- Quantum defect
The term

**quantum defect**is highly ambiguous. Various meanings are discussed below.**Quantum defect in**laser science In

laser science, the term**quantum defect**refers to the fact that the energy of a pump photon is generally higher than that of an "signal photon" (photon of the output radiation). The difference of energies goes to the heat;this heat may carry away the excess ofentropy delivered with the multimode uncoherent pump.The

**quantum defect**of alaser can be defined as part of the energy of the pumping photon, which is lost (not turned into photons at the lasing wavelength) in thegain medium at thelasing .cite journal

url=http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?isnumber=6035&arnumber=234394&count=87&index=4

author=T.Y.Fan

coauthors=

title=Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG

journal=IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics

volume=29

pages=1457–1459

year=1993

doi=10.1109/3.234394

format=abstract] At given frequency $~omega\_\{\; m\; p\}~$ ofpump and given frequency $~omega\_\{\; m\; s\}~$ oflasing , the quantum defect $~q=hbaromega\_\{\; m\; p\}-hbaromega\_\{\; m\; s\}~$.Such**quantum defect**has dimension of energy; for the efficient operation, thetemperature of thegain medium (meadured in units of energy) should be small compared to the**quantum defect**.

At a fixed pump frequency, the higher the quantum defect, the lower is the upper bound for the power efficiency.**Quantum defect in Rydberg atoms**The

**quantum defect**of aRydberg atom refers to a correction applied to the equations governing Rydberg atom behavior to take into account the fact that the inner electrons do not entirely screen their associated charge in the nucleus [*http://www.phy.davidson.edu/StuHome/joesten/IntLab/final/rydberg.htm ,Rydberg Atoms and the Quantum Defect at the site of*] .Davidson College , Physics department**References**

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