- Long-term care
__NOTOC__Long-term care (LTC) is a variety of services which help meet both the medical and non-medical need of people with a
chronic illnessor disabilitywho cannot care for themselves for long periods of time.
It is common for long-term care to provide custodial and non-skilled care, such as assisting with normal daily tasks like dressing,
bathing, and using the bathroom. Long-term care may also include medical carethat most people do for themselves, such as diabetesmonitoring. Long-term care can be provided at home, in the community, in assisted livingor in nursing homes. Long-term care may be needed by people of any age, even though it is a common need for senior citizens.
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services(CMS) estimates that about nine million men and women over the age of 65 in the US will need long-term care in 2006. By 2020, 12 million older Americans will need long-term care. It is anticipated that most will be cared for at home; family and friends are the sole caregivers for 70 percent of the elderly. A study by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Servicessays that people who reach age 65 will likely have a 40 percent chance of entering a nursing home. About 10 percent of the people who enter a nursing home will stay there five years or more.
A 2006 [http://www.aarp.org/research/press-center/presscurrentnews/long_term_care_report.html study] conducted by [http://www.aarp.org/ AARP] found that most Americans are unaware of the costs associated with long-term care and overestimate the amount that government programs such as Medicare will pay.
Medicaidis a government program that will pay for certain health services and nursing home care for older people. In most states, Medicaid also pays for some long-term care services at home and in the community. Eligibility and covered services vary from state to state. Most often, eligibility is based on income and personal resources.
Generally, Medicare does not pay for long-term care. Medicare pays only for medically necessary skilled
nursingfacility or home care. However, certain conditions must be met for Medicare to pay for even those types of care. Medicare specifically will not pay for custodial and non-skilled care.
Long-term care funding
National governments have responded to growing long-term care needs at severallevels. Most
Western Europeancountries have put in place a mechanism to fundformal care and, in a number of Northern and Continental Europeancountries,arrangements exist to at least partially fund informal care as well. Some countrieshave had publicly organized funding arrangements in place for many years: the Netherlandsadopted the Exceptional Medical Expenses Act (ABWZ) in 1967, andin 1988 Norwayestablished a framework for municipal payments to informalcaregivers (in certain instances making them municipal employees). Othercountries have only recently put in place comprehensive national programs: in2004, for example, Franceset up a specific insurance fund for dependent olderpeople. Some countries ( Spainand Italyin Southern Europe, Polandand Hungaryin Central Europe) have not yet established comprehensive national programs,relying on informal caregivers combined with a fragmented mix of formal servicesthat varies in quality and by location. (Saltman et al. 2006)
A Canadian study found that staff in LTC facilities were subjected to violence on a nearly daily basis, including unwanted sexual advances. Comparing other countries, the authors assessed that staffing levels predicted violence levels. [cite press release |publisher=Canada Newswire |title=Canadian long-term care workers nearly seven times more likely to experience violence than Nordic counterparts: York-led study |location=Toronto |url=http://www.newswire.ca/en/releases/archive/March2008/10/c2452.html|date=2008-03-10]
Home care / Informal care
Home care can be provided by informal (nonprofessional, usually volunteer) or formal (professional) providers and can incorporate a wide range of clinical (
nursing, drug therapy, physical therapy), social (food preparation, cleaning, shopping), and even physical construction (installing hydraulic lifts, renovating bathrooms and kitchens) activities. (Saltman et al. 2006) Informal care plays an important part in many countries across the world.
In many countries, the largest percentages of older persons using services are those who rely on informal home care. Estimates of these figures often are in the 80 to 90 percent range; for example, in
Austria, 80 percent of all older citizens ( OECD2005). The similar figure for dependent elders in Spainis 82.2 percent (Costa-Font and Patxot 2005).
Informal care financing
In the 1980s, some Nordic countries began making payments to informal caregivers, with
Norwayand Denmarkallowing relatives and neighbors who were providing regular home care to become municipal employees, complete with regular pension benefits. In Finland, informal caregivers received a fixed fee from municipalities as well as pension payments. In the 1990s, a number of countries with social health insurance ( Austriain 1994, Germanyin 1996, Luxembourgin 1999) began providing a cash payment to service recipients, who could then use those funds to pay informal caregivers. In Germany, the long-term care fund may also make pension contributions if an informal caregiver works more than 14 hours per week. (Saltman et al. 2006)
Long term care insurance
Activities of daily living
* OECD (2005) Long Term Care for Older People. Paris: OECD.
* Costa-Font, J., and Patxot, C. (2005) The design of the long-term care system in Spain: Policy and financial constraints. Soc. Society 4:1, 11–20.
* Saltman, R.B., Dubois, H.F.W. and Chawla, M. (2006) The impact of aging on long-term care in Europe and some potential policy responses, International Journal of Health Services, 36(4): 719-746.
* [http://www.medicare.gov/LongTermCare/Static/Home.asp Medicare. US Government. Long term care information]
* [http://aging.ifas.ufl.edu Medicare Part D Information] University of Florida/IFAS Extension Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences
* [http://fycs.ifas.ufl.edu/news/2006/05/family-factors-involved-in-making-long.html Family Factors Involved in Making Long-Term Care Financing Decisions] University of Florida/IFAS Extension Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences
* [http://familycaregiving101.org/help/financial.cfm Family Caregiving Financial Resources] List of county or state departments or local area social service agencies for long-term caregivers to utilize
* [http://www.cmda.info Long Term Care Medical Directors Association of Canada - Association canadienne des directeurs médicaux en soins de longue durée] An association of medical directors in Canada committed to the development of the role of the physician in the Long Term Care setting.
* — A 28 page guide from The Department of Health and Human Services.
* [http://www.guidetolongtermcare.com/whatcost.html How much does long term care cost?]
* [http://www.elderstribune.com/money/how-will-you-pay-your-long-term-care How will you pay for your long-term care?]
* [http://www.genworth.com/content/genworth/www_genworth_com/web/us/en/products_we_offer/long_term_care_insurance/long_term_care_overview/what_is_the_cost_of_long_term_care.html#costofcaresurvey Annual 2007 Cost of long term care survey] conducted for Genworth Financial
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
long-term care — UK US noun [U] ► medical treatment that lasts for a long time: »The facility provides long tem care for the elderly … Financial and business terms
Long term care insurance — (LTC or LTCI), an insurance product sold in the United States and United Kingdom, helps provide for the cost of long term care beyond a predetermined period. Long term care insurance covers care generally not covered by health insurance, Medicare … Wikipedia
Long-Term Care (LTC) Insurance — Coverage that provides nursing home care, home health care, personal or adult day care for individuals above the age of 65 or with a chronic or disabling condition that needs constant supervision. LTC insurance offers more flexibility and options … Investment dictionary
Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care — The Ministry of Health and Long Term Care is the Government of Ontario ministry responsible for administering the health care system and providing services to the province of Ontario. The current minister is Deb Matthews. Contents 1 History 2… … Wikipedia
The National Consumer Voice for Quality Long-Term Care — Founder(s) Elma Holder Founded 1975 Location Washington, DC Area served United States Focus Elder Care in Long term Residential Facilities Method … Wikipedia
Director of nursing (long term care facility) — A director of nursing (DON) is a registered nurse who supervises the care of all the patients at a health care facility. The director of nursing has special training beyond that of any clinical nurse for the position that pertains to health… … Wikipedia
National Association for the Support of Long Term Care — The National Association for the Support of Long Term Care (NASL) is a United States trade association of ancillary providers of products and services to the post acute care industry. This includes nursing homes, assisted living, home health,… … Wikipedia
Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (Ontario) — The Ministry of Health and Long Term Care is the Government of Ontario ministry responsible for administering the health care system and providing services through such programs as:* Ontario Health Insurance Plan * drug benefits Trillium Drug… … Wikipedia
Long-term effects of alcohol — Disability adjusted life year for alcohol use disorders per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004 … Wikipedia
long-term — adj. Long term is used with these nouns: ↑aim, ↑answer, ↑arrangement, ↑benefit, ↑bond, ↑boyfriend, ↑care, ↑change, ↑commitment, ↑complication, ↑confinement, ↑ … Collocations dictionary