- Pope John Paul I
English name=John Paul I
term_start=August 26, 1978
term_end=September 28, 1978
successor=John Paul II
Canale d'Agordo, Italy
death_date=death date and age|df=yes|1978|9|28|1912|10|17
Apostolic Palace, Vatican City
Pope John Paul I (
Latin: "Ioannes Paulus PP. I", Italian: "Giovanni Paolo I"), born Albino Luciani, ( October 17 1912— September 28 1978), reigned as Popeof the Roman Catholic Churchand as Sovereign of Vatican Cityfrom 26 August 1978 until his death 33 days later. His reign is among the shortest in papal history, resulting in the most recent Year of Three Popes.
Albino Luciani was born on
October 17 1912in Forno di Canale (now Canale d'Agordo) in Belluno, a provinceof the Venetoregion in northern Italy. He was the son of Giovanni Luciani (1872? - 1952), a bricklayer, and Bortola Tancon (1879? - 1948). Albino was followed by two brothers, Federico (1915 - 1916) and Edoardo (1917 - 2008), and a sister, Antonia (b. 1920).
Luciani entered the
minor seminaryof Feltrein 1923, where his teachers found him "too lively", and later went on to the major seminary of Belluno. During his stay at Belluno, he attempted to join the Jesuits but was denied by the seminary's rector, Bishop Giosuè Cattarossi. Ordained a priest on 7 July 1935, Luciani then served as a curatein his native Forno de Canale before becoming a professorand the vice-rector of the Belluno seminary in 1937. Among the different subjects, he taught dogmatic and moral theology, canon law, and sacred art.
In 1941 Luciani began to seek a doctorate in theology from the
Pontifical Gregorian University, which required at least one year's attendance in Rome. However, the seminary's superiors wanted him to continue teaching during his doctoral studies; the situation was resolved by a special dispensationof Pope Pius XIIhimself, on 27 March 1941. His thesis("The origin of the human soul according to Antonio Rosmini") largely attacked Rosmini's theology, and earned him his doctorate "magna cum laude".
In 1947, he was named
vicar generalto Bishop Girolamo Bortignon, OFM Cap, of Belluno. Two years later, in 1949, he was placed in charge of diocesan catechetics. On 15 December 1958, Luciani was appointed Bishop of Vittorio Venetoby Pope John XXIII. He received his episcopal consecration on the following 27 December from Pope John himself, with Bishops Bortignon and Gioacchino Muccinserving as co-consecrators. As a bishop, he participated in all the sessions of the Second Vatican Council(1962-1965). On 15 December 1969, he was appointed Patriarch of Veniceby Pope Paul VIand took possession of the archdiocese on 3 February 1970. Pope Paul created Luciani Cardinal-Priest of "S. Marco" in the consistoryof 5 March 1973. Catholics were struck by his humility, a prime example being his embarrassment when Paul VI once removed his papal stoleand put it on Patriarch Luciani. He recalls the occasion in his first Angelus thus:cite web | title = FIRST ANGELUS ADDRESS, Pope John Paul I | publisher = Eternal Word Television Network | url = http://www.ewtn.com/library/PAPALDOC/jp1angad.htm | accessdate=2008-08-01]
Luciani was elected on the fourth ballot of the August 1978
papal conclave. He chose the regnal nameof "John Paul," the first double name in the history of the papacy, explaining in his famous Angelusthat he took it as a thankful honour to his two immediate predecessors: John XXIII, who had named him a bishop, and Paul VI, who had named him Patriarch of Venice and a cardinal. He was also the first (and so far only) pope to use "the first" in his regnal name. In Italyhe is remembered with the affectionate appellatives of "Il Papa del Sorriso" ("The Smiling Pope") and "Il Sorriso di Dio" (" God's Smile").
Observers have suggested that his selection was linked to the rumored divisions between rival camps within the
College of Cardinals:
* Conservatives and Curialists supporting
Giuseppe Cardinal Siri, who favored a more conservative interpretation or even correction of Vatican II's reforms.
* Those who favored a more liberal interpretation of Vatican II's reforms, and some Italian cardinals supporting
Giovanni Cardinal Benelli, who was opposed because of his "autocratic" tendencies.
* The dwindling band of supporters of
Sergio Cardinal Pignedoli, who was allegedly so confident that he was papabilethat he went on a crash dietto fit the right size of white cassockwhen elected.Fact|date=April 2008
Outside the Italians, now themselves a lessening influence within the increasingly internationalist
College of Cardinals, were figures like Cardinal Karol Wojtyła. Over the days following the conclave, cardinals effectively declared that with general great joy they had elected " God's candidate". Argentine Eduardo Cardinal Pironiostated that, "We were witnesses of a moral miracle." And later, Mother Teresacommented: "He has been the greatest gift of God, a sunray of God's love shining in the darkness of the world."
Long conclave predicted
Many, including the cardinals, expected a long conclave, deadlocked between the camps. Luciani was an easy compromise. He was a pastor more in the spirit of Vatican II than an austere intellectual, a man with few autocratic pretensions and so less unwelcome to some than
Giovanni Cardinal Benelli. And for Italian cardinals, determined not to "lose" the papacy to a non-Italian for the first time in centuries and faced with other controversial Italian candidates, Luciani was an Italian with no baggage. He had no enemies created through a high profile career in the Curia, made no controversial or radical statements or sermons and was just a smiling gentleman, a pastor.
Even before the conclave began, journalists covering it for
Vatican Radionoted increasing mention of his name, often from cardinals who barely knew him but wanted to find out more; not least, "What is the state of the man's health?" Had they known just how precarious his health was (his feet were so swollen he could not wear the shoes bought for him by his family for the conclave) they might have looked elsewhere for Paul VI's successor. Hence, to his own horror and disbelief, he was elected to the papacy. The surprise of his election is captured in his official portrait, his hair is clumsily brushed back, because unlike papabili cardinals who expect their election, he had not had his hair cut for the conclave. When he was asked if he accepted his election, he stated "May God forgive you for what you have done in my regard." ["L'Osservatore Romano "27 August 1978.""] Moments later, hesitating, he said: "I accept".
Vincent Browne's claim
The belief that Luciani's election was a decision not made until during the conclave was challenged by senior Irish journalist
Vincent Browne, who in 2005 revealed that he had been told by a senior Vatican source, whom he declined to name, that a number of cardinals had already decided informally amongst themselves to elect Luciani pope (though Luciani himself was unaware of it) during the sede vacanteperiod between Pope Paul VI's death and the conclave. The source told him to expect a quick election. Browne recounted discussing this with sociologist and priest Father Andrew Greeley, who dismissed the claim, the idea of a short conclave and Luciani's chances of election. Their discussion was cut short by the crowd reacting to the traditional white smoke issuing from the Sistine Chapel's chimney, the conclusion of what indeed had turned out to be an abnormally short conclave. To Greeley's visible astonishment Luciani was announced as the new pope.
The smiling pope
papal name=Pope John Paul I
Servant of God|After his election, John Paul quickly made several decisions that would "humanise" the office of pope, admitting publicly he had turned scarlet when Paul VI had named him the patriarch of Venice. He was the first modern pope to speak in the singular form, using 'I' instead of the royal "we", though the official records of his speeches were often rewritten in more formal style by traditionalist aides, who reinstated the royal "we" in press releases and in " L'Osservatore Romano." He was the first to refuse the " sedia gestatoria" until Vatican pressure convinced him of its need, in order to allow the faithful to see him.
John Paul was the first pope to admit that the prospect of the papacy had daunted him to the point that other cardinals had to encourage him to accept it. He strongly suggested to his aides and staff that he believed he was unfit to be pope. Though Pope Paul VI's
Apostolic Constitution"Romano Pontifici Eligendo" explicitly required that John Paul be crowned, he controversially refused to have the millennium-old traditional Papal Coronationand wear the Papal Tiara. ["Romano Pontifici Eligendo" (1975) [http://www.ewtn.com/library/PAPALDOC/P6ELECT.HTMPope Paul VI's Apostolic Constitution on the election on the pontiff, Section 92.] ] He instead chose to have a simplified Papal Inauguration Mass. John Paul I used as his motto"Humilitas". In his notable Angelus of August 27, delivered on the first day of his papacy, he impressed the world with his [http://www.albino-luciani.com/audio/angelus.wav natural friendliness] .
New Pope, new rules
As a theologian, he was expected to be an interim pastor who would make few if any major changes. However, he did meet with representatives of the
United Nationsto discuss the issue of overpopulationin the Third World, a controversial issue in light of the Church's anti-contraceptive stance.
John Paul I intended to prepare an
encyclicalin order to confirm the lines of the Second Vatican Council("an extraordinary long-range historical event and of growth for the Church", he said) and to enforce the Church's discipline in the life of priests and the faithful. In discipline, he was a reformist, instead, and was the author of initiatives such as the devolutionof one per cent of each church's entries for the poor churches in the Third World. The visit of Jorge Rafael Videla, presidentof the Argentine junta, to the Vatican caused considerable controversy, especially when the Pope reminded Videla about human rights violations taking place in Argentina during the so-called Dirty War.
John Paul impressed people by his personal warmth. There are reports that within the Vatican he was seen as an intellectual lightweight not up to the responsibilities of the papacy, although David Yallop ("In God's Name") says that this is the result of a whispering campaign by people in the Vatican who were opposed to Luciani's policies. In the words of John Cornwell, "they treated him with condescension"; one senior cleric discussing Luciani said "they have elected
Peter Sellers". [ [http://www.stanleyhero.com/history/History-of-the-Popes/History-of-the-Popes_9.php] ] Critics contrasted his sermons mentioning " Pinocchio" to the learned intellectual discourses of Pius XII or Paul VI. Visitors spoke of his isolation and loneliness, and the fact that he was the first pope in decades not to have had either a diplomatic (such as Pius XI and John XXIII) or Curial role in the Church (such as Pius XIIand Paul VI).
David Yallop ("In God's Name", p. 267-269) says repeatedly that Luciani was a highly capable person, fluent in six different languages, who was respected for his intelligence; if he chose simple words (such as the sermon that mentioned Pinocchio), he did this to communicate well to a wide audience. Yallop says that many in the Vatican were opposed to Luciani, and depicted him in their comments as being too simple. By contrast, he recounts two specific incidents from this short papacy:
"Foreign Minister Casaroli came to the Pope with seven questions concerning the Church's relationship with various Eastern European countries, Luciani promptly gave him answers on five of them and asked for a little time to consider the other two.... Casaroli returned to his office and told a colleague what had occurred. The priest enquired: "Were they the correct solutions?""In my view, totally. It would have taken me a year to get those responses from [Pope Paul VI] ."
Yallop also talks about Cardinal Gabriel-Marie Garrone's discussion with Luciani about a document (Sapienta Christiana) that the curia had been preparing and revising for 16 years:
" [Luciani] told Garrone that he had spent most of the previous day studying the document. Then without referring to a copy of it he began to discuss it at length and in great detail. Garrone sat astonished at the Pope's grasp and understanding of such a highly complex document. ... Returning to his office [Garrone] remarked 'I have just met a great Pope.'"
John Paul I was found dead sitting up in his bed shortly before dawn on September 29, 1978, just 33 days into his papacy. The Vatican reported that the 65-year old Pope most likely died the previous night of a
myocardial infarction. However, a degree of uncertainty accompanies this diagnosis since an autopsy was not performed. This uncertainty, coupled with inconsistent statements made following the Pope's death, has led to a number of conspiracy theories concerning his death. These statements concern who found the Pope's body, at what time he was found, and what papers the Pope had in his hand.
Immediately following the Pope's death, rumours began. One rumour claimed that a visiting prelate, Nikodim, had recently died from drinking "
poisoned coffee" prepared for the pope. A visiting prelate actually had died some days earlier, but there was no evidence of any poison. Another unsubstantiated rumour described the Pope's plans to dismiss senior Vatican officials over allegations of corruption. The suddenness of his embalming raised suspicions that it had been done to prevent an autopsy. The Vatican insisted that a papal autopsy was prohibited under Vatican law. However, one source (the diary of Agostino Chigi) reports that an autopsy was carried out on the remains of Pope Pius VIIIin 1830. Nevertheless, suspicions persist to this day, particularly given the sweeping changes to Vatican personnel this Pope had already penned, along with the Mafia-riddled Italy of the time, and the number of subsequent murders of officials investigating the Vatican Bankalong with its associates. [See the article and list of further events after his death at [http://www.prose-n-poetry.com/display_work/10583/ The Mysterious Death of Pope John Paul I (A Treatise)] . Some other books about his death include In God's Name (Andrew Yallop) and Murder in the Vatican (Lucien Gregoire) that make the case for murder; while "A Thief in the Night: Life and Death in the Vatican" (John Cornwell) argues that he died of disease, and showed clear symptoms in his last few days.]
On November 11, 2006, the first part of his
beatificationprocess concluded at the Bellunocathedral.
Legacy of Pope John Paul I
Pope John Paul I was not in office long enough to make any major practical changes within the Vatican or the Roman Catholic Church (except for his abandonment of the
Papal Coronation). His impact was twofold: his image as a warm, gentle, kind man captivated the world. This image was immediately formed when he was presented to the crowd in St. Peter's Square following his election. The warmth of his presence made him a much-loved figure before he even spoke a word. The media in particular fell under his spell. He was a skilled orator. Whereas Pope Paul VI spoke as if delivering a doctoral thesis, John Paul I produced warmth, laughter, a 'feel good factor', and plenty of media-friendly sound bites. Secondly, the manner of his death raised many questions about the conduct of senior Vatican figures. Even among those who dismiss conspiracy theories, there are some that admit that the Vatican mishandled the circumstances of his death. For others, the suspicion remains that the 'smiling pope', who charmed the world, died in a manner that has yet to be explained adequately.
He was regarded as a skilled communicator and writer, and has left behind some writings. His book "
Illustrissimi," written while he was a Cardinal, is a series of letters to a wide collection of historical and fictional persons. Among those still available are his letters to [http://www.papaluciani.com/eng/teachings/letters/illustrious/gesu2.htm Jesus Christ] , the Biblical [http://www.papaluciani.com/eng/teachings/letters/illustrious/david2.htm King David] , [http://www.papaluciani.com/eng/teachings/letters/illustrious/figaro2.htm Figaro the Barber] , [http://www.papaluciani.com/eng/teachings/letters/illustrious/mariateresa2.htm Marie Theresa of Austria] and [http://www.papaluciani.com/eng/teachings/letters/illustrious/pinocchio2.htm Pinocchio] . Others 'written to' included Mark Twain, Charles Dickensand Christopher Marlowe. He is also remembered for being the first to refuse the traditional papal coronation. Instead, he chose an "investiture" to commence his brief papacy. One of his remarks, reported in the press, was that we should see God not only as Father, but also as Mother. This remark reinforced the image of a pastoral pope.
A number of campaigns have been started to canonize Pope John Paul I.
Miracles have been attributed to him. On June 10, 2003 the Vatican's Congregation for the Causes of Saintsgave its permission for the opening of the beatificationprocess of Pope John Paul I, Servant of God. The "diocesan phase" of this process began in Belluno on November 23, 2003; a miracle has already been alleged, of an Italian man cured of cancer.
John Paul II on his predecessor
Karol Józef Cardinal Wojtyła was elected to succeed John Paul I as Supreme Pontiff on Monday, October 16, 1978. According to at least one news report, his choice of the name John Paul was no surprise, although his election was. The next day he celebrated Mass together with the
College of Cardinalsin the Sistine Chapel. After the Mass, he delivered his first " Urbi et Orbi" (a traditional blessing) message, broadcast worldwide via radio. In it he pledged fidelity to the Second Vatican Counciland paid tribute to his predecessor:
:"What can we say of John Paul I? It seems to us that only yesterday he emerged from this assembly of ours to put on the papal robes—not a light weight. But what warmth of charity, nay, what 'an abundant outpouring of love'—which came forth from him in the few days of his ministry and which in his last Sunday address before the
Angelushe desired should come upon the world. This is also confirmed by his wise instructions to the faithful who were present at his public audiences on faith, hope and love." (source: L'Osservatore Romano, Weekly Edition in English, 26 October 1978, p.3)
* In 2006, the Italian Public Broadcasting Service,
RAI, produced a television miniseries about the life of John Paul I, called "Papa Luciani: Il sorriso di Dio" (literally, "Pope Luciani: The Smile of God"). It stars Italian comedian Neri Marcorèin the titular role.
* The Fall's 'Hey! Luciani' is about Pope John Paul I.
Patti Smith's recitative song "Wave" is about Luciani, and her "Wave" album is dedicated to him.
* The 1990 film "
The Godfather Part III" included the assassination theory of Pope John Paul I.
* [http://www.spiritdaily.org/New-world-order/luciani.htm Spirit Daily]
* [http://www.crisismagazine.com/julaug2003/miesel.htm Crisis Magazine]
L'Osservatore Romano, Weekly Edition in English, 26 October 1978, p.
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=2378 Pope John Paul on Find-A-Grave]
* [http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_i/index.htm John Paul I in the Vatican's site]
* [http://www.albino-luciani.com/ Albino Luciani]
* [http://www.papaluciani.com/ Papaluciani.com]
* [http://www.saintpetersbasilica.org/Grottoes/JPI/Tomb%20of%20John%20Paul%20I.htm Tomb of John Paul I - Vatican Grottoes]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u1NxtGQ56SI Italian documentary about the election of Pope John Paul I on YouTube - Elezione di Giovanni Paolo I]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GWf2AA3ebbU Italian documentary (subtitled) on YouTube - "The last days of Johannes Paulus I (Albino Luciani)", 1978]
*An interview with Dr John Magee, former private secretary to John Paul I, on the occasion of John Paul II's funeral is available [http://dynamic.rte.ie/av/2036899.smil here] . About 3 min 20 sec into the interview he mentions the fact that John Paul I seemed to believe his pontificate wouldn't be a long one. From RTÉ Radio One's "News At One" on [http://www.rte.ie/news/2005/0408/news1pm.html 8 April 2005] . -Real player required.
* [http://www.papaluciani.com/eng/ Here you can watch the film]
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