as surveillance of illegal drug smugglers, maritime interception operations, and exercises with other nations.

The addition of the Naval Tactical Display System, LAMPS helicopters, and the Tactical Towed Array System (TACTAS) gave these warships a combat capability far beyond the original expectations. They are well-suited for the littoral regions and most war-at-sea scenarios.

Notable combat actions

USS Stark listing to port following an air attack

Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates made worldwide news twice during the 1980s. Despite being small, these frigates were shown to be extremely durable. During the Iran–Iraq War, on 17 May 1987, the USS Stark was attacked by an Iraqi warplane. Struck by two Exocet anti-ship missiles, thirty-seven American sailors died in the deadly prelude to the American Operation Earnest Will, the reflagging and escorting of oil tankers through the Persian Gulf and the Straits of Hormuz. Less than a year later, on 14 April 1988, the Samuel B. Roberts was nearly sunk by an Iranian mine. No lives were lost, but 10 sailors were evacuated from the warship for medical treatment. The Roberts crew battled fire and flooding for 2 days, ultimately managing to save the ship. The U.S. Navy retaliated four days later with Operation Praying Mantis, a one-day attack on Iranian oil platforms being used as bases for raids on merchant shipping. Those had included bases for the minelaying operations that damaged the Samuel B. Roberts. Both frigates were repaired in American shipyards and returned to full service. The USS Stark was decommissioned in 1999, and scrapped in 2006.

Modifications

United States

The U.S. Navy is modifying its remaining Perrys to reduce their operating costs, replacing Detroit Diesel Company 16V149TI electrical generators with Caterpillar, Inc.-made diesel engines.[citation needed]

In mid-2000, the Navy removed the frigates' Mk 13 single-arm missile launchers and magazines because the primary missile, the Standard SM-1MR, became outmoded.[3]

USS Rodney M. Davis (FFG-60) after the removal of her foredeck Mk 13 missile launcher.

The "zone-defense" anti-aircraft warfare (AAW) capability has vanished, and all that remains is a "point-defense" type of AAW armament. It would supposedly have been too costly to refit the Standard Missile SM-1MR missiles, which had little ability to bring down sea-skimming missiles. Another reason is to allow more SM-1MRs to go to American allies that operate Perrys, such as Poland, Spain, Australia, Turkey, and the Republic of China (Taiwan).

The loss of the launchers also strips the frigates of their Harpoon anti-ship missiles. However, their Seahawk helicopters can carry the much shorter-range Penguin and Hellfire anti-ship missiles.

The last nine ships of the class will have new remotely operated 25-mm Mk 38 Mod 2 Naval Gun Systems installed on platforms over the old MK 13 launcher magazine.

The U.S. Navy plans to update the Oliver Hazard Perry-class warships' Phalanx CIWS to the "Block 1B" capability, which will allow the Mk 15 20 mm Phalanx gun to shoot at fast-moving surface craft and helicopters.[citation needed] The remaining Oliver Hazard Perry-class ships are also to be fitted with the Mk 53 DLS "Nulka" missile decoy system, which will be better than the presently-equipped chaff (SRBOC, Super Rapid Blooming Offboard Chaff) and flares at guarding against anti-ship missiles. The remaining ships will also be outfitted with RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile launchers.

On June 16, 2009, Vice Admiral Barry McCullough turned down the suggestion of then-U.S. Senator Mel Martinez (R-FL) to keep the Perrys in service, citing their worn-out and maxed-out condition.[4] However, U.S. Representative Ander Crenshaw (R-4-FL) and former U.S. Representative Gene Taylor (D-4-MS) took up the cause to retain the vessels.[5][6][7][8]

Australia

Australia is spending one billion Australian dollars to upgrade Royal Australian Navy (RAN) Adelaide-class guided-missile frigates, including equipping them to fire the SM-2 version of the Standard missile, adding an eight-cell Mk-41 vertical launch system for Evolved Sea Sparrow missiles, and installing better air-search radars and long-range sonar.

The first of the upgraded frigates, HMAS Sydney, returned to the RAN fleet in 2005. Each of the four frigates to be upgraded have the work at the Garden Island shipyard in Sydney, Australia, with the modernizations lasting between 18 months and two years. These frigates are planned to be replaced starting in 2013 by three new Hobart-class air warfare destroyers equipped with the AEGIS combat system. However, the third of those destroyers will not be commissioned until 2017, at the earliest.

The cost will be partly offset, in the short run, by the decommissioning and disposal of the two older frigates. HMAS Canberra was decommissioned on 12 November 2005 at naval base HMAS Stirling in Western Australia and HMAS Adelaide was decommissioned at that same naval base on 20 January 2008.

Turkey

F-490 TCG Gaziantep is a G class frigate of the Turkish Navy

The Turkish Navy had commenced the modernization of its G class frigates with the GENESIS (Gemi Entegre Savaş İdare Sistemi) combat management system in 2007.[9] The first GENESIS upgraded ship was delivered in 2007, and the last delivery is scheduled for 2011.[10] The "short-hull" Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates that are currently part of the Turkish Navy were modified with the ASIST landing platform system at the Gölcük Naval Shipyard, so that they can accommodate the S-70B Seahawk helicopters. Turkey is planning to add one eight-cell Mk 41 Vertical Launching Systems (VLS) for the Evolved Sea Sparrow missile, to be installed forward of the present Mk 13 missile launchers, similar to the case in the modernization program of the Australian Adelaide class frigates.[11][12][13] F-495 TCG Gediz was the first ship in the class to receive the Mk 41 VLS installation.[14] There are also plans for new components to be installed that are being developed for the Milgem class warships (Ada class corvettes and F-100 class frigates) of the Turkish Navy. These include modern Three-dimensional and X-band radars developed by Aselsan and Turkish-made hull-mounted sonars. One of the G class frigates will also be used as a test-bed for Turkey's 6,000+ ton TF-2000 class anti-aircraft warfare (AAW) frigates that are currently being designed by the Turkish Naval Institute.

Operators

  •  Poland: Two frigates were transferred from the U.S. Navy in 2002 and 2003.
  •  Republic of China (Taiwan) (Cheng Kung class): Taiwanese-built. Originally eight ships were equipped with eight Hsiung Feng II anti-ship missiles, now all but PFG-1103 are carrying four HF-2 and four HF-3 supersonic AShM. The PFG-1103 Cheng Ho will change the anti-ship mix upon their major overhaul. Seven out of eight ships added Bofors 40 mm/L70 guns for both surface and anti-air use. On August 5, 2010 Taipei's Apple Daily newspaper reported that the U.S. government will sell Taiwan two additional Perry-class frigates that are about to be retired from the U.S. Navy for a cost of US$40 million.[17]
  •  Spain (Santa Maria class): Spanish-built: six frigates.
  •  Turkey (G class): Eight former U.S. Navy Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates have been transferred to the Turkish Navy. All have undergone extensive advanced modernization programs, and they are now known as the G Class frigates. The Turkish Navy modernized G Class frigates have an additional Mk-41 Vertical Launch System capable of launching Evolved Sea Sparrow missiles for close-in, as well as their longer-range SM-1 missiles; advanced digital fire control systems and new Turkish-made sonars.
  •  United States: The U.S. Navy commissioned 51 FFG-7 class frigates between 1977 and 1989. As of early 2011, 27 long-hull Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates remain in active service. Of these, 19 ships are in regular service, while eight ships are in active service with the Naval Reserve Force.

On May 11, 2009, the first International Frigate Working Group met in Mayport Naval Station to discuss maintenance, obsolescence and logistics issues regarding Oliver Hazard Perry-class ships of the U.S. and foreign navies.[18]

The Oliver Hazard Perry frigates

Ship Name Hull No. Builder Commission–
Decommission
Fate Link
U.S.-built
Oliver Hazard Perry FFG-7 Bath Iron Works 1977–1997 Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 21 April 2006 [1]
McInerney FFG-8 Bath Iron Works 1979–2010 Transferred to Pakistan as PNS Alamgir (F-260) [2]
Wadsworth FFG-9 Todd Pacific Shipyards (Todd), San Pedro 1978–2002 Transferred to Poland as ORP Gen. T. Kościuszko (273) [3]
Duncan FFG-10 Todd, Seattle 1980–1994 Transferred to Turkey as a parts hulk [4]
Clark FFG-11 Bath Iron Works 1980–2000 Transferred to Poland as ORP Gen. K. Pułaski (272) [5]
George Philip FFG-12 Todd, San Pedro 1980–2003 Stricken, to be disposed of, 24 May 2004. [6]
Samuel Eliot Morison FFG-13 Bath Iron Works 1980–2002 Transferred to Turkey as TCG Gokova (F 496) [7]
Sides FFG-14 Todd, San Pedro 1981–2003 Stricken, to be disposed of, 24 May 2004. [8]
Estocin FFG-15 Bath Iron Works 1981–2003 transferred to Turkey as TCG Goksu (F 497) [9]
Clifton Sprague FFG-16 Bath Iron Works 1981–1995 transferred to Turkey as TCG Gaziantep (F 490) [10]
built for Australia as HMAS Adelaide FFG-17 Todd, Seattle 1980–2008 Decommissioned, sunk as diving & fishing reef, April 2011 [11]
built for Australia as HMAS Canberra FFG-18 Todd, Seattle 1981–2005 Decommissioned, sunk as diving & fishing reef, October 2009 [12]
John A. Moore FFG-19 Todd, San Pedro 1981–2000 transferred to Turkey as TCG Gediz (F 495) [13]
Antrim FFG-20 Todd, Seattle 1981–1996 transferred to Turkey as TCG Giresun (F 491) [14]
Flatley FFG-21 Bath Iron Works 1981–1996 transferred to Turkey as TCG Gemlik (F 492)) [15]
Fahrion FFG-22 Todd, Seattle 1982–1998 transferred to Egypt as Sharm El-Sheik (F 901) [16]
Lewis B. Puller FFG-23 Todd, San Pedro 1982–1998 transferred to Egypt as Toushka (F 906) [17]
Jack Williams FFG-24 Bath Iron Works 1981–1996 transferred to Bahrain as Sabha (90) [18]
Copeland FFG-25 Todd, San Pedro 1982–1996 transferred to Egypt as Mubarak (F 911) [19]
Gallery FFG-26 Bath Iron Works 1981–1996 transferred to Egypt as Taba (F 916) [20]
Mahlon S. Tisdale FFG-27 Todd, San Pedro 1982–1996 transferred to Turkey as TCG Gokceada (F 494) [21]
Boone FFG-28 Todd, Seattle 1982- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 1998 [22]
Stephen W. Groves FFG-29 Bath Iron Works 1982- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 1997 [23]
Reid FFG-30 Todd, San Pedro 1983–1998 transferred to Turkey as TCG Gelibolu (F 493) [24]
Stark FFG-31 Todd, Seattle 1982–1999 Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 21 June 2006 [25]
John L. Hall FFG-32 Bath Iron Works 1982- in active service, as of 2011 [26]
Jarrett FFG-33 Todd, San Pedro 1983–2011 Decommissioned, held for future foreign military sale [27]
Aubrey Fitch FFG-34 Bath Iron Works 1982–1997 Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling, 19 May 2005 [28]
built for Australia as HMAS Sydney FFG-35 Todd, Seattle 1983- in active service, as of 2011 [29]
Underwood FFG-36 Bath Iron Works 1983- in active service, as of 2011 [30]
Crommelin FFG-37 Todd, Seattle 1983- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2003 [31]
Curts FFG-38 Todd, San Pedro 1983- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 1998 [32]
Doyle FFG-39 Bath Iron Works 1983–2011 Decommissioned July 29, 2011 [33]
Halyburton FFG-40 Todd, Seattle 1983- in active service, as of 2011 [34]
McClusky FFG-41 Todd, San Pedro 1983- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2002 [35]
Klakring FFG-42 Bath Iron Works 1983- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2002 [36]
Thach FFG-43 Todd, San Pedro 1984- in active service, as of 2011 [37]
built for Australia as HMAS Darwin FFG-44 Todd, Seattle 1984- in active service, as of 2011 [38]
De Wert FFG-45 Bath Iron Works 1983- in active service, as of 2011 [39]
Rentz FFG-46 Todd, San Pedro 1984- in active service, as of 2011 [40]
Nicholas FFG-47 Bath Iron Works 1984- in active service, as of 2011 [41]
Vandegrift FFG-48 Todd, Seattle 1984- in active service, as of 2011 [42]
Robert G. Bradley FFG-49 Bath Iron Works 1984- in active service, as of 2011 [43]
Taylor FFG-50 Bath Iron Works 1984- in active service, as of 2011 [44]
Gary FFG-51 Todd, San Pedro 1984- in active service, as of 2011 [45]
Carr FFG-52 Todd, Seattle 1985- in active service, as of 2011 [46]
Hawes FFG-53 Bath Iron Works 1985–2010 Decommissioned, to be cannibalised in Philadelphia [47]
Ford FFG-54 Todd, San Pedro 1985- in active service, as of 2011 [48]
Elrod FFG-55 Bath Iron Works 1985- in active service, as of 2011 [49]
Simpson FFG-56 Bath Iron Works 1985- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2002 [50]
Reuben James FFG-57 Todd, San Pedro 1986- in active service, as of 2011 [51]
Samuel B. Roberts FFG-58 Bath Iron Works 1986- in active service, as of 2011 [52]
Kauffman FFG-59 Bath Iron Works 1987- in active service, as of 2011 [53]
Rodney M. Davis FFG-60 Todd, San Pedro 1987- Naval Reserve Force, Active since 2002 [54]
Ingraham FFG-61 Todd, San Pedro 1989- in active service, as of 2011 [55]
Australian-built
HMAS Melbourne FFG 05 Australian Marine Engineering Consolidated (AMECON), Williamstown, Victoria 1992- in active service, as of 2011
HMAS Newcastle FFG 06 AMECON, Williamstown 1993- in active service, as of 2011
Spanish-built
SPS Santa María F81 Bazan, Ferrol 1986- in active service, as of 2011
SPS Victoria F82 Bazan, Ferrol 1987- in active service, as of 2011
SPS Numancia F83 Bazan, Ferrol 1989- in active service, as of 2011
SPS Reina Sofía F84 Bazan, Ferrol 1990- in active service, as of 2011
SPS Navarra F85 Bazan, Ferrol 1994- in active service, as of 2011
SPS Canarias F86 Bazan, Ferrol 1994- in active service, as of 2011
Taiwan-built (Republic of China)
ROCS Cheng Kung PFG-1101 China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 1993- in active service, as of 2011
ROCS Cheng Ho PFG-1103 China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 1994- in active service, as of 2011
ROCS Chi Kuang PFG-1105 China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 1995- in active service, as of 2011
ROCS Yueh Fei PFG-1106 China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 1996- in active service, as of 2011
ROCS Tzu I PFG-1107 China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 1997- in active service, as of 2011
ROCS Pan Chao PFG-1108 China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 1997- in active service, as of 2011
ROCS Chang Chien PFG-1109 China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 1998- in active service, as of 2011
ROCS Tian Dan PFG-1110 China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 2004- in active service, as of 2011

References

  1. ^ Wiggins, James F (2000-08). Defense Acquisitions: Comprehensive Strategy Needed to Improve Ship Cruise Missile Defence. United States General Accounting Office. ISBN 9780756703028. http://books.google.com/?id=RoEQ1awizu0C&pg=PA42&dq=%22USS+Stark%22&cd=1#v=onepage&q=%22USS%20Stark%22. Retrieved 2010-02-16.  pp.42
  2. ^ Daniels, R.J, p.219, The End Of An Era: The Memoirs Of a Naval Constructor, Periscope Publishing Ltd, 2004, ISBN 1-904381-18-9, 9781904381181
  3. ^ Burgess, Richard R. (September 2003). "Guided Missiles Removed from Perry-class Frigates (Sea Services section: Northrop Grumman-Built DDG Mustin Commissioned in U.S. Pacific Fleet)". Sea Power (Washington, D.C.: Navy League of the United States) 46 (9): 34. ISSN 0199-1337. OCLC 3324011. http://www.navyleague.org/sea_power/sep_03_34.php. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
  4. ^ Navy has few FFG options to fill LCS gap
  5. ^ Mayport frigates may get reprieve
  6. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene_Taylor_(Mississippi)
  7. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ander_Crenshaw
  8. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mel_Martinez
  9. ^ Undersecretariat of Turkish Defence Industries: GENESIS modernization program
  10. ^ Turkish Navy official website: GENESIS modernization program
  11. ^ MK 41 Vertical Launch Systems for Turkish Navy : Naval Forces : Defense News Air Force Army Navy News
  12. ^ MK 41 Naval Vertical Missile Launch Systems Delivered, Supported (updated)
  13. ^ FMS: Turkey Requests MK 41 Vertical Launch Systems
  14. ^ Turkishnavy.net: First Turkish Perry With Mk-41 VLS
  15. ^ Official Website - Frigates[dead link]
  16. ^ Pakistan to get refurbished warship from US Times of India, October 19, 2008
  17. ^ U.S. to Sell Taiwan Two Frigates: Report Defense News, August 5, 2010
  18. ^ Mayport hosts frigate working group

Further reading

  • Bruhn, David D., Steven C. Saulnier, and James L. Whittington (1997). Ready to Answer All Bells: A Blueprint for Successful Naval Engineering. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-227-7.  (Operating a Perry frigate)
  • Friedman, Norman (1982). U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-733-X.  (Contains material on frigates and Perrys in particular)
  • Levinson, Jeffrey L. and Randy L. Edwards (1997). Missile Inbound. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-517-9.  (Attack on the USS Stark (FFG 31) )
  • Peniston, Bradley (2006). No Higher Honor: Saving the USS Samuel B. Roberts in the Persian Gulf. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-661-5. http://www.navybook.com/nohigherhonor.  (Mining of the USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG 58) )
  • Snow, Ralph L. (1987). Bath Iron Works: The First Hundred Years. Bath, Maine: Maine Maritime Museum. ISBN 0-9619449-0-0.  (The origin and construction of the Perrys, from the design shipyard's point of view.)
  • Wise, Harold Lee (2007). Inside the Danger Zone: The U.S. Military in the Persian Gulf 1987-88. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-970-3. http://www.insidethedangerzone.com. 

External links


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