- Invasion and occupation of the Andaman Islands during World War II
Andaman and NicobarIslands (8,293 km² on 139 islands), are a group of islands situated in the Bay of Bengalat about 780 miles from Kolkata, 740 miles from Chennaiand 120 miles from Cape Nargisin Burma. Until 1938 the British government used them as a penal colony for Indian and Africanpolitical prisoners, who were mainly put in the notorious Cellular Jailin Port Blair, the biggest town (port) on the islands. Today they form a Union Territoryof India.
The only military objective on the islands was the city of Port Blair. The garrison consisted of a 300 man Sikh militia with 23 British officers, augmented in January 1942 by a
Gurkhadetachment of 4/12 Frontier Force Regiment of the 16th Brigade. Following the fall of Rangoonon March 8, however, the British recognized that Port Blair had become impossible to defend, and on March 10 the Gurkhas were withdrawn to the Arakanpeninsula.
The Invasion Force
The Japanese, seeking to secure their seaward flank, dispatched a force to seize the islands on March 23. The force was composed of the following units and ships:
:Distant Cover: ::*Cruiser (flagship)
Chokai:Carrier Division 4: ::*Carrier Ryujo(although listed, she did not conduct air operations):Cruiser Division 7: ::*Heavy cruisers- Kumano, Suzuya, Mikuma, Mogami:Destroyer Division 11:::*Destroyers- Fubuki, Hatsuyuki, Shirayuki, Murakami:Close Cover::Destroyer Squadron 3::*Light cruiser Sendai:Destroyer Division 19::*Destroyers-Isonami, Uranami, Ayanami:Destroyer Division 20:::*Destroyers- Amagiri, Asagiri, Yugiri, Shirakumo:Invasion Force::Escort Unit #1::*Light cruiser Yura:Japanese Invasion force::*9 Transports ::*1 Battalion/18th Infantry Division:*9th Base Force::*Training cruiser Kashii::*Escort ship Shumushu::*Minelayer Hatsutaka::*Converted gunboat Eiko Maru:Minesweeper Division 1 ::*Minesweepers W1, W3, W4:Special Minesweeper Division 91::*Minesweepers- Choko Maru, Shonan Maru #7, Shonan Maru #5:Air Unit::*Seaplane tender Sagara Maru (operated east of the Nicobars)
The Sikh militia offered no resistance to the landings, and were disarmed and interned; many of them later enlisted in the
Indian National Army. The British militia officers were sent to Singapore as POWs, whilst Chief Commissioner Waterfall, Deputy Commissioner Major A.G. Bird and the other British administrative officers were imprisoned. Port Blair was occupied on the 23rd. Initially the Japanese released the prisoners held in the Cellular Jail (which had not been used for political prisoners since 1938), one of whom, Pushkar Bagchi, became their principal collaborator. The islands were put under the authority of Colonel Bucho, whilst a number of junior Indian officials in the administration were elevated to more responsible posts. The defence of the islands was assigned to the newly formed fighter squadron of the Kanoya Kokutaibased at Tavoyin southern Burma. This fighter squadron was the former " Yamada Unit" under the control of the 22d Koku Sentai, then based at Penang. Six flying boats from the Toko Kokutaiwere dispatched on March 26, with twelve more arriving shortly thereafter. Within the islands a Japanese garrison of approximately 600 men, together with the police force, now under Japanese control, were responsible for maintaining order.
'Japanese Army Personnel in Andaman and Nicobar'
Yoshisuke Inoue: Commanding Officer 35th Independent Mixed Brigade, Andaman Islands
Toshio Itsuki: Commanding Officer 36th Independent Mixed Brigade, Nicobar Islands
Hideo Iwakuro: Japanese Liaison Officer to Indian National Army
Saburo Isoda: Japanese Liaison Officer to Indian National Army
The events of the next three years are not easy to establish, as the Japanese destroyed all records when they left. The principal sources are an unpublished report by local resident Rama Krishna: "The Andaman Islands under Japanese Occupation 1942-5", another unpublished account by a British Officer, D. McCarthy: "The Andaman Interlude" (he was sent on a secret mission to the islands in 1944), together with the memories of the older inhabitants interviewed by historians. All these, and the published works which draw upon them, are in agreement that the occupation saw numerous atrocities committed by the Japanese against the local population [ N. Iqbal Singh "The Andaman Story" (Delhi: Vikas Publ.) 1978; Jayant Dasgupta "Japanese in Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Red Sun over Black Water" (Delhi: Manas Publications) 2002 pp42, 88-91; L.P. Mathur "Kala Pani. History of the Andaman & Nicobar Islands with a study of India's Freedom Struggle" (Delhi: Eastern Book Corporation) 1985 pp247-255 ] .
The first victim of the occupation came on the fourth day after the Japanese landings. Angered by soldiers who had pursued some chickens into his house, a young man called Zulfiqar Ali fired an airgun at them. No-one was hurt, but he was forced into hiding. After twenty-four hours he was captured and marched to the "maidan" in front of the Browning Club. Here his arms were twisted until they broke, and he was then shot. A cement memorial now stands on the spot [ Dasgupta "Red Sun over Black Water" pp44-5 ] . In the early days of the occupation local intellectuals (mostly officials and doctors) were encouraged to join
Rash Behari Bose's Indian Independence League, and a 'Peace Committee' was formed from its members, headed by Dr. Diwan Singh. Over the next few months they did what they could to mitigate the suffering of the population at the hands of the Japanese, but to little avail: indeed, many of them would later fall victim themselves. In any case, there was little any of them could have done to save Major A.G. Bird, who had not been sent to Rangoonor Singaporelike the other British captives, and of whom the Japanese were determined to make an example. Pushkar Bagchi persuaded a fellow convict, Sarup Ram, to bear witness at Bird's 'trial' that he had been spying (wireless parts had been planted in the house where he was imprisoned). It has been suggested that Bagchi had a grudge against Bird for having given him a six-month sentence for theft before the Japanese invasion.Fact|date=July 2007 According to eyewitnesses Bird, a popular man known as "Chirrie" ('Bird' in Hindi) had his arms and legs twisted and broken, and was then beheaded by Colonel Bucho with his sword [ Dasgupta "Red Sun over Black Water" pp50-1; Mathur "Kala Pani" p248; Iqbal Singh "The Andaman Story" pp241-2 ] .
Meanwhile, local women were being 'recruited' by Bagchi to act as "
comfort women" for the Japanese garrison,Fact|date=July 2007 although discontent meant that subsequently Korean and Malay women were brought in instead. Forced labour was used to build a new airport, and in October 1942 mass arrests of 'spies' took place, with 300 people being confined in the Cellular Jail, where some were tortured. Of these seven were shot, including Narayan Rao, who had been Superintendent of Police under Japanese auspices, Itter Singh, the Deputy Superintendent, Subedar Sube Singh of the Militay Police and Dr. Surinder Nag. Realising that the Japanese were targeting influential members of the population, the members of the Indian Independence League grew increasingly nervous, and ceased to engage in much nationalist activity [ Dasgupta "Red Sun over Black Water" pp52-60 ] . In 1943 a second reign of terror was unleashed by the new commander of the garrison, Colonel Jochi Renusakai, & Chief of Police Mitsubashi, both of whom had served at Nanking. 600 people were arrested and tortured, including Dr. Diwan Singh, who died as a result of his injuries. At this stage the Japanese decided that Bagchi was no longer useful, and he was imprisoned [ Dasgupta "Red Sun over Black Water" pp63-7 ] .
Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind
On December 29, 1943, political control of the islands was theoretically passed to the
Azad Hindgovernment of Subhas Chandra Bose. Bose visited Port Blairto raise the tricolour flag of the Indian National Army. During this, his only visit to the Andamans, he was kept carefully screened from the local population by the Japanese authorities. Various attempts were made to inform him of the sufferings of the people of the Andamans, and the fact that many local Indian Nationalists were at that time being tortured in the Cellular Jail. Bose does not seem to have been aware of this, and the judgment of some is that he "failed his people" [ Iqbal Singh "The Andaman Story" p249 ] . After Bose's departure the Japanese remained in effective control of the Andamans, and the sovereignty of the "Arzi Hukumat-e Hind" was largely fictional [ C.A. Bayly & T. Harper "Forgotten Armies. The Fall of British Asia 1941-5" (London) 2004 p325 ] . The islands themselves were renamed "Shaheed" and "Swaraj", meaning "martyr" and "self-rule" respectively. Bose appointed General Loganathan as the governor of the islands, and had limited involvement with the administration of the territory. During his interrogation after the war Loganathan admitted that he had only had full control over the islands' vestigial education department, as the Japanese had retained control over the police force, and in protest he had refused to accept responsibility for any other areas of Government. He was powerless to prevent the worst Japanese atrocity of the occupation, the Homfreyganj massacre of the 30th January 1944, where forty-four Indian civilians were shot by the Japanese on suspicion of spying. Many of them were members of the Indian Independence League[ Dasgupta "Red Sun over Black Water" pp67, 87, 91-5; Mathur "Kala Pani" pp249-51 ] . Notionally this government continued to administer the islands, which were almost the only territory it ever acquired, until the British retook them in 1945, but in practice little had changed.
The last year
As food became scarcer in 1945, the Japanese resorted to ever more desperate measures. Between 250 and 700 people (estimates vary) from the Aberdeen area of South Andaman were deported to an uninhabited island to grow food. According to a survivor, a released convict called Saudagar Ali, at least half drowned or were eaten by sharks as they were pushed out of boats in the dark, whilst the remainder either died of starvation or were killed by Burmese pirates. A rescue mission sent to the island after the end of the occupation found just twelve survivors, and over a hundred skeletons on the beach. In all, approximately 2,000 people in the Andamans are thought to have died as a result of the occupation, and at least 501 were tortured by the Japanese. The former figure represents 10% of the pre-war population of Port Blair. Casualties on the more sparsely-populated Nicobar islands were fewer, as the Japanese did not have a garrison there, although in 1943 they created a brief reign of terror on Car Nicobar as they rounded up forced labour amongst the Nicobarese. The occupation left a legacy of lasting bitterness towards the Japanese, and to some extent towards their collaborators in the "Arzi-Hukumat-e Azad Hind", amongst the generation which experienced it. [ Dasgupta "Red Sun over Black Water" pp101, 131, 133; Mathur "Kala Pani" pp254-5 ]
Cocos Islands Mutiny
India in World War II
last = Gill
first = G. Hermon
year = 1968
url = http://www.awm.gov.au/histories/chapter.asp?volume=25
title = Volume II – Royal Australian Navy, 1942–1945
Australia in the War of 1939–1945
location = Canberra
Australian War Memorial
accessdate = 2006-11-20
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