- Pope Gregory XII
English name=Gregory XII
birth_name=Angelo Correr or Corraro
November 30, 1406
July 4, 1415
birth_date=c. 1326 or between 1335 and 1345
Pope Gregory XII (died
October 18, 1417), born Angelo Correr" or "Corraro, Popefrom 1406 to 1415, succeeded Pope Innocent VII(1404–06) on November 30, 1406. He was chosen at Rome by a conclave consisting of only fifteen cardinals under the express condition that, should antipope Benedict XIII(1394–1423), the rival Pope at Avignon, renounce all claim to the Papacy, he also would renounce his, so that a fresh election might be made and the Western Schism(1378–1417) could be ended.
The two pontiffs opened wary negotiations to meet on neutral turf at
Savonain Liguria, but soon began to waver in their resolve. The Correrrelatives of Gregory XII and Ladislaus of Naples(1399–1414), the supporter of Gregory XII and his predecessor for political reasons, used all their influence to prevent the meeting, and each Pope was fearful of being captured by the party of the rival Pope.
The cardinals of Gregory XII openly showed their dissatisfaction at his procedure and gave signs of their intention to abandon him. On
May 4, 1408, Gregory XII convened his cardinals at Luccaand ordered them not to leave the city under any pretext. He tried to supplement his following by creating four of his Correr nephews cardinals - including the future Pope Eugene IV, despite his promise in the conclave that he would create no new cardinals. Seven of the cardinals secretly left Lucca and negotiated with the cardinals of Benedict XIII concerning the convocation of a general council by them, at which both pontiffs should be deposed and a new one elected. Consequently they summoned the council to Pisa and invited both pontiffs to be present. Neither Gregory XII nor Benedict XIII appeared. Meanwhile Gregory XII stayed with his loyal and powerful protector, Carlo I Malatesta, who had come to Pisa in person during the process of the council, in order to support Gregory XII with both sets of cardinals. At the fifteenth session, June 5, 1409, the Council of Pisa deposed the two pontiffs as schismatical, heretical, perjured, and scandalous; they elected Alexander V(1409–10) later that month. Gregory XII, who had meanwhile created ten more cardinals, had convoked a rival council at Cividale del Friuli, near Aquileia; but only a few bishops appeared. Gregory XII's cardinals pronounced Benedict XIII and Alexander V schismatics, perjurers, and devastators of the Church; but their pronouncement went unheeded.
Council of Constancefinally resolved the situation. Gregory XII appointed Carlo Malatesta and Cardinal Giovanni Dominiciof Ragusa as his proxies. The cardinal then convoked the council and authorized its succeeding acts, thus preserving the formulas of Papal supremacy. Thereupon on July 41415, Malatesta, acting in the name of Gregory XII, pronounced the resignation of the Pope, which the cardinals accepted. According to prior agreement, they agreed to retain all the cardinals that had been created by Gregory XII, thus satisfying the Correr clan, and appointed Gregory XII Bishop of Portoand perpetual legate at Ancona. The Council then set aside antipope John XXIII(1410–15). After the former follower of Benedict XIII appeared, the council declared him deposed; and the Great Schism was ended. A new Roman pontiff, Pope Martin V, was not elected before Gregory's death.
The rest of Gregory XII's life was spent in peaceful obscurity in Ancona.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Pope Gregory XII — Pope Gregory XII † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Gregory XII (ANGELO CORRARIO, now CORRER). Legal pope during the Western Schism; born at Venice, of a noble family, about 1327; died at Recanati, 18 October, 1417. … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Pius XII — Pius XII Papacy began 2 March 1939 Papacy ended 9 October 1958 ( 1000000000000001900000019 years, 10000000000000221000000221 days) Predecessor … Wikipedia
Pope Clement XII — Clement XII Papacy began 12 July 1730 Papacy ended 6 February 1740 ( 100000000000000090000009 years, 100000000000002 … Wikipedia
Pope Leo XII — Infobox pope English name = Leo XII birth name = Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchiore Girolamo Nicola della Genga term start = September 28, 1823 term end = February 10, 1829 predecessor = Pius VII successor = Pius VIII birth date = birth… … Wikipedia
Gregory XII — • Reigned 1406 1415 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Gregory XII Pope Gregory XII … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Gregory — has been the name of sixteen Roman Catholic Popes and two Antipopes: #Pope Gregory I, also called Gregory the Great #Pope Gregory II #Pope Gregory III #Pope Gregory IV #Pope Gregory V #Pope Gregory VI #*Antipope Gregory VI #Pope Gregory VII,… … Wikipedia
Pope Gregory XVI — Gregory XVI Papacy began 2 February 1831 Papacy ended 1 June 1846 ( 1000000000000001500000015 years, 10000000000000119000000119 days) … Wikipedia
Pope Gregory XIV — Gregory XIV Papacy began 5 December 1590 Papacy ended 16 October 1591 (10 months, 11 days) Predecessor Urban VII … Wikipedia
Pope Gregory XVI — Pope Gregory XVI † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Gregory XVI (MAURO, or BARTOLOMEO ALBERTO CAPPELLARI). Born at Belluno, then in the Venetian territory, 8 September, 1765; died at Rome, 9 June, 1846. His father, Giovanni Battista,… … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Gregory XV — Pope Gregory XV † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Gregory XV (ALESSANDRO LUDOVISI). Born at Bologna, 9 or 15 January, 1554; died at Rome, 8 July, 1623. After completing the humanities and philosophy under Jesuit teachers, partly at… … Catholic encyclopedia