Life of Joseph Smith, Jr. from 1827 to 1830


Life of Joseph Smith, Jr. from 1827 to 1830

The life of Joseph Smith, Jr. from 1827 to 1830 includes some of his life's most significant events, and some of the most important history of the Latter Day Saint movement , the Restorationist religious movement he initiated during this period. This movement gave rise to Mormonism, and includes such denominations as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the Community of Christ. The period covered by this article begins in late 1827, after Smith announced he had obtained a book of Golden Plates buried in a hill, guarded by an angel, near his home in Manchester, New York (near Palmyra village). See Early life of Joseph Smith, Jr. Because of opposition by former treasure-seeking colleagues who believed they owned a share of the Golden Plates, Smith was preparing to leave the Palmyra area for his wife's hometown of Harmony, Pennsylvania (now Oakland). From late 1827 to the end of 1830, Smith would translate the Golden Plates, publish the "Book of Mormon", and establish his Church of Christ.

To translate the Golden Plates, Smith enlisted the assistance of Martin Harris, a wealthy Palmyra landowner who acted as Smith's scribe. To translate, Smith used seer stones (one set of which Smith called the Urim and Thummim), and Smith said the stones showed him the translation. Translation ceased, however, when Harris lost 116 manuscript pages of un-copied text. Translation resumed in earnest when Smith was joined in May 1829 by a Smith family associate named Oliver Cowdery. Translation was completed near the end of July 1829, and the resulting manuscript was published as the "Book of Mormon" on March 26 1830 in Palmyra.

By the time the "Book of Mormon" was published, Smith had baptized several followers who called themselves the "Church of Christ". On April 6, 1830, Smith and five others formally established the Church of Christ in western New York. Among the most notable early converts was Sidney Rigdon, a Church of Christ (Campbellite) minister from Kirtland, Ohio, who already shared many early beliefs of the Latter Day Saint movement. With Rigdon came most of Rigdon's congregation, and at the end of 1830, Smith decided that all members of his new church should move to Kirtland.

Translation of the Golden Plates

Recruitment of Martin Harris

When Smith said he had obtained the book of Golden Plates from the angel Moroni (see Early life of Joseph Smith, Jr.), he also said the angel commanded him "that the plates must be translated, printed and sent before the world" Harv|Tiffany|1859|p=169. To do so, however, he needed money, and at the time he was penniless Harv|Smith|1853. Therefore, Smith sent his mother Harv|Smith|1853|p=110 to the home of Martin Harris, a local landowner said at the time to be worth about $8,000 to $10,000 Harv|Howe|1834|p=260.

Martin Harris had been a close confidant of the Smith family since at least 1826 Harv|Howe|1834|p=255, and he may have heard about Smith's attempts to obtain the plates from the angel even earlier from Joseph Smith, Sr. Harv|Smith|1853|p=109. He was also a believer in Smith's powers with his seer stone Harv|Tiffany|1859|p=164. When Lucy visited Harris, he had heard through the grapevine in Palmyra that Smith said he had discovered a book of Golden Plates, and he was interested in finding out more Harv|Tiffany|1859|pp=167–168. Thus, at Lucy Smith's request, Harris went to the Smith home, heard the story from Smith, and hefted a glass box that Smith said contained the plates Harv|Tiffany|1859|pp=168–169. Smith convinced Harris that he had the plates, and that the angel had told him to "quit the company of the money-diggers" Harv|Tiffany|1859|p=169. Convinced, Harris immediately gave Smith $50 (Harvnb|Smith|1853|p=113; Harvnb|Roberts|1902|p=19), and committed to sponsor the translation of the plates Harv|Smith|1853|p=113.

The money provided by Harris was enough to pay all of Smith's debts in Palmyra, and for him to travel with his new bride Emma and all of their belongings to Harmony Township, Pennsylvania (now in Oakland Township), where they would be able to avoid the public commotion in Palmyra over the plates. Harv|Tiffany|1859|p=170. Thus, in late October 1827, they moved to Harmony, with the glass box purportedly holding the plates hidden during the trip in a barrel of beans Harv|Tiffany|1859|p=170.

Early transcription and translation

When Joseph and Emma arrived in Harmony, they stayed temporarily in the home of Emma's father Isaac Hale, while Hale set them up in a home on an adjoining thirteen-acre property a few hundred yards from the Susquehanna River. Harv|Porter|1971|pp=132–34. Skeptical that Smith had found golden plates, Hale asked to see them, but was only allowed to lift the glass box in which Smith said they were kept. Harv|Howe|1834|p=264. Nevertheless, Hale refused to allow the plates in his home if he could not see them, so the glass box was hidden in the woods nearby, where the plates are said to have remained during much of the translation process that followed Harv|Howe|1834|p=264; Harv|Jesee|1976|p=3.

After a short stay in the Hale home, Joseph and Emma arranged to live in a house moved onto the Hale property Harv|Mather|1880|p=201. Emma said that for at least part of the time, Joseph kept the plates in this house on a table, wrapped in a linen tablecloth Harv|Smith|1879. Beginning in December 1827, Smith began transcribing the characters he said were engraved on the plates, and dictating what he said was a translation of some of them Harv|Roberts|1902|p=19. While transcribing, he reportedly sat behind a curtain and looked at the plates through the "Urim and Thummim", passing the written transcriptions to Emma, who was sitting on the other side of the curtain Harv|Howe|1834|pp=270–271. Eventually, after some transcription, he began to dictate what he said was a translation of the plates to Emma or her brother Reuben. Harv|Smith|1879. To translate, he reportedly "put the urim and thummim into his hat and Darkened his Eyes than [sic] he would take a sentance [sic] and it would apper [sic] in Brite [sic] Roman Letters. Then he would tell the writer and he would write it." Harv|Jessee|1976|p=4. Reportedly, Smith did not need the physical presence of the plates to create the translation (Harvnb|Stevenson|1882; Harvnb|Howe|1834|pp=264–65), and the plates remained in the nearby woods Harv|Howe|1834|p=264; Harv|Jesee|1976|p=3 during the translation.

Martin Harris came to assist with the translation in February 1828 Harv|Roberts|1902|p=19. Around this time, Smith reportedly confided to Emma's uncle that he had doubts about whether or not he should translate the plates, because despite the commandment from God, "he was afraid of the people" Harv|Howe|1834|p=266. Thus, when Harris arrived, he reportedly had to convince Smith to continue translating, saying, "I have not come down here for nothing, and we will go on with it" Harv|Booth|1831a.

Smith then sent Harris to several well-known scholars [These scholars included at least Luther Bradish in Albany, New York Harv|Lapham|1870, Samuel L. Mitchill of New York City (Harvnb|Hadley|1829; Harvnb|Jessee|1976|p=3), and Charles Anthon of New York City Harv|Howe|1834|pp=269–272.] to see if they could translate or authenticate some of the transcribed characters Harv|Jessee|1976|p=3, but Harris was unable to get any of the scholars' help or backing Harv|Howe|1834|pp=270–272. After visiting his home in Palmyra, Harris then returned to Harmony in the middle of April 1828 and began acting as Smith's scribe while Smith dictated what he later would call the "Book of Lehi" Harv|Smith|1830b|p=1. Harris reported that for at least part of Smith's early translation, Smith used his seer stone to translate, rather than the "Urim and Thummim", because the stone was more convenient Harv|Stevenson|1882|p=86. Smith also at least sometimes made use of a curtain Harv|Cole|1831; Harris stated that one time during the translation, Smith raised a curtain between him and Harris, because "the presence of the Lord was so great", or sometimes Smith dictated to Harris from upstairs or from a different room Harv|Howe|1834|p=14.

Loss of 116 manuscript pages

By the middle of June 1828, Smith had dictated about 116 manuscript pages of text Harv|Roberts|1902|p=20, beginning with a story about a man named Lehi in Jerusalem, and ending with a story about King Benjamin, one of his descendants, in the Americas Harv|Smith|1835|loc=sec. 36, v. 41. Harris, however, was having marital problems with his wife Lucy, who was upset about not being able to see the plates Harv|Smith|1853|p=116. Hoping to appease her, Harris convinced a reluctant Smith to allow him to take the 116 manuscript pages with him on a visit back home in Palmyra Harv|Smith|1853|p=117. Because the manuscript was the only copy, however, Smith made Harris sign a written oath that he would show the pages only to five specified people in his family Harv|Roberts|1902|p=20; Harv|Smith|1853|pp=117–118.

While Harris visited Palmyra, Emma gave birth to the young couple's first child Harv|Smith|1853|p=118, but the boy was deformed and stillborn Harv|Howe|1834|p=269, leaving Emma deathly ill for about two weeks Harv|Smith|1853|p=118. Not hearing word from Harris for three weeks, Smith traveled in July 1828 to Palmyra and learned that Harris had lost the manuscript pages, and had been avoiding him Harv|Smith|1853|pp=118–121. Despite his oath, Harris had been exhibiting the manuscript to numerous visitors, and somehow it had disappeared from the drawer where he kept it Harv|Smith|1853|p=122–123.

Smith was despondent over losing his child and the manuscript. He had had great hopes for his first-born child, reportedly telling people that the child would see the plates Harv|Howe|1834|p=264, and that he would assist in the translation Harv|Howe|1834|p=267. When he heard the manuscript was lost, he exclaimed, "Oh, my God!…All is lost! all is lost! What shall I do? I have sinned—it is I who tempted the wrath of God." Harv|Smith|1853|p=121. After returning to Harmony without Harris, Smith dictated to Emma his first written revelation, which rebuked him for losing the manuscript pages, but pinned most of the blame upon Harris Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=sec. 2:5. However, the revelation assured Smith that all was not lost, because if Smith repented of what he had done, God would "only cause thee to be afflicted for a season, and thou art still chosen, and wilt again be called to the work" Harv|Phelps|1833|2:7.

During this period, Smith also reportedly joined a local Methodist Episcopal Church Sunday school class in Harmony Harv|McKune|1879. This church was attended by Emma's family, and led by Nathaniel Lewis Harv|Lewis|Lewis|1879, Isaac Hale's brother-in-law Harv|Porter|1969|p=332. His membership, however, was resisted by several members who were aware of his treasure hunting activities, and Smith voluntarily withdrew his membership Harv|Lewis|Lewis|1879.

Resumption of translation in anticipation of a "marvelous work" coming forth

As part of the penalty for losing the manuscript, Smith said the angel took away the "Urim and Thummim" Harv|Smith|1853|p=125, returning it once again on September 22, 1828, the autumn equinox and the anniversary of the day he first received the plates Harv|Smith|1853|p=126. Smith said the angel also temporarily took back the plates during that time Harv|Smith|1832|p=5; Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=9:1, p. 22.

By February 1829, Smith had begun translating sporadically with Emma as scribe Harv|Smith|1853|p=126. Smith resumed the translation beginning at the story of King Benjamin now found in the Book of Mosiah, where Smith had left off with Martin Harris before losing the 116 pages. Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=9:10, p. 25. In February, when Smith's parents visited Harmony, and Smith dictated a revelation for his father, an optimistic description of the translated book as a "marvelous work…about to come forth among the children of men" Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=ch. III, p. 9.

According to Emma, Smith no longer used the "Urim and Thummim" in translation after the loss of the 116 manuscript pages; rather, he began using exclusively his dark seer stone Harv|Bidamon|1876. He translated by sitting "with his face buried in his hat with the seer stone in it, and dictating hour after hour with nothing between us" Harv|Smith|1879. While looking at the stone, he "rest [ed] his elbows upon his knees" Harv|Blair|1879, and drew the hat "closely around his face to exclude the light", so that the "spiritual light" would shine Harv|Whitmer|1887|p=12.

The translation during this time was sporadic, in part because Emma was busy running the household, and Joseph was working outside the home Harv|Jessee|1976|p=4. They received some support for the translation, however, including money for paper, from Joseph Knight, Sr., Smith's associate from his treasure hunting expeditions. Harv|Jessee|1976|p=4

In March 1829, Martin Harris returned to Harmony and wanted to see the plates firsthand. Smith reportedly told Harris that Smith "would go into the woods where the Book of Plates was, and that after he came back, Harris should follow his tracks in the snow, and find the Book, and examine it for himself"; after following these directions, however, Harris could not find the plates Harv|Howe|1834|pp=264–265. The next day Harv|Howe|1834|p=265, Smith dictated a revelation Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=ch. IV, pp. 10–13 indicating that there was no need for the present "unbelieving" generation of humanity to see the plates because—in the words of God—"if they will not believe my words" written on the plates, "they would not believe my servant Joseph, if it were possible that he could show them all things." Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=4:3—4:4, pp. 10—11. Nevertheless, according to the revelation, the words of the plates would go forth to "this generation" accompanied by the testimonies of three witnesses who would have the exclusive privilege to "view [the plates] as they are" Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=4:4, pp. 11–12. Harris could be one of those three witnesses if he would "go out and bow down before me [God] , and humble himself in mighty prayer and faith" Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=4:4, 4:8, pp. 11–12.

Arrival of Oliver Cowdery

Part of Smith's March 1829 revelation told Smith to stop translating for a while, until there was a means whereby he could continue the translation Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=4:10, p. 13. That "means", in Smith's view, arrived on April 5 1829 in the form of Oliver Cowdery Harv|Cowdery|1834|p=14.

Cowdery, a school teacher born in Vermont, had heard about Smith's golden plates while he boarded with the Joseph Smith, Sr. family during the school year, and had traveled with Joseph's brother Samuel Harrison Smith to Harmony hoping that he could serve as Smith's scribe Harv|Smith|1853|pp=128–29. Smith was happy to have his assistance, and on April 7, 1829, Smith and Cowdery began translating full-time Harv|Cowdery|1834|p=14. During this time, they received financial support from Joseph Knight, Sr. (Harvnb|Jessee|1974|p=5; Harvnb|Roberts|1902|p=47).

An April 1829 revelation by Smith soon stated that Cowdery had a "gift" that could allow Cowdery to translate ancient hidden records, and that the "keys of this gift" to translate would be given both to Smith and to Cowdery Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=5:5, 5:11, pp. 15—16. [In addition to the gift of translation, a separate revelation stated that Cowdery had "another gift, which is the gift of working with the rod…of nature,…and therefore whatsoever you shall ask me to tell you by that means, that will I grant unto you, that you shall know" Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=7:3, p. 19.] According to Smith's revelations, this gift to translate was not limited to the Golden Plates, but included other ancient hidden records. For example, Smith's next revelation was what he said was the translation of a hidden parchment written by John the Apostle Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=6, p. 18, and presumably still hidden at the time of the translation. [A section of the "Book of Mormon", apparently translated in June 1829, would later refer to this collection of John the Apostle's writings as having been "sealed up to come forth in their purity" in the end times (1 Nephi 14:26).]

While Cowdery, too, was to have the "gift" to translate, when Cowdery attempted his own translation of some unknown hidden record, he was unsuccessful, and he returned to acting as Smith's scribe Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=8, pp. 20–21. Consequently, a revelation by Smith stated that Cowdery's translation of hidden records would have to wait until after Smith had fully translated the Golden Plates. Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=8, pp. 20–21. [There is no record of Cowdery ever attempting the translation of an ancient document after the spring of 1829.]

With Cowdery as scribe, Smith continued dictating what he said was the translation of the Golden Plates. On or before May 1829, [The date of this revelation (now D&C 10) was listed as May 1829 in the "Book of Commandments" and the 1835 edition of the "Doctrine and Covenants", and remains so in the edition published by the Community of Christ. In 1902, however, LDS editor Brigham Henry Roberts felt that the date should be changed to the summer of 1828, and that date is found in the most recent editions published by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Scholars disagree as to whether Roberts' change is consistent with the evidence Harv|Bushman|2005|p=579 note 63.] Smith dictated a revelation warning him that whoever had stolen the 116 manuscript pages was planning to wait until Smith re-translated that section of the Golden Plates, and then alter it, to show Smith could not translate the same words twice Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=9:2, p. 22. Therefore, according to the revelation, God's plan was for Smith to "go on unto the finishing of the remainder of the work as you [Smith] had begun" Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=9:1, p. 22, and instead of going back and re-translating the original 116 manuscript pages, Smith was to substitute a translation which he would create from another set of plates, called the "plates of Nephi", which covered roughly the same material, except in more detail Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=9:10–11, p. 25.

On May 15 1829 Harv|Roberts|1902|p=40, according to Cowdery's later reminiscences, the translation of what is now the book of Third Nephi led Smith and Cowdery to pray so that they could receive authority to baptize Harv|Cowdery|1834|p=15. Thus, they said that an angel appeared, granting them that authority Harv|Cowdery|1834|pp=15–16, and then they baptized each other in a river near their home in Harmony Harv|Roberts|1902|loc=1:39. Ten days later, they baptized Samuel, who was still residing with them Harv|Smith|1853|pp=131; Harv|Roberts|1902|loc=1:44. There is no record that they also baptized Emma.

In late May 1829, Samuel Smith returned home to Palmyra, reporting to the Smith and Harris families that Smith's translation with Cowdery as scribe was proceeding rapidly Harv|Smith|1853|p=132. Samuel's report excited Martin Harris, but angered Martin's wife Lucy, who gathered witnesses and filed a criminal complaint against Smith in Lyons, New York in an attempt to prove that Smith was pretending to have the Golden Plates in order to defraud her husband Harv|Smith|1853|p=132. A trial proceeded "in absentia" against Smith, but was dismissed after the judge heard the testimony of Martin Harris Harv|Smith|1853|pp=132–135.

Meanwhile, a group of people in Harmony began to threaten the progress of Smith's translation Harv|Smith|1853|p=135. Therefore, Oliver Cowdery wrote to one of his acquaintances named David Whitmer in Fayette, New York, [David Whitmer lived with his parents in a rural area about two miles (3 km) from the village of Waterloo, and convert|27|mi|km from Palmyra Harv|Van Horn|1881.] who had previously shown an interest in the Golden Plates, [Oliver Cowdery had met Whitmer in Palmyra, and he and Samuel Harrison Smith had stayed at the Whitmer home in early April 1929 on their way to Harmony, and Cowdery had been corresponding with Whitmer about his experiences in translating Harv|Van Horn|1881. In addition, Whitmer knew Smith's parents, who had used the Whitmers as a way-point to stay overnight during their trip from Manchester to Palmyra, and had discussed the Golden Plates] Harv|Smith|1853|p=132.] and got permission for Joseph and Oliver to stay at David Whitmer's parents' house in Fayette] , while they completed the translation Harv|Smith|1853|pp=135–37. The Whitmers were happy to oblige, and offered free room and board Harv|Roberts|1902|p=48. Thus, David Whitmer] took a large wagon to Harmony at the beginning of June 1829, and moved Joseph and Oliver to Fayette Harv|Roberts|1902|p=48. This time, rather than hiding the Golden Plates in the wagon during the travels as he said he did on his trip to Harmony, Smith said he gave the plates to an angel, who transported the plates and then delivered them to Smith in Fayette Harv|Smith|1853|p=137. However, by this time, Smith was not directly using the plates in the process of translation Harv|Van Horn|1881. Emma did not initially accompany Joseph to Fayette Harv|Smith|1853|pp=137, 143, although she came later for a time (Harvnb|Hart|1884; Harvnb|Van Horn|1881).

Completion and publication of the "Book of Mormon"

Initial publication attempt

At the Whitmer home in Fayette, New York, Smith proceeded to complete the translation of the Golden Plates, with Cowdery acting as scribe as he did in Harmony, but with the additional assistance of David Whitmer, David's brother John Whitmer Harv|Roberts|1902|p=48, and another scribe whose handwriting has not been identified Harv|Jessee|1970|pp=10–11. Smith proceeded translating to what he said was the very last of the Golden Plates in the translated collection, where he said he found a title page Harv|Roberts|1902|p=71. Smith's translation of this title page indicated that the book was called the "Book of Mormon: An account written by the hand of Mormon, upon plates taken from the Plates of Nephi" Harv|Smith|1830b|loc=title page.

On June 11, 1829, to secure his copyright, [The Copyright Act of 1790, in effect until 1831, required the author or proprietor of a book to deposit the title page with the clerk of the local United States district court prior to publication. See 1 Stat. 124, § 3.] Smith deposited a copy of the title page with the local federal district court Harv|Smith|1830b|loc=title page 2. In the early part of June 1829 Harv|Gilbert|1892, Smith also took a copy of the title page and a few pages of translation Harv|Tucker|1867|pp=50–51 to Palmyra village and attempted during several interviews to make arrangements to have his translation published by E. B. Grandin, publisher of The Wayne Sentinel and friend of Martin Harris Harv|Tucker|1867|p=51. Although Grandin provided an approximate estimate of the costs, he initially declined to publish the book (Harvnb|Gilbert|1892; Harvnb|Tucker|1867|pp=51–52). As for funding, Smith attempted unsuccessfully to secure the financial assistance from several family acquaintances Harv|Tucker|1867|pp=36–37.

Twelve witnesses and the completion of translation

During the remainder of June 1829, Smith continued the work of translation in Fayette by dictating a replacement section for the 116 pages previously lost by Martin Harris (Harvnb|Phelps|1833|loc=9:10–11, p. 25; Harvnb|Jessee|1970|p=13). Some time before June 14 1829, [See letter from Oliver Cowdery to Hyrum Smith dated June 14 1829, quoting the language of this revelation. Joseph Smith letterbook (22 November 1835 to 4 August 1835) 5-6. Commentators generally agree that this letter references the revelation. See, e.g., Larry C. Porter (June 1979), Dating the Restoration of the Melchizedek Priesthood, "Ensign", p. 5.] a revelation by Smith commanded Cowdery and Whitmer to seek out twelve "disciples", who desired to serve, and who would "go into all the world to preach my gospel unto every creature", and who would be ordained to baptize and to ordain priests and teachers Harv|Phelps|1833|p=37. Soon thereafter in the second half of June 1829 Harv|Van Horn|1881, a group of Three Witnesses and a separate group of Eight Witnesses were selected, in addition to Smith himself, to testify that Smith had the Golden Plates.

The Three Witnesses were selected soon after a visit by Martin Harris to the Whitmer home in Fayette, accompanied by Smith's parents Harv|Smith|1853|p=138, to inquire about the translation Harv|Roberts|1902|p=51. [According to Smith's mother, this trip was prompted by news that Smith had completed the translation of the platesHarv|Smith|1853|p=138.] . When Harris he arrived, he joined with Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer to request that the three be named as the Three Witnesses referred to in the much earlier revelation directed to Harris, and also referred to in a recently-translated portion of the plates called the Book of Ether (2:2–4) Harv|Roberts|1902|p=51. In response, Smith dictated a revelation that the three of them would see the Golden Plates Harv|Roberts|1902|pp=51–53. Thus, Smith took the three of them to the woods near the Whitmer home and they had a shared vision in which they all claimed to see (with their "spiritual eyes", Harris reportedly said Harv|Gilbert|1892) an angel holding the Golden Plates and turning its leaves (Harvnb|Roberts|1902|pp=54–55; Harvnb|Smith|1830b|loc=appendix). The four of them also said they heard "the voice of the Lord" telling them that the translation of the plates was correct, and commanding them to testify of what they saw and heard (Harvnb|Roberts|1902|pp=54–55; Harvnb|Smith|1830b|loc=appendix). [David Whitmer later stated that the angel showed them "the breast plates, the Ball or Directors, the Sword of Laban and other plates" (Harvnb|Van Horn|1881; Harvnb|Kelley|Blakeslee|1882; see also Harvnb|Smith|1835|p=171).]

The Eight Witnesses were selected a few days later when Smith traveled to Palmyra with the males of the Whitmer home, including David Whitmer's father Peter, his brothers Christian, Jacob, and John, and his brother-in-law Hiram Page. Smith took this group, along with his father Joseph Smith, Sr. and his brothers Hyrum and Samuel to a location near Smith's parent's home in Palmyra where the angel had transported the plates Harv|Smith|1853, [Because of a foreclosure on their Manchester property, the Smith family was then living in a log cabin technically in Palmyra (Harvnb|Smith|1883|p=14; Harvnb|Berge|1985).] where Smith said he showed them the Golden Plates Harv|Roberts|1902|p=57. Like the Three Witnesses, the Eight Witnesses later signed an affidavit for inclusion at the end of the "Book of Mormon" Harv|Smith|1830b|appendix. Though the Eight Witnesses did not refer, like the Three, to an angel or the voice of God, they said that they had hefted the plates and seen the engravings on them Harv|Smith|1830b|appendix.

After the experiences of the twelve witnesses, Smith continued the translation at the Whitmer home in Fayette Harv|Roberts|1902|p=59. On June 26 1829, E.B. Grandin published in "The Wayne Sentinel" a copy of the "Book of Mormon" title page Smith had given him earlier, and offered it to his readers as a "curiosity", stating that " [m] ost people entertain an idea that the whole matter is the result of a gross imposition, and a grosser superstition" Harv|Grandin|1829. Possibly because of this article and Smith's growing notoriety, the late stages of Smith's translation were interrupted periodically with curious visitors Harv|Roberts|1902|p=59. Translation was completed around July 1 1829 Harv|Van Horn|1881, after which Smith reportedly returned the plates to the angel Harv|Smith|1853|p=141.

Publication of the "Book of Mormon" and associated notoriety

Smith's first attempt at arranging publication of the "Book of Mormon" with E.B. Grandin was unsuccessful. Martin Harris had also unsuccessfully approached Jonathan A. Hadley, another Palmyra printer who published the anti-Masonic "Palmyra Freeman" Harv|Hadley|1842. Smith and Harris also traveled to Rochester, New York and approached Thurlow Weed, an anti-Masonic publisher [Some commentators interpret the "Book of Mormon" to contain anti-Masonic references Fact|date=March 2007.] who, like Grandin and Hadley in Palmyra, also refused to publish the book, even though Harris offered his farm as security (Harvnb|Weed|1884|p=1:359; Harvnb|Tucker|1867|p=52). Smith next approached Weed's competitor in Rochester, Elihu F. Marshall, who agreed to publish the book (Harvnb|Weed|1884|p=1:359; Harvnb|Tucker|1867|p=52). With Marshall's offer in hand, Smith and Harris then approached Grandin a second time, hoping for a better offer that wouldn't require travel to Rochester Harv|Tucker|1867|p=52. Negotiations with Grandin continued from July to August 1829. On August 25 1829, Grandin entered into a secured transaction, using Harris' land as collateral Harv|Harris|1829, to print 5,000 copies of the book for $3,000 (Harvnb|Gilbert|1892; Harvnb|Roberts|1902|p=71), to be paid within 18 months after printing began Harv|Harris|1829. Half the sum was to be paid by Martin Harris, and the other half was to be paid by Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum Harv|Smith|1853|p=142.

While Smith was attempting to arrange for publication during July and August 1829, several area newspapers ran harshly-critical articles on the "Book of Mormon", and reprinted the title page published on June 26 1829 in "The Wayne Sentinel" Harv|Grandin|1829. This began with a "Palmyra Freeman" article written by Jonathan A. Hadley Harv|Hadley|1829. Between August and October 1829, the Hadley article was reprinted in Lockport, New York Harv|Spalding|1829, Rochester, New York Harv|O'Reilly|1829, Painesville, Ohio Harv|Howe|1829, and Salem, Massachusetts Harv|Foote|1829. In July and August, the Biblical-sounding language style of the "Book of Mormon"'s title page was satirized by a series of articles in a Rochester paper Harv|Pry|1829.

In October, Smith moved to Harmony, Pennsylvania to rejoin his wife Emma, leaving Oliver Cowdery in charge of supervising the publication in Palmyra Harv|Smith|1853|pp=142–143. Before leaving, Smith said he had a revelation that the original manuscript should remain in the Smith home while Cowdery made a copy, then Hyrum Smith would take only enough of the transcript for each day's typesetting to Grandin's office per day, accompanied by a guard, while Peter Whitmer guarded the Smith home Harv|Smith|1853|pp=142–145.

Smith arrived in Harmony on October 4 1829, where he found the opposition that had caused his move to Fayette had abated Harv|Smith|1829. In order to pay his $1500 share of the costs for printing the "Book of Mormon", Smith attempted unsuccessfully to raise at least $500 from his old friend Josiah Stowell Harv|Smith|1829.He also sent Oliver Cowdery and Hiram Page as missionaries to Toronto, unsuccessfully, to raise money by selling the book's Canadian copyright. Harv|Whitmer|1887|p=31.

In January 1830, Hyrum Smith and Oliver Cowdery discovered that Abner Cole, publisher of the Palmyra newspaper "The Reflector", had taken portions of the pre-published "Book of Mormon" and began printing them in his newspaper Harv|Cole|1830. The paper was printed at E.B. Grandin's printing shop on nights and weekends, and therefore Cole had access to the unpublished "Book of Mormon" text Harv|Smith|1853|148. Unable to convince Cole to stop printing, Hyrum and Oliver sent for Joseph, who returned briefly from Harmony and convinced Cole to submit the matter to an arbitrator, who held that Cole's publication was a copyright infringement and ordered him to stop Harv|Smith|1853|pp=149–150.

Later in January 1830, a group of Palmyra citizens passed a resolution calling for a local boycott of the "Book of Mormon" Harv|Smith|1853|p=150. As a result, E.B. Grandin stopped printing in January 1830.Fact|date=February 2007 In addition, Martin Harris was coming to realize that the full share of the $3000 cost of printing the book would fall on his shoulders when it came due in early 1831, and under the prodding of his wife Lucy, was considering breaching his contract to pay his share.Fact|date=February 2007 In response, Smith traveled once again from Harmony Palmyra, and placated Harris by entering into a contract on January 16 1830 stating: "I hereby agree that Martin Harris shall have an equal priveledge with me and my friends of selling the Book of Mormon of the edition now printing by Egbert B. Grandin until enough of them shall be sold to pay for the printing of the same" Harv|Smith|1830a. Smith and Harris then went to Grandin's office, and convinced Grandin to resume printing Harv|Smith|1853|p=150–151, which he did on January 26 1830.Fact|date=February 2007

In late March 1830, Smith travelled once again from Harmony to Palmyra (Harvnb|Jessee|1976|p=5; Harvnb|Phelps|1833|p=39). The first advance copies of the "Book of Mormon" were becoming available, and Harris was attempting to sell them, but not getting any buyers Harv|Jessee|1976|p=5. Harris, therefore, waffled on his commitment to pay the printing costs Harv|Jessee|1976|p=5. In response, Smith dictated a revelation commanding Harris, upon penalty of eternal damnation he could not imagine, to: "Impart a portion of thy property; Yea, even a part of thy lands and all save the support of thy family. Pay the printer's debt." Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=p. 42, XVI:36–37. [The revelation also commanded, "Release thyself from bondage. Leave thy house and home, except when thou shalt desire to see them" Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=p. 42, XVI:38–39. It was about this time that Harris and his wife separated Harv|Tucker|167|p=54.] Harris renewed his commitment to pay the printing costs, and on March 26 1830, Grandin made copies of the "Book of Mormon" available for purchase at the bookshop on the ground floor of his shop Harv|Grandin|1830. [ Harris eventually satisfied the $3,000 printing bill by selling a portion of his land when payment came due in early 1831 Harv|Tucker|167|pp=54–55.]

Early ecclesiastical leadership

Informal "Church of Christ" in 1829 and early 1830

Even before translation of the "Book of Mormon" was completed, Joseph Smith, Jr. and Oliver Cowdery began baptizing several converts to the new faith Harv|Roberts|1902|p=59. These adherents referred to themselves as the "Church of Christ" (Harvnb|Cowdery|1829; Harvnb|Whitmer|1887|p=32). In June 1829, in response to concerns by Oliver Cowdery, Smith dictated a revelation commanding Cowdery to "build up my church", based upon the theological principles Smith had been dictating, he said, from the Golden Plates Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=XV:3–4, p. 35. Possibly in conformance with this revelation, some time later in 1829 Cowdery said he received his own revelation, called the "Articles of the Church of Christ", about "how he should build up his church & the manner thereof" Harv|Cowdery|1829. Cowdery was described in his revelation as an "an Apostle of Jesus Christ" Harv|Cowdery|1829. Similarly, several of the other Twelve Witnesses to the "Book of Mormon" were described by people of the Palmyra area as "apostles" Harv|Cole|1829 or "elders" Harv|Whitmer|1887|p=32 in this new faith, and beginning in August 1829 some of them were given missions to preach the gospel. Harv|Cole|1829

During the winter of 1829, when Smith was attempting to raise money for the publication of the "Book of Mormon", Smith is said to have received a revelation through his seer stone Harv|Whitmer|1887|p=31 sending Oliver Cowdery and Hiram Page on a mission to Canada to sell the "Book of Mormon"'s Canadian copyright for $8,000 Harv|Page|1848. This mission, however, was unsuccessful, and the group returned empty-handed to the Whitmer home in Fayette, New York, where Joseph was then visiting Harv|Whitmer|1887|p=31. As the group did not understand why the previous revelation had directed the group to carry out an unsuccessful mission, according to the recollection of David Whitmer, Smith received another revelation indicating that " [s] ome revelations are of God: some revelations are of men; and some revelations are of the devil." Harv|Whitmer|1887|p=31. In early 1830, Smith reportedly discontinued the use of his seer stones in dictating revelations, from then on dictating the revelations based solely upon the impressions the Holy Spirit was said to have put in his mind Harv|Whitmer|1887. [In March 1829, Smith had dictated a revelation in the voice of the Lord stating that Smith "has a gift to translate the book, and I have commanded him that he shall pretend to no other gift, for I will grant him no other gift" Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=p. 10, 4:2. Nevertheless, Smith apparently did not understand this as a limitation on his ability to receive revelation.Fact|date=March 2007]

Formal organization of the Church of Christ

By the spring of 1830, Smith had in mind the idea that his informal body of believers who called themselves the Church of Christ should be organized as a formal, legal body Harv|Jessee|1976|p=5. Therefore, Smith traveled from Harmony to the Manchester-Palmyra area. [Witnesses refer to these events as taking place in Manchester, but at the time, Smith's family was living in a log cabin located just north of the Manchester border in Palmyra, although their farm was still located in Manchester Harv|Berge|1985.] In March 1830 Harv|Phelps|1833|p=39, sec. XVI, just before publication of the "Book of Mormon". Smith stayed in Palmyra until April 6 1830, the date he had chosen to formally organize the church. While in Manchester that day, a Tuesday, Smith dictated a series of short revelations Harv|Phelps|1833|pp=43–46, secs. XVII–XXII, including a revelation stating that Smith was to be considered "a seer, a translator, a prophet, an apostle of Jesus Christ, an elder of the church" Harv|Phelps|1833|p=45, sec. XXII. The revelation stated that Smith was to be the first "elder" in the Church of Christ, while Oliver Cowdery was to be the "first preacher" Harv|Phelps|1833|p=46, sec. XXII. Then several people, including Martin Harris and Joseph Smith, Sr. Harv|Jessee|1976|p=5, but apparently not Joseph Smith, Jr. himself Harv|Tucker|1867|p=59, were baptized that night in a nearby dammed-off stream Harvnb|Tucker|1867|p=58. Although the baptisms were performed after dark "because of persecution" Harv|Jessee|1976|p=5, the event was witnessed by a few non-believing Palmyra residents Harv|Tucker|1867|p=58. The majority of witnesses say this organizational event took place in the log home of Joseph Smith, Sr. in the Manchester area (Harvnb|Smith|1844; Harv|Smith|1883|p=14; Harv|Jessee|1976; Harvnb|Tucker|1867|p=58), followed by a meeting the next Sunday in Fayette, New York Harv|Tucker|1867|p=58. Nevertheless, one of Smith's histories Harv|Roberts|1902|p=78, and a later statement by David Whitmer place the event in Fayette Harv|Whitmer|1887|p=33.

On April 11 1830, the first Sunday after the Tuesday, April 6 organization date, the newly-formed church held its first worship services in Fayette Harv|Roberts|1902|p=81, attended by a much larger group of about 30 people Harvnb|Tucker|1867|p=59. At least six other people were baptized that day in the nearby Seneca Lake, and at least seven others were baptized on the following Sunday, April 18 Harv|Roberts|1902|p=81, after a revelation two days earlier had stated that new converts had to be rebaptized into "a new and an everlasting covenant" regardless of any prior baptism Harv|Phelps|1833|p=47, sec. XXIII. Oliver Cowdery, as the "first preacher", took the lead in both baptism and the giving of sermons (Harvnb|Roberts|1902|p=81; Harvnb|Tucker|1867|p=59–60). Smith and the leaders of his church also began teaching and baptizing in Colesville, New York, near Smith's home in Harmony, where his friend Joseph Knight, Sr. lived. The Colesville meetings were "well-attended" and led to several baptisms, particularly after word got out that Smith had performed an exorcism of one of Joseph Knight's sons (Harv|Roberts|1902|pp=81–83; Harvnb|Roberts|1902|p=83).

Thus, by June 1830, the new church had about 30 members Harv|Roberts|1902|p=84. On June 9 1830, the church held its first conference in Fayette. It was on this occasion that Smith called for a vote on the "Articles and Covenants of the Church of Christ" Harv|Howe|1831, which would serve as the church's constitution Harv|Cowdery|1830. At the conference, several said they had visions, others fainted and had to be laid on beds, others shouted hosannas Harv|Roberts|1902|p=84.

Colesville branch

In addition to the members in the Palmyra-Manchester area and in Fayette, Smith soon found followers in Colesville, New York, a town near Harmony on the Susquehanna River. Smith's friend Joseph Knight, Sr. lived there, and the Universalist Knight had been receptive to Smith's ideas Harv|Jessee|1976|p=5. In April 1830, Smith visited Colesville and held several "well-attended" meetings Harv|Roberts|1902|p=81. Smith achieved a great deal of notoriety Harv|Cole|1830 when he reportedly performed an exorcism on one of Knight's sons, Newell Knight Harvnb|Roberts|1902|p=82–83). This exorcism convinced several Colesville residents to be baptized Harv|Roberts|1902|p=83, including eventually Newell, who traveled to Fayette in late May to be baptized, and was present during the June 9 1830 conference, where he fell into a trance and awoke saying he'd had a theophany Harv|Roberts|1902|p=84.

After the June 9 1830 conference and a brief return home to Harmony, with Knight's exorcism in recent memory, Smith dictated what was described as a secret vision of Moses Harv|Roberts|1902|p=98, not to be shown "unto any except them that believe" Harv|Roberts|1902|p=98, in which Satan attempted to convince Moses that he was Jesus Harv|Roberts|1902|p=98. Much later, while speaking about the early history of the church, Smith said he had heard " [t] he voice of Michael on the banks of the Susquehanna, detecting the devil when he appeared as an angel of light" Harv|Smith|1842|p=936. Although Smith did not give a date for this event, it could have occurred during this time when he was thinking about exorcisms and appearances of the devil near the Susquehanna.

In late June 1830, Joseph, Emma, Oliver Cowdery, and John and David Whitmer visited Colesville and baptized Joseph Knight, Sr., many of his family, and several others in the area Harv|Roberts|1902|pp=86–87. This activity, and the recent exorcism of Newell Knight, aroused the animosity of a group of local residents, leading to Smith's arrest by the local constable on "disorderly person" (vagrancy) charges Harv|Roberts|1902|p=88. Smith was transported to South Bainbridge, New York. His two-day trial took place in late June, ending on July 1 1830 Harv|Walters|1974|p=124, and he was defended by two attorneys hired by Joseph Knight, [The attorneys were John S. Reid and James Davidson Harv|Roberts|1902|p=89] who got him acquitted Harv|Roberts|1902|pp=89–90. Immediately after his release, however, he was arrested again and transported back to Colesville for a second trial, for which he was also acquitted Harv|Roberts|1902|pp=90–96.

After a few days home in Harmony, Smith returned to Joseph Knight's house in Colesville with Oliver Cowdery, but after they saw a mob gathering, were quickly forced to run all night back to Harmony, while pursued by the mob, stopping only once to rest under a tree Harv|Roberts|1902|p=97. A source who said he heard Smith describe this flight in 1844 said that while resting at the tree, Smith and Cowdery were visited by Peter, James, and John who gave them their priesthood "keys" Harv|Everett|1882|p=5, which according to Smith included "the keys of the kingdom, and of the dispensation of the ful [l] ness of times" Harv|Smith|1842|p=936. [The factual accuracy of this second-hand account by Addison Everett has been questioned, as there are some anachronisms.Fact|date=March 2007 For example, Everett incorrectly understood the 1830 trial to have taken place in 1829 during the translation of the "Book of Mormon"]

Definition of Smith's role in the church

Back at his home in Harmony, Pennsylvania, Smith dictated a revelation indicating that he and Cowdery should begin acting more as full-time clergy Harv|Phelps|1833|pp=55–57, ch. XXV. After planting crops in Harmony, they would begin visiting the church's branches in Colesville, Fayette, and Manchester, "devote all [their] service in Zion", and while traveling, they would receive clothes, food, and money from the church as needed Harv|Phelps|1833|pp=55–57, XXV:5, 10, 28. John Whitmer, who had begun living with Joseph and Emma Harv|Roberts|1902|p=104, was also given a full-time clerical role Harv|Phelps|1833|p=59, XXVII. Smith's wife Emma also wanted to know her place within the new church, and a second revelation reassured her that Smith would support her with church funds Harv|Phelps|1833|p=58, XXVI:8. She was not destined to be a witness of the Golden Plates (v. 8), but she was to act as Joseph's scribe when Cowdery was unavailable (v. 5), and she was to create a church hymnal (v. 11).

Smith, with the assistance of John Whitmer, then began to copy and compile the revelations Smith had dictated up to that point, while Cowdery returned to Fayette. Cowdery and most of the Whitmer family in Fayette became alarmed, however, when they learned that Smith had added a phrase to the "Articles and Covenants of the Church of Christ" Harv|Howe|1831, requiring good works as a prerequisite for baptism, and Cowdery commanded Smith to retract the added phrase Harv|Roberts|1902|p=105. Smith had to travel to Fayette to convince Cowdery and the Whitmers "that the sentence was reasonable, and according to Scripture" Harv|Roberts|1902|p=105.

In August 1830, back in Harmony, Smith began once again to arouse resentment with the neighbors, and Emma's parents finally turned against him Harv|Roberts|1902|p=108. On the urging of Nathaniel Lewis, a Methodist deacon who was married to Isaac Hale's sister Harv|Porter|1969|p=332, Isaac Hale indicated he would no longer offer Smith and other church members his protection Harv|Roberts|1902|p=108. As he began to fear for his safety, he dictated a revelation that it was not safe to buy wine or liquor from the church's enemies, and that any wine or liquor consumed by church members, including sacramental wine, must be made by church members. Harv|Phelps|1833|p=60, XXVIII.

Given the resentment in Harmony, and the continued open hostility in Colesville Harv|Roberts|1902|p=108, Smith moved in September 1830 to Fayette, where the Whitmer family had once again offered him residence Harv|Roberts|1902|p=108. In Fayette, Smith found that Hiram Page, one of the Eight Witnesses, had been dictating revelations using his own seer stone, and that Oliver Cowdery, the Whitmer family, and most church members Harv|Booth|1831b had been accepting them as the word of God Harv|Roberts|1902|p=110. Page's revelations had to do with the establishment of Zion Harv|Roberts|1902|p=109, including the location of the "New Jerusalem" city predicted in the "Book of Mormon" (Ether, ch. 13). [That one of Page's revelations predicted the location of the "New Jerusalem" is a generally-accepted inference, based on Smith's history and the responsive revelation. See, e.g., Joseph Fielding Smith (1946) "Church History and Modern Revelation". (Salt Lake City: LDS Church), 1:125n. ]

Hiram Page's revelations, and their general acceptance as scripture by the Fayette branch, weighed upon Smith as he prepared for the church's second conference, scheduled for September 26 1830 Harv|Roberts|1902|p=110. Prior to that conference, Smith dictated a revelation to Cowdery indicating, for the first time, that Smith "alone" was "appointed to receive commandments and revelations in the Church" Harv|Booth|1831b. [According to David Whitmer, several men other than Joseph Smith had the gift of prophecy in the early days of the , including Ziba Peterson, Hiram Page, Oliver Cowdery, Parley P. Pratt, Orson Pratt, Peter Whitmer, Christian Whitmer, John Whitmer, and himself Harv|Whitmer|1882|p=32.] Cowdery would continue to have his own written revelations, but he was to "write them not by way of commandment", and he was particularly forbidden to command Smith, whom the revelation described was to be "at the head of the church" Harv|Booth|1831b. Furthermore, after the conference, Cowdery would be sent on a mission "among the Lamanites" (Native Americans) Harv|Booth|1831b. As to Page's revelations, they originated from Satan, and in fact nobody knew the location of the "New Jerusalem", though it would be somewhere "among the Lamanites" Harv|Booth|1831b.

In preparation for the church's second conference, Smith also dictated his most significant revelation since the Articles and Covenants of the Church of Christ. Harv|Phelps|loc=XXIX, pp. 61–67. The revelation contained grand eschatological themes, and stated that the "elect" would be "gathered in unto one place, upon the face of this land" in anticipation of the Tribulation Harv|Phelps|p=61.

At the church's second conference, dated September 26 1830, the church discussed Hiram Page's revelations, and Page agreed to renounce his seer stone and his revelations. Smith then dictated a series of revelations chastizing David Whitmer Harv|Phelps|loc=XXXI, p. 69 and calling several missionaries Harv|Phelps|loc=XXXII–XXXIV, pp. 69–72.

Mission to the "Lamanites" and recruitment of Sidney Rigdon

In October 1830, after the Second Conference, Smith dispatched Oliver Cowdery on his mission to the "Lamanites" Harv|Roberts|1902|p=118. Cowdery was accompanied by Parley Parker Pratt Harv|Smith|1835|loc=LIV, p. 184, a recent convert who had been a missionary for the Disciples of Christ in Amherst, Ohio Harv|Roberts|1902|p=121. On their way to the "Lamanites", the missionaries passed by Kirtland, Ohio, where there was a Disciples of Christ congregation, and converted its minister Sidney Rigdon and about 20 members of his congregation Harv|Roberts|1902|pp=121–124. Then Cowdery's delegation continued toward their destination of the "Lamanites" west of the Mississippi River. [Although the intended destination was west of the Mississippi, where Andrew Jackson had recently relocated several Native American tribes, the delegation didn't make it that far.Fact|date=March 2007]

Meanwhile, Rigdon traveled the opposite direction from Ohio to Fayette, New York to see Joseph Smith, arriving in December 1830 Harv|Roberts|1902|p=128. To mark the occasion, Smith dictated a revelation directed to Rigdon Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=XXXVII, pp. 75–77 comparing Rigdon with John the Baptist, stating that like John, Rigdon had previously "baptized by water unto repentance, but they received not the Holy Ghost" Harv|Phelps|1833|p=76. But now, when Rigdon would baptize, they would "receive the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands, even as the apostles of old" Harv|Phelps|1833|p=76. Furthermore, Rigdon was to watch over Smith, that Smith's "faith fail not", and as long as Smith was faithful, he would have the "keys" to reveal all the "mysteries" of God that had previously been "sealed" Harv|Phelps|1833|p=77. If Smith was not faithful, God would "plant [another] in his stead" Harv|Phelps|1833|p=77.

In the absence of Cowdery, Rigdon became Smith's new scribe Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=p. 76, and Smith dictated to Rigdon what Smith said was a translation of the Prophecy of Enoch, a "lost book" referred to in the Book of Jude Harv|Roberts|1902|p=132. The project of translating the "sealed" mysteries of God was soon postponed, however Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=XXXIX, pp. 79–80, as a revelation in late December 1830 indicated that the church headquarters was to move from Fayette to Kirtland to await Oliver Cowdery's return there from his mission to the "Lamanites" Harv|Phelps|1833|loc=XXXIX, pp. 79–80.

Notes

References


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volume=5
place=Salt Lake City
publisher=Signature Books
publication-year=2003
isbn=1-56085-170-8
pages=95–110
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Hill
First=Donna
Title = Joseph Smith: The First Mormon
URL=http://www.signaturebooks.com/excerpts/first.htm|Year=2004
Place = Salt Lake City
Publisher = Signature Books
Year = 1999
isbn=1-56085-118-X
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Hill
First=Marvin S.
Title=Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties
Journal=BYU Studies
Volume=12
Issue=2
Year=1976
Pages=1–8
URL=https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Howe
First=Eber Dudley, ed.
Authorlink=Eber Dudley Howe
Title=Golden Bible
Journal=Painesville Telegraph and Geauga Free Press
Date=September 22 1829
Year=1829
Volume=1
Issue=15
URL=http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/OH/painetel.htm#092229
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Howe
First=Eber Dudley, ed.
Authorlink=Eber Dudley Howe
Title=The Mormon Creed
Journal=The [Painesville] Telegraph
Date=April 19 1831
Year=1831
Volume=II
Issue=44
URL=http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/OH/paintel2.htm#041931
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Howe
First=Eber Dudley
Title=Mormonism Unvailed
Place=Painesville, Ohio
Publisher=Telegraph Press
Year=1834
URL=http://www.solomonspalding.com/docs/1834howb.htm
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Jessee
First=Dean
Authorlink=Dean C. Jessee
Title=The Original Book of Mormon Manuscript
Journal=BYU Studies
Volume=10
Issue=3
Year=1970
Page=1
URL=https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/10.3Jessee.pdf
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Jessee
First=Dean
Authorlink=Dean C. Jessee
Title=Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History
Journal=BYU Studies
Volume=17
Issue=1
Year=1976
Page=35
URL=https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
.
#Harvard reference
Surname1=Kelley
Given1=William H.
Surname2=Blakeslee
Given2=G.A.
Title=David Whitmer interview
Journal=The Saints' Herald
Volume=29
Date=March 1 1882
Year=1882
.
# Harvard reference
last=Lapham
first= [La] Fayette
chapter=Interview with the Father of Joseph Smith, the Mormon Prophet, Forty Years Ago. His Account of the Finding of the Sacred Plates
journal=Historical Magazine [second series]
volume=7
year=1870
pages=305-309
editor-last=Vogel
editor-first=Dan
title=Early Mormon Documents
volume=1
publisher=Signature Books
publication-year=1996
isbn=1-56085-072-8
url=http://www.signaturebooks.com/excerpts/doc1.htm
.
# Harvard reference
Surname1=Lewis
Given1=Joseph
Surname2=Lewis
Given2=Hiel
Title=Mormon History
Periodical=Amboy Journal
Volume=24
Issue=5
Year=1879
Date=April 30, 1879
Page=1
URL=http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/IL/miscill3.htm#043079
.
# Harvard reference
Last=Mather
First=Frederic G.
Title=Early Days of Mormonism
Journal=Lippincott's Magazine
Volume=26
Issue=152
Year=1880
Pages=198–211
URL=http://olivercowdery.com/smithhome/1880Math.htm
.
# Harvard reference
Surname1=McKune
Given1=Joshua
Title=Review of Mormonism: Rejoiner to Elder Cadwell
Periodical=Amboy Journal
Volume=24
Issue=11
Year=1879
Date=June 11 1879
Page=1
URL=http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/IL/miscill3.htm#061179
.
#Harvard reference
last=Norwich, Vermont
date=March 15 1816
year=1816
title=Excerpt: A Record of Strangers Who are Warned Out of Town, 1813–1818, Norwich Clerk's Office, p. 53
editor-first=Vogel
editor-last=Dan
title=Early Mormon Documents
volume=1
publisher=Signature Books
publication-year=1996
ISBN=1-56085-072-8
page=666
.
#Harvard reference
Last=O'Reilly
First=Henry, ed.
Title=Golden Bible
Journal=Rochester Daily Advertiser and Telegraph
Volume=III
Issue=878
Date=August 31 1829
Year=1829
URL=http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/NY/miscNYSf.htm#083129
.
#Harvard reference
last=Page
first=Hiram
authorlink=Hiram Page
chapter=Letter to Brother Wm. [probably William E. McLellin]
date=February 2 1848
year=1848
editor-last=Vogel
editor-first=Dan
title=Early Mormon Documents
page=257
place=Salt Lake City
publisher=Signature Books
volume=5
publication-year=2003
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Phelps
First=W.W., ed.
Authorlink=W. W. Phelps
Title=A Book of Commandments, for the Government of the Church of Christ
Place =Zion
Publisher = William Wines Phelps & Co.
Year=1833
URL=http://www.irr.org/mit/BOC/default.html
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Porter
First=Larry C.
Title=Reverend George Lane—Good "Gifts", Much "Grace", and Marked "Usefulness"
Journal=BYU Studies
Volume=9
Issue=3
Year=1969
Pages=321–340
URL=https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/9.3Porter.pdf
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Porter
First=Larry C.
Title=A Study of the Origins of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the States of New York and Pennsylvania, 1816–1831
Publisher=Ph.D dissertation, BYU
Year=1971
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Pry
First=Paul (pseudonym)
Title=From the Golden Bible
Journal=Paul Pry's Weekly Bulletin
Volume=II
Issue=12–14, 17
Date=July 25 1829, August 1 1829, August 8 1829, August 29 1829
Year=1829
URL=http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/NY/miscNYSf.htm#072529
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Quinn
First=D. Michael
Authorlink=D. Michael Quinn
Title=Early Mormonism and the Magic World View
Publisher=Signature Books
edition=2d
Year=1998
ISBN=1-56085-089-2
.
#Citation
editor-last=Roberts
editor-first=B. H.
editor-link=Brigham Henry Roberts
title=History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
volume=1
publisher=LDS Church
year=1902
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=sx3s_H3seGAC
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Smith
First=Joseph III
Authorlink=Joseph Smith III
Title=Last Testimony of Sister Emma
Journal=The Saints' Herald
Volume=26
Issue=19
Date=October 1 1879
Year=1879
Pages=289
URL=http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/IL/sain1872.htm#100179
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Smith
First=Joseph, Jr.
Authorlink=Joseph Smith, Jr.
Date=October 22 1829
Year=1829
Title=Letter to Oliver Cowdery
URL=http://deseretbook.com/personalwritings/9
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Smith
First=Joseph, Jr.
Authorlink=Joseph Smith, Jr.
Date=January 16 1830
Year=1830a
Title=Agreement between Joseph Smith Jr. and Martin Harris
Place=Simon Gratz Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Smith
First=Joseph, Jr.
Authorlink=Joseph Smith, Jr.
Date=March 26 1830
Year=1830b
Title=The Book of Mormon: An Account Written by the Hand of Mormon, Upon Plates Taken from the Plates of Nephi
Place = Palmyra, New York
Publisher = E. B. Grandin
URL=http://www.inephi.com/Search.htm
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Smith
First=Joseph, Jr.
Authorlink=Joseph Smith, Jr.
Chapter=History of the Life of Joseph Smith (Joseph Smith Letterbook 1, Joseph Smith Collection, LDS Archives, Salt Lake City)
Year=1832
editor-last=Jessee
editor-first=Dean C
title = Personal Writings of Joseph Smith
place = Salt Lake City
publisher = Deseret Book
publication-year = 2002
ISBN=1-57345-787-6
chapterurl = http://deseretbook.com/personalwritings/4
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Smith
First=Joseph, Jr. et al., eds.
Authorlink=Joseph Smith, Jr.
Title=Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of the Latter Day Saints
Place=Kirtland, Ohio
Publisher=F. G. Williams & Co
Year=1835
URL=http://www.irr.org/mit/BOC/default.html
.
#Harvard reference
last=Smith
first=Joseph, Jr. et al.
year=1838–1842
chapter=History of the Church, Ms. A–1 (LDS Church Archives, Salt Lake City)
editor-last=Jessee
editor-first=Dean C
title = Personal Writings of Joseph Smith
place = Salt Lake City
publisher = Deseret Book
publication-year = 2002
ISBN=1-57345-787-6
chapterurl = http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/History_of_the_Church_%281838%29
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Smith
First=Joseph, Jr.
Authorlink=Joseph Smith, Jr.
Title=Letter from Joseph Smith
Place=Nauvoo, Illinois
Journal=Times and Seasons
Date=September 6 1842
Year=1842
Volume=3
Issue=23
Pages=934–936
URL=http://www.centerplace.org/history/ts/v3n23.htm
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Smith
First=Joseph, Jr.
Authorlink=Joseph Smith, Jr.
Chapter=Latter Day Saints
Editor=I. Daniel Rupp
Title=An Original History of the Religious Denominations at Present Existing in the United States
Year=1844
Place=Philadelphia
Pages=404–10
URL=http://www.boap.org/LDS/Early-Saints/Rupp.html
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Smith
First=Joseph Fielding
Authorlink=Joseph Fielding Smith
Title=Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith
Place=Salt Lake City
Publisher=Deseret Book
Year=1976
isbn=0-87747-626-8
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Smith
First=Lucy Mack
Authorlink=Lucy Mack Smith
Title=Biographical Sketches of Joseph Smith the Prophet, and His Progenitors for Many Generations
Place=Liverpool
Publisher=S.W. Richards
Year=1853
URL=http://relarchive.byu.edu/19th/descriptions/biographical.html
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Smith
First=William
Authorlink=William Smith (Latter Day Saints)
Title=William Smith on Mormonism: A True Account of the Origin of the Book of Mormon
Place=Lamoni, Iowa
Publisher=RLDS Church
Year=1883
URL=http://www.olivercowdery.com/smithhome/1883Wilm.htm
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Spalding
First=Lyman Austin, ed.
Title=Gold Bible
Journal=Niagara Courier
Date=August 27 1829
Volume=II
Year=1829
URL=http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/NY/miscNYS1.htm#082729
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Stevenson
First=Edward
Title=One of the Three Witnesses: Incidents in the Life of Martin Harris
Journal=The Latter Day Saints' Millennial Star
Volume=44
Year=1882
Pages=78–79, 86–87
URL= http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cgi-bin/docviewer.exe?CISOROOT=/MillennialStar3&CISOPTR=17556&CISOSHOW=10511
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Tucker
First=Pomeroy
Title=Origin, Rise and Progress of Mormonism
Publisher=New York
Publisher=D. Appleton
Year=1867
URL=http://www.solomonspalding.com/docs1/1867TucA.htm
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Turner
First=Orasmus
Title=History of the Pioneer Settlement of Phelps and Gorham's Purchase, and Morris' Reserve
Place=Rochester, New York
Publisher=William Alling
Year=1851
URL=http://olivercowdery.com/texts/1851Trn1.htm#turn1851
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Van Horn
First=Robert T.
Authorlink=Robert T. Van Horn
Title=Mormonism: Authentic Account of the Origin of The Sect from One of the Patriarchs
Journal=Kansas City Daily Journal
Date=June 5 1881
Year=1881
URL=http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/MO/Miss1881.htm#060581
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Vogel
First=Dan
Title=The Locations of Joseph Smith's Early Treasure Quests
Journal=
Volume=27
Issue=3
Year=1994
Pages=197–231
URL=http://content.lib.utah.edu/cgi-bin/docviewer.exe?CISOROOT=/dialogue&CISOPTR=17325&CISOSHOW=17195
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Walters
First=Wesley P.
Title=Joseph Smith's Bainbridge, N. Y., Court Trials
Journal=Westminster Theological Journal
Volume=36
Issue=2
Year=1974
Pages=123–155
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Weed
First=Thurlow
Authorlink=Thurlow Weed
Title=Autobiography of Thurlow Weed
Place=Boston
Publisher=Houghton, Mifflin
Year=1884
editor1-last=Weed
editor1-first=Harriet A.
editor2-last=Barnes
editor2-first=Thurlow Weed
.
#Harvard reference
Last=Whitmer
First=David
Authorlink=David Whitmer
Title=An Address to All Believers in Christ By A Witness to the Divine Authenticity of the Book of Mormon
Place=Richmond, Missouri
Publisher=David Whitmer
Year=1887
URL=http://www.utlm.org/onlinebooks/address1.htm
.

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