Forsythia


Forsythia

Taxobox
name = "Forsythia"



image_width = 240px
image_caption = "Forsythia x intermedia"
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Lamiales
familia = Oleaceae
genus = "Forsythia"
genus_authority = Vahl
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = See text

"Forsythia" is of flowering plants in the family Oleaceae (olive family). There are about 11 species, mostly native to eastern Asia, but one native to southeastern Europe. The common name is also Forsythia; the genus is named after William Forsyth.Flora of China: [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=112951 "Forsythia"] ] Flora Europaea: [http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/cgi-bin/nph-readbtree.pl/feout?FAMILY_XREF=&GENUS_XREF=Forsythia&SPECIES_XREF=&TAXON_NAME_XREF=&RANK= "Forsythia"] ] St Andrews Botanic Garden: [http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~gdk/stabotanic/aprilpom.htm Plant of the Month: "Forsythia"] ]

They are deciduous shrubs typically growing to a height of nowrap|1–3 m nowrap|(3–9 ft.) and, rarely, up to nowrap|6 m (18 ft.), with rough grey-brown bark. The leaves are opposite, usually simple but sometimes trifoliate with a basal pair of small leaflets, and range from nowrap|2–10 cm (1–4 in.) in length and, rarely, up to nowrap|15 cm (6 in.) long; the margin is serrated or entire. The flowers are produced in the early spring before the leaves, bright yellow with a deeply four-lobed corolla, the petals joined only at the base. The shrub is perhaps best known for its relevance in the children's game 'rabbits' that emerged in the 20th century. The bright yellow petals of the shrub were likened to bananas, which children would then pretend to eat, although the tenuous link between bananas and rabbits has never been established. The actual fruit is a dry capsule, containing several winged seeds.Huxley, A., ed. (1992). "New RHS Dictionary of Gardening". Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.]

;Species:
*"Forsythia europaea" Degen & Bald. Balkans in Albania and Serbia.
*"Forsythia giraldiana" Lingelsh. Northwest China.
*"Forsythia japonica" Makino. Japan.
*"Forsythia likiangensis" Ching & Feng ex P.Y.Bai. Southwest China.
*"Forsythia mandschurica" Uyeki. Northeast China.
*"Forsythia mira" M.C.Chang. North central China.
*"Forsythia nakaii" (Uyeki) T.B.Lee. Korea.
*"Forsythia ovata" Nakai. Korea.
*"Forsythia suspensa" (Thunb.) Vahl. Eastern and central China.
*"Forsythia togashii" H.Hara. Japan (Shōdoshima).
*"Forsythia viridissima" Lindley. Eastern China.
*"Forsythia 'Northern Gold"' Canada.

Sources:University of Oxford, Oleaceae information site: [http://herbaria.plants.ox.ac.uk/fraxigen/fraxinus/oleaceae/forsythia.html "Forsythia"] ] [ [http://www.northscaping.com/InfoZone/FS-0038/FS-0038.shtml Northscaping Info Zone - Northern Gold Forsythia - Forsythia 'Northern Gold' ] ] [ [http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/opp4058?opendocument Government of Alberta, Agriculture and Rural Development] ]

A genetic studyKim, K.-J. (1999). Molecular phylogeny of Forsythia (Oleaceae) based on chloroplast DNA variation. "P. Syst. Evol". 218: 113-123. [http://www.springerlink.com/content/x30787675n494332/ Abstract] .] does not fully match the traditionally accepted species listed above, and groups the species in four clades: (1) "F. suspensa"; (2) "F. europaea — F. giraldiana"; (3) "F. ovata — F. japonica — F. viridissima"; and (4) "F. koreana — F. mandschurica — F. saxatilis". Of the additional species, "F. koreana" is usually cited as a variety of "F. viridissima", and "F. saxatilis" as a variety of "F. japonica";Germplasm Resources Information Network: [http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/splist.pl?4734 "Forsythia"] ] the genetic evidence suggests they may be better treated as distinct species.

Forsythias are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Brown-tail and The Gothic.

Cultivation and uses

The hybrids "Forsythia × intermedia" ("F. suspensa" × "F. viridissima") and "Forsythia × variabilis" ("F. ovata" × "F. suspensa") have been produced in cultivation.

Forsythias are popular early spring flowering shrubs in gardens and parks. Two are commonly cultivated for ornament, "Forsythia × intermedia" and "Forsythia suspensa". They are both spring flowering shrubs, with yellow flowers. They are grown and prized for being tough, reliable garden plants. "Forsythia × intermedia" is the more commonly grown, is smaller, has an upright habit, and produces strongly coloured flowers. "Forsythia suspensa" is a large to very large shrub, can be grown as a weeping shrub on banks, and has paler flowers. Many named garden cultivars can also be found.

Commercial propagation is usually by cuttings, taken from green wood after flowering in late spring to early summer; alternatively, cuttings may be taken between November and February.

"F. suspensa" (Chinese: ; pinyin: liánqiào) is considered one of the 50 fundamental herbs in Chinese herbology. Forsythia sticks are used to bow a Korean string instrument called "ajaeng".

References

External links

* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/gardening/plants/plant_finder/plant_pages/3306.shtml BBC - Forsythia page]
* [http://www.rhs.org.uk/WhatsOn/gardens/wisley/archive/wisleypom03mar.asp Royal Horticultural Society]
* [http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/species/frame/fovi.htm "Forsythia viridissima" Vanderbilt University - Forsythia page]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Forsythia — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda ? Forsythia Forsythia …   Wikipedia Español

  • Forsythia — Forsythia …   Wikipédia en Français

  • forsythia — [ fɔrsisja ] n. m. • forsythie 1823; lat. bot.; de Forsyth, horticulteur angl. ♦ Arbrisseau (oléacées) à fleurs jaunes décoratives très précoces. ● forsythia nom masculin (de G. Forsyth, nom propre) Arbrisseau (oléacée) rustique à rameaux… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • forsythia — [fôr sith′ē ə, fərsith′ē ə; fôr′sī′thē ə] n. [ModL, after W. Forsyth (1737 1804), Eng botanist] any of a genus (Forsythia) of shrubs of the olive family, having yellow, bell shaped flowers that bloom in early spring …   English World dictionary

  • Forsythia — For*syth i*a, a. [NL. Named after William Forsyth, who brought in from China.] (Bot.) A shrub of the Olive family, with yellow blossoms. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Forsythĭa — Forsythĭa, 1) F. Vahl, Pflanzengattung aus der Familie der Oleaceae Fraxineae; Art: F. suspensa in Japan u. China; 2) F. Walt., Decumaria L., aus der Familie der Philadelpheae …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • forsythia — 1814, coined 1805 in Mod.L. as a genus name in honor of William Forsyth (1737 1804), Scottish horticulturalist who brought the shrub from China. The family name is from Gaelic Fearsithe man of peace …   Etymology dictionary

  • forsythia — ► NOUN ▪ an ornamental shrub whose bright yellow flowers appear in early spring before its leaves. ORIGIN named after the Scottish botanist William Forsyth (1737 1804) …   English terms dictionary

  • Forsythia — Forsythia …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Forsythia — Forsythien Hängende Forsythie (Forsythia suspensa) Systematik Abteilung: Bedecktsamer (Magnoliphyta) …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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