- Gabriel Gruber
Gabriel Gruber (
May 6, 1740, Vienna, Austria- April 7, 1805, Saint Petersburg, Russia) was the second Superior General of the Society of Jesus in Russia.
Early years and education
Gruber became a
Jesuitat the young age of 15, in 1755 and did most of his formation and studies in Austria: Latin, Greek and Philosophyin Graz(1757-60), languages in Vienna (1760-61), Mathematicsin Trnava, Slovachia (1761-62) and Theologyin Graz (1763-67) where he was ordained priest in 1766.
Gruber was an expert in hydrotechnology and
architecture, and had also a basic knowledge of navigationand the history of seamanship. In 1769, he started teaching mathematics, mechanics, hydraulicsand engineeringat the School of Mechanical Engineering in Laibach (Slovenian: "Ljubljana"). The school taught classes in shipbuilding, port devices and structures, and Gruber's wish was to build a dockyard nearby. That enterprise proved to be prohibitively expensive.
In early life, Gruber was a fanatical builder of model ships, and some of the teaching materials at the School of Mechanical Engineering were naval models of his that were made at the school between 1774 and 1783. Before being included in the Maritime Museum collection, these models were kept in the National Museum in Ljubljana. Some of Gruber's other workshop models had been in
Pula, Croatia, but disappeared during the withdrawal of the Italian Armyin 1943. Other Gruber models exhibited in the Maritime Museum are the Venetian battle galleon, the lagoon cargo galleon, the corvette, the schoonerand a framework used during ship construction.
Suppression of the Society of Jesusby Pope Clement XIV, in 1773, Gruber remained as engineer at the court of Emperor Joseph IItill 1784. He used successfully his skill, and for the next eight years was the architect and builder of Gruber Palace— a vast rococoedifice that was originally his mansion — used for his research in physicsand hydraulics. It had also an astronomic observatory. The palace was bought in 1887 by the Carniolan Savings Bank and has housed the Slovenian archives since 1965.
Return to the Jesuits
In 1784, Gruber went to
Polatsk, a border city between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthand the Russian Empireto rejoin the Society of Jesusand became a member of the Jesuit community in Russia. Gruber was an active engineer, chemist, architect, painter, mechanicand physician. Under his influence, the college of Polatskbecame a famous academy of technical science. He was influential in the court of Catherine the Great, and was close to her successor TsarPaul I, as well, at whose request he reorganized the technical training in the whole Russian empire. In 1800 Gruber became the first rectorof the Aristocratic College at the Saint Petersburg State University.
Living at Saint Petersburg, and being a close confidant of
Paul IGruber often discussed with him the affairs of the Society, on behalf of Franciszek Kareu, Vicar General of the Jesuits in Russia. In 1797 he became officially the Assistant of Kareu and ultimately, after the death of the later, Gruber was elected Superior General of the Society in Russia, at the Regional (Polatsk) Congregation IV (1802). That was just a few months after Pius VII had issued the brief "Catholicae fidei" (1801), giving approval to the existence of the Russian Jesuits and making the Temporary Vicar ( Franciszek Kareu) 'Superior General for Russia'. Gruber expanded pioneering activities by opening several missions among the Germans in the Volga region (Saratov, 1803), Odessa (1804) and Astrakhan (1805) where schools and agricultural activities were developed. However, politically, problems were growing with Paul I as well as with the local bishop of Polatsk.
In the meantime the movement towards reunion of the Jesuits was gaining momentum. In the wake of the French revolution political opposition of the Bourbon courts had weakened. In 1803 the Jesuits of the
Stonyhurstschool in Englandwere made members of the Russian Jesuit province. The 'Fathers of the Faith' an independent group of ex-jesuits received affiliation in 1805. Contacts were established with the ex-Jesuits of Maryland(USA). In 1804, the existence of the Jesuits was officially recognized in Naples and Gruber became 'Superior General of the Society of Jesus in Russia and Naples'. Plans were on to send an overland mission to Chinawhen Gruber died in an accidental fire at his Saint Petersburg residence on April 7, 1805.
*INGLOT, M., "La Compagnia di Gesù nel Impero Russo (1772-1820)", Rome, 1997.
*PIERLING, P., "G.Gruber et les jésuites réfugiés en Russie", Meudon, 1999.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Gabriel Gruber — Gabriel Grüber Gabriel Gruber né le 6 mai 1740, à Vienne, Autriche et mort le 7 avril 1805 à Saint Petersbourg en Russie fut le second Supérieur général de la Compagnie de Jésus en Russie. Sommaire 1 Formation 2 Gruber, ingénieur … Wikipédia en Français
Gabriel Gruber — (* 6. Mai 1740 in Wien; † 26. Märzjul./ 7. April 1805greg. in Sankt Petersburg) war der Generaloberer der Jesuiten in Russland. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben … Deutsch Wikipedia
Gabriel Grüber — Gabriel Gruber né le 6 mai 1740, à Vienne, Autriche et mort le 7 avril 1805 à Saint Petersbourg en Russie fut le second Supérieur général de la Compagnie de Jésus en Russie. Sommaire 1 Formation 2 Gruber, ingénieur … Wikipédia en Français
Gruber — ist ein Familienname im deutschsprachigen Raum. Herkunft und Bedeutung Der Name kommt aus dem alpenländischen Raum. Er ist abgeleitet von Grube und ist ein Herkunftsname mit der Bedeutung Tal oder Schlucht. In Österreich ist es der häufigste… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Gruber Palace — is a palace in Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia located on the Ljubljanica river bank. It currently houses the National Archives of Slovenia (Narodni arhiv Slovenije).HistoryThe palace was built between 1773 and 1781 in a braided Baroque and… … Wikipedia
Gabriel Cattand — Gabriel Cattand, né le 29 novembre 1923 à Bonneville en Haute Savoie et mort le 9 août 1998 à Poigny la Forêt dans les Yvelines, est un acteur français de télévision et de cinéma. Sommaire 1 Biographie 2 … Wikipédia en Français
Hinterkaifeck — war der Tatort eines bis heute nicht aufgeklärten Mehrfachmordes. Auf dem Einödhof, der 500 m südwestlich des Dorfes Gröbern im Gemeindegebiet von Wangen (am 1. Oktober 1971 nach Waidhofen eingemeindet) in Oberbayern lag und etwa sechs… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Liste der Biografien/Gru–Grz — Biografien: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q … Deutsch Wikipedia
Liste der Wiener Persönlichkeiten — Bekannte Wiener Persönlichkeiten A Carlo Abarth, in Italien lebender österreichischer Automobilrennfahrer und Tuner Emil Abel, Chemiker Othenio Abel, Paläontologe und Evolutionsbiologe Walter Abish, US amerikanischer Schriftsteller Kurt Absolon,… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Liste Wiener Persönlichkeiten — Dieser Artikel stellt eine Liste bekannter Wiener Persönlichkeiten dar. Inhaltsverzeichnis A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Carlo Abarth, in Italien lebender … Deutsch Wikipedia