List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States

List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
The Roberts Court, 2010
Back row (left to right): Sonia Sotomayor, Stephen G. Breyer, Samuel A. Alito, and Elena Kagan. Front row (left to right): Clarence Thomas, Antonin Scalia, Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Anthony Kennedy, and Ruth Bader Ginsburg

The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States. Its membership consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices. The Justices are nominated by the President of the United States and appointed after confirmation by the United States Senate. Justices of the Supreme Court have life tenure[1] and receive a salary which is currently set at $223,500 per year for the Chief Justice and at $213,900 per year for each Associate Justice.[2][3] On August 7, 2010, Justice Elena Kagan became the 112th justice to have served on the Court.[4]

The Supreme Court was created in 1789 by Article III of the United States Constitution, which stipulates that the "judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court" together with any lower courts Congress may establish.[1] Congress organized the Court that year with the passage of the Judiciary Act of 1789. It specified the Court's original and appellate jurisdiction, created thirteen judicial districts, and fixed the number of justices at six (one Chief Justice and five Associate Justices).[5][6]

Since the passage of the Judiciary Act, Congress has occasionally altered the size of the Supreme Court, historically in response to the country's own expansion in size. Membership was decreased in 1801 to five, then increased to seven members in 1807, to nine in 1837, and to ten in 1863. It was then reduced to seven in 1866. In 1869, Congress set the Court's size to nine members, where it has remained since.[7] While the justices of the Supreme Court are appointed for life, some choose to leave the Court before their death: a total of 54 have retired or resigned. The average age of newly-appointed justices is about 53 years old. Historically, the average length of service on the Court has been less than 15 years; however, since 1970 the average length of service has increased to about 26 years.[8]


List of Justices

  • Edwin Stanton died before taking office.
  • John Rutledge and Charles Evans Hughes each resigned from the Court and were later reappointed as Chief Justice. Therefore, they are listed twice.
  •   †  denotes Chief Justices,   *  denotes justices who received a recess appointment,      denotes currently-serving justices,
# Judge State Born/Died Active service Term as Chief Justice Retirement Appointed by Reason for
1 Wilson, JamesJames Wilson PA 174209141742–1798 178910051789–1798 Washington Death
2 Jay, JohnJohn Jay NY 174512121745–1829 178909261789–1795 178909261789–1795 Washington Resignation
3 Cushing, WilliamWilliam Cushing MA 173203011732–1810 179002021790–1810 Washington Death
4 Blair, JohnJohn Blair, Jr. VA 17320000<1732–1800 179002021790–1795 Washington Resignation
5 Rutledge, JohnJohn Rutledge SC 173909181739–1800 179002151790–1791 Washington Resignation
6 Iredell, JamesJames Iredell NC 175110051751–1799 179005121790–1799 Washington Death
7 Johnson, ThomasThomas Johnson* MD 173211041732–1819 179208061792–1793 Washington Resignation
8 Paterson, WilliamWilliam Paterson NJ 174512241745–1806 179303111793–1806 Washington Death
5 Rutledge, JohnJohn Rutledge*† SC 173909181739–1800 179512281795 179512281795 Washington Rejection
9 Chase, SamuelSamuel Chase MD 174104171741–1811 179602041796–1811 Washington Death
10 Ellsworth, OliverOliver Ellsworth CT 174504291745–1807 179603081796–1800 179603081796–1800 Washington Resignation
11 Washington, BushrodBushrod Washington VA 176206051762–1829 179902041798–1829 Adams, J. Death
12 Moore, AlfredAlfred Moore NC 175505211755–1810 180004211800–1804 Adams, J. Resignation
13 Marshall, JohnJohn Marshall VA 175509241755–1835 180102041801–1835 180102041801–1835 Adams, J. Death
14 Johnson, WilliamWilliam Johnson SC 177112271771–1834 180405071804–1834 Jefferson Death
15 Livingston, Henry BrockholstHenry Brockholst Livingston NY 175711251757–1823 180701201807–1823 Jefferson Death
16 Todd, ThomasThomas Todd KY 176501231765–1826 180705041807–1826 Jefferson Death
17 Duvall, GabrielGabriel Duvall MD 175212061752–1844 181111231811–1835 Madison Resignation
18 Story, JosephJoseph Story MA 177909181779–1845 181202031812–1845 Madison Death
19 Thompson, SmithSmith Thompson* NY 176801171768–1843 182309011823–1843 Monroe Death
20 Trimble, RobertRobert Trimble KY 177611171776–1828 182606161826–1828 Adams, J. Q. Death
21 McLean, JohnJohn McLean OH 178503111785–1861 183001111830–1861 Jackson Death
22 Baldwin, HenryHenry Baldwin PA 178001141780–1844 183001181830–1844 Jackson Death
23 Wayne, James MooreJames Moore Wayne GA 17900000<1790–1867 183501141835–1867 Jackson Death
24 Taney, Roger B.Roger B. Taney MD 177703171777–1864 183603281836–1864 183603281836–1864 Jackson Death
25 Barbour, Philip PendletonPhilip Pendleton Barbour VA 178305251783–1841 183605121836–1841 Jackson Death
26 Catron, JohnJohn Catron TN 17860000<1786–1865 183705011837–1865 Jackson Death
27 McKinley, JohnJohn McKinley AL 178005011780–1852 183801091837–1852 Van Buren Death
28 Daniel, Peter VivianPeter Vivian Daniel VA 178404241784–1860 184201101842–1860 Van Buren Death
29 Nelson, SamuelSamuel Nelson NY 179211101792–1873 184502271845–1872 Tyler Retirement
30 Woodbury, LeviLevi Woodbury* NH 178912221789–1851 184509231845–1851 Polk Death
31 Grier, Robert CooperRobert Cooper Grier PA 179403051794–1870 184608101846–1870 Polk Retirement
32 Curtis, Benjamin RobbinsBenjamin Robbins Curtis* MA 180911041809–1874 185110101851–1857 Fillmore Resignation
33 Campbell, John ArchibaldJohn Archibald Campbell AL 181106241811–1889 185304111853–1861 Pierce Resignation
34 Clifford, NathanNathan Clifford ME 180308181803–1881 185801211858–1881 Buchanan Death
35 Swayne, Noah HaynesNoah Haynes Swayne OH 180412071804–1884 186201271862–1881 Lincoln Retirement
36 Miller, Samuel FreemanSamuel Freeman Miller IA 181604051816–1890 186207211862–1890 Lincoln Death
37 Davis, DavidDavid Davis* IL 181503091815–1886 186212101862–1877 Lincoln Resignation
38 Field, Stephen JohnsonStephen Johnson Field CA 181611041816–1899 186305201863–1897 Lincoln Retirement
39 Chase, Salmon P.Salmon P. Chase OH 180801131808–1873 186412151864–1873 186412151864–1873 Lincoln Death
40 Strong, WilliamWilliam Strong PA 180805061808–1895 187003141870–1880 Grant Retirement
41 Bradley, Joseph PhiloJoseph P. Bradley NJ 181303141813–1892 187003231870–1892 Grant Death
42 Hunt, WardWard Hunt NY 181006141810–1886 187301091873–1882 Grant Retirement
43 Waite, MorrisonMorrison Waite OH 181611291816–1888 187403041874–1888 187403041874–1888 Grant Death
44 Harlan, John MarshallJohn Marshall Harlan KY 183306011833–1911 187712101877–1911 Hayes Death
45 Woods, William BurnhamWilliam Burnham Woods AL 182408031824–1887 188101051881–1887 Hayes Death
46 Matthews, StanleyStanley Matthews OH 182407211824–1889 188105171881–1889 Garfield Death
47 Gray, HoraceHorace Gray MA 182803241828–1902 188201091882–1902 Arthur Death
48 Blatchford, SamuelSamuel Blatchford NY 182003091820–1893 188204031882–1893 Arthur Death
49 Lamar, Lucius Quintus CincinattusLucius Quintus
Cincinnatus Lamar
MS 182509171825–1893 188801181888–1893 Cleveland Death
50 Fuller, MelvilleMelville Fuller IL 183302111833–1910 188810081888–1910 188810081888–1910 Cleveland Death
51 Brewer, David JosiahDavid Josiah Brewer KS 183706201837–1910 189001061890–1910 Harrison, B. Death
52 Brown, Henry BillingsHenry Billings Brown MI 183603021836–1913 189101051891–1906 Harrison, B. Retirement
53 Shiras, George Jr.George Shiras, Jr. PA 183201261832–1924 189210101892–1903 Harrison, B. Retirement
54 Jackson, Howell EdmundsHowell Edmunds Jackson TN 183204081832–1895 189303041893–1895 Harrison, B. Death
55 White, Edward DouglassEdward Douglass White LA 184511031845–1921 189403121894–1921 191012121910–1921 Cleveland (associate)
Taft (chief)[9]
56 Peckham, Rufus WheelerRufus Wheeler Peckham NY 183811081838–1909 189601061896–1909 Cleveland Death
57 McKenna, JosephJoseph McKenna CA 184308101843–1926 189801261898–1925 1921 (acting)[10] McKinley Retirement
58 Holmes, Oliver Wendell Jr.Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. MA 184103081841–1935 190212081902–1932 1930 (acting)[11] Roosevelt, T. Retirement
59 Day, William R.William R. Day OH 184904071849–1923 190303021903–1922 Roosevelt, T. Retirement
60 Moody, William HenryWilliam Henry Moody MA 185312231853–1917 190612171906–1910 Roosevelt, T. Retirement[12]
61 Lurton, Horace HarmonHorace Harmon Lurton TN 184402261844–1914 191001031910–1914 Taft Death
62 Hughes, Charles EvansCharles Evans Hughes NY 186204111862–1948 191010101910–1916 Taft Resignation
63 Van Devanter, WillisWillis Van Devanter WY 185904171859–1941 191101031911–1937 193706021937–1941 Taft Retirement
64 Lamar, Joseph RuckerJoseph Rucker Lamar GA 185710141857–1916 191101031911–1916 Taft Death
65 Pitney, MahlonMahlon Pitney NJ 185802051858–1924 191203181912–1922 Taft Resignation
66 McReynolds, James ClarkJames Clark McReynolds NY 186202031862–1946 191410121914–1941 194101311941–1946 Wilson Retirement[13]
67 Brandeis, Louis DembitzLouis Brandeis MA 185611131856–1941 191606051916–1939 193902131939–1941 Wilson Retirement[13]
68 Clarke, John HessinJohn Hessin Clarke OH 185709181857–1945 191610091916–1922 Wilson Resignation
69 Taft, William HowardWilliam Howard Taft OH 185709151857–1930 192107111921–1930 192107111921–1930 Harding Resignation[14]
70 Sutherland, GeorgeGeorge Sutherland UT 186203251862–1942 192210021922–1938 193801171938–1942 Harding Retirement[13]
71 Butler, PiercePierce Butler MN 186603171866–1939 192301021923–1939 Harding Death
72 Sanford, Edward TerryEdward Terry Sanford TN 186507231865–1930 192302191923–1930 Harding Death
73 Stone, Harlan F.Harlan F. Stone NY 187210111872–1946 192503021925–1946 194107031941–1946[15] Coolidge (associate)
Roosevelt, F. (chief)[9]
62 Hughes, Charles EvansCharles Evans Hughes NY 186204111862–1948 193002241930–1941 193002241930–1941 Hoover Retirement
74 Roberts, Owen Owen Roberts PA 187505021875–1955 193006021930–1945 Hoover Resignation
75 Cardozo, Benjamin N.Benjamin N. Cardozo NY 187005241870–1938 193203141932–1938 Hoover Death
76 Black, HugoHugo Black AL 188602271886–1971 193708191937–1971 1946 (acting), 1953 (acting)[16][17] 197109171971–1971 Roosevelt, F. Retirement[13]
77 Reed, Stanley FormanStanley Forman Reed KY 188412311884–1980 193801311938–1957 195702251957–1980 Roosevelt, F. Retirement[13]
78 Frankfurter, FelixFelix Frankfurter NY 188211151882–1965 193901301939–1962 196208281962–1965 Roosevelt, F. Retirement[13]
79 Douglas, William O.William O. Douglas WA 189810161898–1980 193904171939–1975 197511121975–1980 Roosevelt, F. Retirement[13]
80 Murphy, FrankFrank Murphy MI 189004131890–1949 194002051940–1949 Roosevelt, F. Death
81 Byrnes, James F.James F. Byrnes SC 187905021879–1972 194107081941–1942 Roosevelt, F. Resignation
82 Jackson, Robert H.Robert H. Jackson NY 189202131892–1954 194107111941–1954 Roosevelt, F. Death
83 Rutledge, Wiley BlountWiley Blount Rutledge IA 189407201894–1949 194302151943–1949 Roosevelt, F. Death
84 Burton, Harold HitzHarold Hitz Burton OH 188806221888–1964 194510011945–1958 195810131958–1964 Truman Retirement[13]
85 Vinson, Fred M.Fred M. Vinson KY 189001221890–1953 194606241946–1953 194606241946–1953 Truman Death
86 Clark, Tom C.Tom C. Clark TX 189909231899–1977 194908241949–1967 196706121967–1977 Truman Retirement[13]
87 Minton, ShermanSherman Minton IN 189010201890–1965 194910121949–1956 195610151956–1965 Truman Retirement[13]
88 Warren, EarlEarl Warren*† CA 189103191891–1974 195310051953–1969 195310051953–1969 196906231969–1974 Eisenhower Retirement[13]
89 Harlan, John Marshall IIJohn Marshall Harlan II NY 189905201899–1971 195503281955–1971 197109231971–1971 Eisenhower Retirement[13]
90 Brennan, William J.William J. Brennan, Jr.* NJ 190604251906–1997 195610161956–1990 199007201990–1997 Eisenhower Retirement[13]
91 Whittaker, Charles EvansCharles Evans Whittaker MO 190102221901–1973 195703251957–1962 196203311962–1965 Eisenhower Resignation
92 Stewart, PotterPotter Stewart* OH 191501231915–1985 195810141958–1981 198107031981–1985 Eisenhower Retirement
93 White, ByronByron White CO 191706081917–2002 196204161962–1993 199306281993–2002 Kennedy Retirement[13]
94 Goldberg, ArthurArthur Goldberg IL 190808081908–1990 196210011962–1965 Kennedy Resignation
95 Fortas, AbeAbe Fortas TN 191006191910–1982 196510041965–1969 Johnson, L. Resignation
96 Marshall, ThurgoodThurgood Marshall NY 190807021908–1993 196710021967–1991 199110011991–1993 Johnson, L. Retirement[13]
97 Burger, Warren E.Warren E. Burger MN 190709171907–1995 196906231969–1986 196906231969–1986 198609261986–1995 Nixon Retirement[13]
98 Blackmun, HarryHarry Blackmun MN 190811121908–1999 197006091970–1994 199408031994–1999 Nixon Retirement[13]
99 Powell, Lewis F.Lewis F. Powell, Jr. VA 190709191907–1998 197201071972–1987 198706261987–1998 Nixon Retirement[13]
100 Rehnquist, WilliamWilliam Rehnquist AZ/VA[18] 192410011924–2005 197201071972–2005 198609261986–2005 Nixon (associate)
Reagan (chief)[9]
101 Stevens, John PaulJohn Paul Stevens IL 192004201920– 197512191975–2010 2005 (acting)[19] 201060292010–present Ford Retirement
102 O'Connor, Sandra DaySandra Day O'Connor AZ 193003261930– 198109251981–2006 200601312006–present Reagan Retirement
103 Scalia, AntoninAntonin Scalia NY 193603111936– 198609261986–present Reagan Currently serving
104 Kennedy, AnthonyAnthony Kennedy CA 193607231936– 198802181988–present Reagan Currently serving
105 Souter, DavidDavid Souter NH 193909171939– 199010091990–2009 200906292009–present Bush, G. H. W. Retirement
106 Thomas, ClarenceClarence Thomas GA 194806231948– 199110231991–present Bush, G. H. W. Currently serving
107 Goldberg, RuthRuth Bader Ginsburg NY 193303151933– 199308101993–present Clinton Currently serving
108 Breyer, StephenStephen Breyer MA 193808151938– 199408031994–present Clinton Currently serving
109 Roberts, G. JohnJohn G. Roberts MD 195501271955– 200509292005–present 200509292005–present Bush, G. W. Currently serving
110 Alito, SamuelSamuel Alito NJ 195004011950– 200601312006–present Bush, G. W. Currently serving
111 Sotomayor, SoniaSonia Sotomayor NY 195406251954– 200908082009–present Obama Currently serving
112 Kagan, ElenaElena Kagan NY 196004281960– 201008052010–present Obama Currently serving

See also


  1. ^ a b "Article III - Legal Information Institute". Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  2. ^ Mears, Bill (2010-01-01). "Chief Justice Roberts has little to say at year's end". CNN. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  3. ^ Barnes, Robert (2010-01-01). "Supreme Court Chief Justice Roberts opts not to ask Congress to raise judicial salaries". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  4. ^ "Elena Kagan sworn in by Roberts to become 112th Supreme Court Justice". Los Angeles Times. 2010-08-07.,0,6612295.story. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  5. ^ "About The Supreme Court". Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  6. ^ "Supreme Court Research Guide". Georgetown Law Library. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  7. ^ Smith, Jean Edward (2007-07-26). "Stacking the Court". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  8. ^ Rosen, Jeffrey (2008-02-26). "Dems' Choices For Bench Surprisingly Slim". CBS News. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  9. ^ a b c This individual was elevated from Associate Justice to Chief Justice. Unlike the inferior courts, the Chief Justice is separately nominated and subject to a separate confirmation process, regardless of whether or not (s)he is already an Associate Justice.
  10. ^ Under 36 Stat. 1152, McKenna was Acting Chief Justice from White's death on May 19, 1921 until Taft took office on July 11, 1921.
  11. ^ Under 36 Stat. 1152, Holmes was Acting Chief Justice from Taft's departure on February 3, 1930 until Hughes took office on February 24, 1930.
  12. ^ There is some disagreement on how Moody exited office. According to the Federal Judicial Center, Moody resigned. According to the Supreme Court Historical Society, Moody retired. It turns out that the confusion comes from the fact that Moody was allowed to retire by special act of Congress in 1910 due to prolonged ill health. (Moody did not meet the minimum age and service requirements to retire without this waiver.)
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Beginning in the Twentieth Century, many Justices who have left the Court voluntarily have done so by retiring as Supreme Court Justices, but have not left the federal judiciary altogether. Some databases refer to this as an election by the Justice of senior status, although in practice the term "senior status" is used almost exclusively with regard to judges of lower federal courts, not the Supreme Court. A "retired Justice" is no longer a Member of the Supreme Court of the United States, but remains eligible to serve by designation as a judge of a U.S. Court of Appeals or District Court (and many retired Justices have indeed served in these capacities). However, because the Justice ceases to be a Member of the Supreme Court as of the moment of retirement, the reason for these Justices' leaving the Supreme Court is properly given as "retirement," although the reason for the Justice's later leaving the federal judiciary altogether might be a subsequent act of (full) retirement or the Justice's death.
  14. ^ There is some disagreement on how William Howard Taft exited office. According to some sources, such as the Supreme Court Historical Society, Taft retired. According to others, such as the Federal Judicial Center, Taft resigned.
  15. ^ Under 36 Stat. 1152, Stone was Acting Chief Justice from Hughes's retirement on June 30, 1941 until Stone took the oath of office as Chief Justice three days later.
  16. ^ Under 36 Stat. 1152, Black was Acting Chief Justice from Stone's death on April 22, 1946 until Vinson took office on June 24, 1946.
  17. ^ Under 62 Stat. 869, Black was Acting Chief Justice from Vinson's death on September 8, 1953 until Warren took office on October 5, 1953. The Supreme Court was not in session during this brief period.
  18. ^ In 1986, when elevated to Chief Justice, Rehnquist was appointed from Virginia"?". [dead link]]
  19. ^ Under 28 U.S.C. § 3, Stevens was Acting Chief Justice from Rehnquist's death on September 3, 2005 until Roberts took office on September 29, 2005. The Supreme Court was not in session during this brief period.

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