Rites of Zhou


Rites of Zhou

The Rites of Zhou (simplified Chinese: 周礼; traditional Chinese: 周禮; pinyin: Zhōulǐ), also known as Zhouguan, is one of three ancient ritual texts listed among the classics of Confucianism. It was later renamed Zhouli by Liu Xin to differentiate it from a chapter in the Classic of History which was also known as Zhouguan.

Though tradition ascribed the text of the Rites of Zhou to the Duke of Zhou or to its first editor Liu Xin, the work is considered by modern scholars to have been an anonymous utopian construct. For many centuries this book was joined with the Liji "Record of Rites" and the Yili "Etiquette and Rites" as the Three Rites of Chinese literature.

Contents

Compilation

The book appeared in the middle of the 2nd century BC, when it was found and included in the collection of Old Texts (Chinese: 古文经; pinyin: Gǔwén Jīng) in the library of Prince Liu De (劉德) (d. 130 BC), younger brother of Emperor Wu of Han. From at least the Song Dynasty, the book was thought to be the work of its first editor, Liu Xin (劉歆) (ca. 50 BC – 23 AD), librarian and astronomer to the emperor Wang Mang (王莽). Liu Xin was the first known scholar who ascribed the work to the Duke of Zhou (Zhou Gong 周公). In the late 19th and early 20th centuries AD, following the famous scholar Kang Youwei (康有為), the book was often seen as a forgery by Liu Xin. A few holdouts in the scholarly community continue to insist on a Western Zhou date for the classic, but the majority follow Qian Mu (錢穆) and Gu Jiegang (顧頡剛) in assigning The Rites of Zhou to about the 3rd century BC. Present-day scholars, such as Yu Yingshi (余英時), are converging on the late Warring States period as the time of compilation of the book, some basing their hypothesis on a comparison of official titles in the text with extant bronze inscriptions, others on the knowledge of calendars that appears implicit in the text.

The book is divided into six chapters:[1][2]

  1. Offices of the Heaven (Tianguan Zhongzai, 天官冢宰) on government in general;
  2. Offices of Earth (Diguan Situ, 地官司徒) on education;
  3. Offices of Spring (Chunguan Zongbo, 春官宗伯) on social and religious institutions;
  4. Offices of Summer (Xiaguan Sima, 夏官司馬) on the army;
  5. Office of Autumn (Qiuguan Sikou, 秋官司寇) on justice;
  6. Office of Winter (Dongguan Kaogongji, 冬官考工記) on population, territory, and agriculture.

In the 12th century, it was given special recognition by being placed among the Six Classics as a substitute for the long-lost Classic of Music (樂經).

Record of Trades

A part of the Winter Offices, Kaogong ji 考工記 ("Record of Trades") contains important information on technology, architecture, city planning etc. A passage records that 'The master craftsman constructs the state capital. He makes a square nine li on one side; each side has three gates. Within the capital are nine north-south and nine east-west streets. The north-south streets are nine carriage tracks in width'.

Notes

  1. ^ "Zhouli (Chinese ritual text)". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/114736/Zhouli. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 
  2. ^ "Cultural Invigoration - Books". Taipei: National Palace Museum (國立故宮博物院). http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh99/southernsong/en_02.html. Retrieved 25 July 2011. 

References

Literature

  • Nylan, Michael, The Five 'Confucian' Classics, New Haven (Yale University Press), 2001, ISBN 0-300-08185-5, Chapter 4, The Three Rites Canon pp. 168–202.
  • Boltz, William G., 'Chou li' in: Early Chinese Texts. A Biliographical Guide (Loewe, Michael, ed.), pp. 24–32, Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China, 1993, (Early China Special Monograph Series No. 2), ISBN 1-557-29043-1.
  • Karlgren, Bernhard, 'The Early History of the Chou li and Tso chuan Texts' in: Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquites, 3 (1931), pp. 1–59

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Zhou Long — (; b. Beijing, China, July 8, 1953) is a Chinese composer of contemporary classical music.Zhou lived for many years in New York City. He studied composition with Chou Wen chung and Mario Davidovsky at Columbia University, earning his DMA in 1993 …   Wikipedia

  • Zhou occidentaux — Dynastie Zhou Histoire de la Chine Les Trois Augustes et les Cinq Empereurs 2205 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Zhou Dynasty — For other uses, see Zhou Dynasty (disambiguation). Zhou Dynasty 周朝 Kingdom ← …   Wikipedia

  • Zhou Gong — Duc de Zhou Portrait du duc de Zhou, dans le Sancai Tuhui, 1607 Le duc de Zhou (周公旦, zhōu gōng dàn en pinyin) était le frère du roi Wu de Zhou, fondateur de la dynastie Zhou. On ne connait que trois inscriptions d époque faisant référence aux… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Classique Des Rites — Un exemplaire du Li Ji Le Classique des rites, Lijing ou Li King (chinois traditionnel: 禮經; chinois simplifié: 礼经 ; pinyin: Lǐjīng) désigne un ou plusieurs ouvrages attribué(s) aux sages de l’époque Zhou (en particulier le Duc de Zhou),… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Classique des rites — Un exemplaire du Li Ji Le Classique des rites, Lijing ou Li King (chinois traditionnel: 禮經; chinois simplifié: 礼经 ; pinyin: Lǐjīng) désigne un ou plusieurs ouvrages attribué(s) aux sages de l’époque Zhou (en particulier le Duc de Zhou),… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Livre des rites — Classique des rites Un exemplaire du Li Ji Le Classique des rites, Lijing ou Li King (chinois traditionnel: 禮經; chinois simplifié: 礼经 ; pinyin: Lǐjīng) désigne un ou plusieurs ouvrages attribué(s) aux sages de l’époque Zhou (en particulier… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Classic of Rites — The Classic of Rites (simplified Chinese: 礼记; traditional Chinese: 禮記; pinyin: Lǐjì), also known as the Book of Rites, Book of Customs, the Record of Rites, was one of the Chinese Five Classics of the …   Wikipedia

  • Duke of Zhou — Ji Dan Duke of Zhou Portrait of the Duke of Zhou in Sancai Tuhui Issue Boqin, Duke of Lu …   Wikipedia

  • Dynastie Zhou —  Cet article concerne la première dynastie Zhou, durant l Antiquité. Pour la seconde, voir Wu Zetian (VIIe siècle) unique monarque de cette dynastie éphémère. Dynastie Zhou 周朝 (zh) 1045 – 256 …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.