- Pope Gregory XI
Vicedomino de Vicedominis, a pope-elect who took the name Gregory XI".Infobox Pope
English name=Gregory XI
birth_name=Pierre Roger de Beaufort
December 30, 1370
March 27, 1378
Rosiers-d'Égletons, Limousin, France
Pope Gregory XI (c. 1336 –
March 27, 1378), born Pierre Roger de Beaufort, Popefrom 1370 to 1378, born in Rosiers-d'Égletons, Limousin around 1336, succeeded Pope Urban V(1362–70) in 1370 as one of the Avignon Popes.
During his pontificate vigorous measures were taken against the heresies which had broken out in
Germany, England, and other parts of Europe; a sincere effort was also made to bring about a reformation in the various monastic orders. The nineteen propositions of John Wycliffe(c. 1320–84) and the thirteen articles of the Sachenspiegelwere formally condemned by Pope Gregory XI in 1377.
His return to Rome is attributed in part to the stirring words of
Catherine of Siena, January 27, 1377. This had been attempted by Gregory's predecessor, Urban V, without success. The project was delayed by a conflict between the pope and Florence, known as "the War of the Eight Saints" for the "Eight for War," the Florentine magistrates responsible for the conduct of the war. The pope put Florence under interdict for a time.
Gregory XI did not long survive this removal, dying on March 27, 1378. After his death the College of Cardinals was pressured by a Roman mob, that successfully broke into the voting chamber, to vote an Italian Pope into the papacy. This Italian Pope was Urban VI. Soon after electing Urban he gained the Cardinals' enmity, so, with the encouragement of the French King the cardinals returned to Avignon and elected a French pope there, named Clement VII in 1378.
This mess created through the switching of popes by the Cardinals forced the people of Europe into a dilemma of papal allegiance. This Schism created was not fully resolved until the Council of Constance from 1414-1418, where the current popes were deposed and Martin V was voted in as Pope. This Schism and its difficulties brought about the reforming councils and gave them the power over who was elected, opposed to the College of Cardinals in the past.
*"From the 9th edition (1880) of an unnamed encyclopedia"
*"Hanawalt, G.Barbara. The Middle Ages:An Illustrated History, 1998, Oxford Univ. Press, p. 143"
*"Cairns, E.Earl. Christianity Throughout The Centuries: A History of the Christian Church, 1996, Zondervan, pp.241 & 248-250"
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