Mato Grosso


Mato Grosso
State of Mato Grosso
—  State  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Location of State of Mato Grosso in Brazil
Coordinates: 15°34′S 56°04′W / 15.567°S 56.067°W / -15.567; -56.067Coordinates: 15°34′S 56°04′W / 15.567°S 56.067°W / -15.567; -56.067
Country  Brazil
Capital and Largest City Cuiabá
Government
 - Governor Silval da Cunha Barbosa
 - Vice Governor
Area
 - Total 903,357 km2 (348,788.1 sq mi)
Area rank 3rd
Population (2010 census)[1]
 - Total 3,033,991
 - Rank 19th
 - Density 3.4/km2 (8.7/sq mi)
 - Density rank 25th
Demonym Mato-grossense
GDP
 - Year 2006 estimate
 - Total R$ 35,284,000,000 (15th)
 - Per capita R$ 12,350 (8th)
HDI
 - Year 2005
 - Category 0.801 – medium (11th)
Time zone BRT-1 (UTC-4)
 - Summer (DST) BRST-1 (UTC-3)
Postal Code 78000-000 to 78890-000
ISO 3166 code BR-MT

Mato Grosso (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈmatu ˈɡɾosu] – lit. "Thick Bushes") is one of the states of Brazil, the third largest in area, located in the western part of the country.[2]

Neighboring states are (from west clockwise) Rondônia, Amazonas, Pará, Tocantins, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul. It also borders Bolivia to the southwest. A state with a flat landscape, alternating great chapadas and plain areas, Mato Grosso presents three different ecosystems: Cerrado, Pantanal and the Amazon Rainforest. The vegetation of the open pasture covers 40% of the state, and the Chapada dos Guimarães National Park, with its caves, grottos, tracks and waterfalls, is one of its great tourist attractions. In the north is the Amazonian forest, with a biodiversity covering half of the state. The Xingu National Park and the Araguaia River are in Mato Grosso. Further south, the Pantanal, the world's largest wetland, is the habitat for almost a thousand species of animals, with many aquatic birds.

Contents

Geography

Véu de Noiva waterfall in Chapada dos Guimarães.

Located in the Mato Grosso is the Chapada dos Guimarães, a unique and beautiful environment made from sandstone mountains and their subsequent erosion. The terrain of the Mato Grosso is varied and includes cliffs, canyons, and beautiful waterfalls.

The biologically rich Pantanal, one of the world's largest wetland/prairie ecosystems, is also located within this state. Much environmental degradation has occurred to the Pantanal within the past few decades, and it shows no sign of stopping anytime soon. The Pantanal can be compared to the Everglades in Florida, as both share much in common, habitat wise, although the Pantanal is of much larger scale.

Guaporé River in Mato Grosso

History

In 1977, the state was split into two halves, with Mato Grosso do Sul becoming a new state. The Bororo Indians live in the Mato Grosso area. As late as 1880, soldiers patrolled lands on the outskirts of Cuiaba, Mato Grosso's capital and largest city, to protect settlers from Bororo raids.

By the end of the 19th century, although severely reduced by disease and by warfare with explorers, slave traders, prospectors, settlers, and other indigenous groups, as many as five to ten thousand Bororo continued to occupy central and eastern Mato Grosso, as well as western Goias.[3] The southwestern part of it was ceded to Bolivia in exchange for Acre, according to Treaty of Petrópolis in 1903.

The historic remoteness of this area led it to be the subject of exploration, most notably by Captain Percy Fawcett, in the quest for lost cities. It was also the rumored location of access to the interior of the earth in various Hollow Earth theories.

Demographics

Rondonópolis at night

According to the IBGE of 2008, 3,010,000 people resided in the state. The population density was 3.2 inh./km².

Urbanization: 76.6% (2006); Population growth: 2.4% (1991–2000); Houses: 836,000 (2006).[4]

The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 1,532,000 Brown (Multiracial) people (50.92%), 1,179,000 White people (39.16%), 239,000 Black people (7.93%), 41,000 Amerindian people (1.37%), 14,000 Asian people (0.45%).[5]

Economy

Agriculture is the largest component of GDP at 40.8%, followed by the service sector at 40.2%. The industrial sector represents 19% of GDP (2004). Mato Grosso exports: soybeans 83%, wood 5.6%, meats 4.8%, and cotton 3.3% (2002).

The state's share of the Brazilian economy is 1.7% (2005).

Interesting facts

Vehicles: 745,810 (March/2007); Mobile phones: 323,000 (April/2007); Telephones: 527,000 (April/2007); Cities: 141 (2007).[6]

Education

Portuguese is the official national language, so is the primary language taught in schools, but English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.

There are more than 58 universities in state of Mato Grosso.[7]

Cuiabá is home to the following universities:

Culture

The Local culture is very rich, due to the influences of and encounters with various cultures, such as Native Americans, the original settlers, the Africans enslaved originally by the Portuguese, and Europeans, beginning with the Portuguese settlers and other European immigrants who arrived later. Two long periods of isolation also contributed to its differentiation, which has been somewhat diluted by recent immigration. Cuiabá has an interesting cuisine influenced by natives, with their typical dances, craftwork, and music.

Dance and music were traditionally connected to the worship of Catholic saints and their festivals, Saint Benedict (the city's patron), being one of the favorite.

Carnaval

The four-day period before Lent leading up to Ash Wednesday, known as carnaval is well celebrated. As with every state in Brazil, Mato Grosso celebrates this holiday in a typical fashion - including parades, music, and dance - with wide participation.

Tourism and recreation

Alta Floresta

Fishing in the Teles Pires, São Benedito and Azul rivers is productive practically all year long.

Bird watching: with the more than 570 species of catalogued birds and new species being discovered every year, the region of Alta Floresta, Cristalino and Azul River Basin receives constant visits from famous ornithologists and bird watchers.

Chapada dos Guimarães

The largest sandstone cavern in Brazil, Aroe Jari, extends nearly 1550 meters and several prehistoric inscriptions can be found inside.

North Pantanal

The Pantanal's backbone is the Paraguay River, which cuts through the region from north to south. The Miranda, Aquidauna, Taquari and Cuiaba rivers flow into the Paraguay River. From October to April, the high waters reveal outsized lakes, bays, river branches and outlets.

The Transpantaneira Highway connects the town of Pocone to Jofre Port, along the Cuiaba River bank. It is a dirt road with 126 wooden bridges, and extends for 149 km. On the way, it is possible to observe wild animals, especially alligators, capybaras and birds, among other wild animals.

SESC's Private Natural Heritage Reserve (RPPN) increases by one-third the total area of this preserved ecosystem in the State of Mato Grosso.

Over 160 different species of birds have been observed in the Pantanal, and still many species in the area have not yet been identified.

Infrastructure

International Airport

BR-163-364-070 in Mato Grosso.

The runway at Marechal Rondon International Airport was opened to traffic in 1956. In February 1975, Infraero took over the airport's administration and began various upgrades to meet the needs of the airport complex.

As of 1996, Marechal Rondon International Airport, located 10 km (6.21 mi) from the city center, started receiving international flights. Currently, it serves more than half a million passengers a year.

Highways

  • BR-070;
  • BR-173;
  • BR-174;
  • BR-158;
  • BR-163;
  • BR-197;
  • BR-242;
  • BR-252;
  • BR-364;
  • MT-100;
  • MT-358;
  • MILF-69

Sports

Cuiabá is one of 12 cities chosen to host games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, which will happen in Brazil.

Flag

The flag has the same colors as the national flag, with blue symbolizing the sky, green the vegetation, and white standing for peace. The star is yellow to symbolize the gold, which attracted the first settlers. The flag was adopted by Decree No. 2 of January 31, 1890, just few days after the adoption of the national flag. The Mato Grosso state flag was abolished by Law No. 1.046 of October 8, 1929, but reinstated by article 140 of the Constitution of the State of Mato Grosso on July 11, 1947.

References

  1. ^ Censo 2010: população do Brasil é de 190.732.694 pessoas
  2. ^ Note: also once spelled "Matto Grosso". The town of Matto Grosso was formerly called Villa Bella." Source: Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon, vol.2, by Lieut. USN. Lardner Gibbon 1853; chapter 11. p. 275)
  3. ^ Myths of pacification: Brazilian frontier settlement and the subjugation of the Bororo Indians.
  4. ^ Source: PNAD.
  5. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF). Mato Grosso, Brazil: IBGE. 2008. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. http://www.sidra.ibge.gov.br/bda/tabela/listabl.asp?z=pnad&o=3&i=P&c=262. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  6. ^ Source: IBGE.
  7. ^ Universidades no Mato Grosso

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mato Grosso — Symbole …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mato Grosso —   [ matu grosu], Binnenstaat Brasiliens, grenzt im Südwesten an Bolivien, 906 807 km2, (1996) 2,23 Mio. Einwohner; Hauptstadt ist Cuiabá. Mato Grosso liegt im Brasilianischen Bergland, im Bereich der Wasserscheide zwischen Amazonas und Paraguay ( …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Mato Grosso — es un estado brasileño localizado al oeste de la región Centro Oeste. Tiene como límites: Amazonas, Pará (N); Tocantins, Goiás (L); Mato Grosso do Sul (S); Rondônia y Bolívia (O). Ocupa una superficie de 906.806,9km2. La capital es …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Mato Grosso — (»dichter Wald«), Staat Brasiliens (s. Karte »Brasilien«), zwischen 7°30 –24°10 südl. Br. und 47°35 –65°10 westl. L., grenzt im N. an Amazonas und Para, im O. an Goyaz, im San São Paulo, Parana und den Staat Paraguay, im W. an Bolivia. Das noch… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Mato Grosso — /ˌmatoʊ ˈgrɒsoʊ/ (say .mahtoh grosoh) noun 1. a plateau, a western extension of the plateau of southern Brazil, which separates the basins of the Amazon and River Plate; covered by extensive campos at a height of 122 to 915 m. 2. a state in… …   Australian English dictionary

  • Mato Grosso — Mato Grosso, Staat von Brasilien, 1.379.651 qkm, (1890) 92.827 E.; Hauptort Cuyabá …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Mato Grosso — état du Brésil, limitrophe de la Bolivie et du Paraguay; 881 001 km²; 1 660 000 hab.; cap. Cuiabá. C est un vaste plateau semi désertique, voué à l élevage extensif. Le sous sol contient du manganèse …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Mato Grosso — [mät′oo grō̂′soo] state of WC Brazil: 350,120 sq mi (906,807 sq km); pop. 2,027,000; cap. Cuiabá …   English World dictionary

  • Mato Grosso — 15° 34′ 00″ S 56° 04′ 00″ W / 15.56666667, 56.06666667 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mato Grosso — Estado de Mato Grosso Estado de Brasil …   Wikipedia Español


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