Stenotrophomonas maltophilia


Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Taxobox
color = lightgrey
name = "Stenotrophomonas maltophilia"
regnum = Bacteria
phylum = Proteobacteria
classis = Gamma Proteobacteria
ordo = Xanthomonadales
familia = Xanthomonadaceae
genus = "Stenotrophomonas"
species = "S. maltophilia"
binomial = "Stenotrophomonas maltophilia"
binomial_authority = Palleroni & Bradbury 1993
synonyms = "Pseudomonas maltophilia" ("ex" Hugh and Ryschenkow 1961) Hugh 1981
"Xanthomonas maltophilia" (Hugh 1981) Swings "et al". 1983
"Pseudomonas hibiscicola" Moniz 1963
"Pseudomonas beteli" corrig. (Ragunathan 1928) Savulescu 1947

"Stenotrophomonas maltophilia" is an aerobic, nonfermentative, Gram-negative bacterium which cause uncommon but difficult to treat infections in humans.cite book | author = Gilligan PH, Lum G, VanDamme PAR, Whittier S | title = Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas, Ralstonia, Brevundimonas, Comamonas, Delftia, Pandoraea, and Acidivorax. "In:" Manual of Clinical Microbiology (Murray PR, Baron EJ, Jorgensen JH "et al.", Eds)| edition = 8th ed | pages = p729–748 | publisher = ASM Press, Washington, DC | year = 2003 | id = ISBN 1555812554 ] Initially classified as "Pseudomonas maltophilia", "S. maltophilia" was also grouped in the genus "Xanthomonas" before eventually becoming the type species of the genus "Stenotrophomonas" in 1993.cite journal |author=Denton M, Kerr K |title=Microbiological and clinical aspects of infection associated with "Stenotrophomonas maltophilia" |journal=Clin Microbiol Rev |volume=11 |issue=1 |pages=57–80 |year=1998 |url=http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/content/full/11/1/57 |pmid=9457429] cite journal |author=Palleroni N, Bradbury J |title="Stenotrophomonas", a new bacterial genus for "Xanthomonas maltophilia" (Hugh 1980) Swings et al. 1983 |journal=Int J Syst Bacteriol |volume=43 |issue=3 |pages=606–9 |year=1993 |pmid=8347518]

"S. maltophilia" are slightly smaller (0.7-1.8 x 0.4-0.7 μm) than other members of the genus. They are motile due to polar flagella and grow well on MacConkey agar producing pigmented colonies. "S. maltophilia" are catalase positive, oxidase negative (which distinguishes them from most other members of the genus) and have a positive reaction for extracellular DNase.

"S. maltophilia" is ubiquitous in aqueous environments, soil and plants, including water, urine, or respiratory secretions; it has also been used in biotechnology applications.cite journal |author=Berg G, Roskot N, Smalla K |title=Genotypic and phenotypic relationships between clinical and environmental isolates of "Stenotrophomonas maltophilia" |journal=J Clin Microbiol |volume=37 |issue=11 |pages=3594–600 |year=1999 |pmid=10523559] In immunocompromised patients, "S. maltophilia" can lead to nosocomial infections.

Pathogenesis

"S. maltophilia" frequently colonizes breathing tubes such as endotracheal or tracheostomy tubes, the respiratory tract and indwelling urinary catheters. Infection is usually facilitated by the presence of prosthetic material (plastic or metal), and the most effective treatment is removal of the prosthetic material (usually a central venous catheter or similar device). The growth of "S. maltophilia" in microbiological cultures of respiratory or urinary specimens is therefore sometimes difficult to interpret and not a proof of infection. If, however, it is grown from sites which would be normally sterile (e.g., blood), then it usually represents true infection.

In immunocompetent individuals, "S. maltophilia" is a relatively unusual cause of pneumonia, urinary tract infection, or blood stream infection; in immunocompromised patients, however, "S. maltophilia" is a growing source of latent pulmonary infections.cite journal |author=McGowan J |title=Resistance in nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria: multidrug resistance to the maximum |journal=Am J Med |volume=119 |issue=6 Suppl 1 |pages=S29–36; discussion S62–70 |year=2006 |pmid=16735148 |doi=10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.03.014] "S. maltophilia" colonization rates in individuals with cystic fibrosis have been increasing. [cite journal |author=Waters V, Gómez M, Soong G, Amin S, Ernst R, Prince A |title=Immunostimulatory properties of the emerging pathogen "Stenotrophomonas maltophilia" (Epub ahead of print) |journal=Infect Immun |volume= 75|issue= |pages= 1698|year= 2007 |pmid=17220304 |doi=10.1128/IAI.01469-06]

In UK in 2006 there were about 1000 recorded cases with 300 fatalities (30%).

"S. maltophilia" is naturally resistant to many broad-spectrum antibiotics (including all carbapenems) and is thus often difficult to eradicate. Many strains of "S. maltophilia" are sensitive to co-trimoxazole and ticarcillin, though resistance has been increasing.cite journal |author=Al-Jasser A |title="Stenotrophomonas maltophilia" resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: an increasing problem |journal=Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob |volume=5 |issue= |pages=23 |year= 2006 |pmid=16978420 |doi=10.1186/1476-0711-5-23] It is not usually sensitive to piperacillin, and sensitivity to ceftazidime is variable.

References

External links

* [http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3457.htm "Stenotrophomonas maltophilia" article] at eMedicine.
* [http://www.bacterio.cict.fr/s/stenotrophomonas.html The genus "Stenotrophomonas"]
* [http://www.genomesonline.org/search.cgi?colcol=all&goldstamp=ALL&gen_type=ALL&org_name1=genus&gensp=Stenotrophomonas&org_domain=ALL&org_status=ALL&size2=ALL&org_size=Kb&gen_gc=ALL&phylogeny2=ALL&gen_institution=ALL&gen_funding=ALL&gen_data=ALL&cont=ALL&gen_country=ALL&gen_pheno=ALL&gen_eco=ALL&gen_disease=ALL&gen_relevance=ALL&gen_avail=ALL&selection=submit+search Stenotrophomonas Genome Projects] from [http://www.genomesonline.org Genomes OnLine Database]
* [http://www.cysticfibrosismedicine.com/htmldocs/CFText/stenotr.htm] Relevance to Cystic Fibrosis
* [http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/50/5/758.pdf Effect of different antibiotics eg minocycline, Tigecycline; ] JAC 2002 correspondence


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