Obsolescence


Obsolescence

Obsolescence is the state of being which occurs when an object, service or practice is no longer wanted even though it may still be in good working order. Obsolescence frequently occurs because a replacement has become available that is superior in one or more aspects. Obsolete refers to something that is already disused or discarded, or antiquated.[1] Typically, obsolescence is preceded by a gradual decline in popularity.

Contents

Types of obsolescence

Technical obsolescence

Technical obsolescence may occur when a new product or technology supersedes the old, and it becomes preferred to utilize the new technology in place of the old. Historical examples of superseding technologies causing obsolescence include higher-quality multimedia DVD over videocassette recorder and the telephone, with audio transmission, over the telegraph's coded electrical signals. On a smaller scale, particular products may become obsolete due to replacement by a newer version of the product. Many products in the computer industry become obsolete in this manner; for example, Central processing units frequently become obsolete in favor of newer, faster units. Singularly, rapid obsolescence of data formats along with their supporting hardware and software can lead to loss of critical information, a process known as digital obsolescence.

Another complementary reason for obsolescence can be that supporting technologies may no longer be available to produce or even repair a product. For example many integrated circuits, including CPUs, memory and even some relatively simple logic chips may no longer be produced because the technology has been superseded, their original developer has gone out of business or a competitor has bought them out and effectively killed off their products to remove competition. It is rarely worth redeveloping a product to get around these issues since its overall functionality and price/performance ratio has usually been superseded by that time as well. [2]

Some products are rendered technologically obsolete due to changes in complementary products which results in the function of the first product being made unnecessary. For example, buggy whips became obsolete when people started to travel in cars rather than in horse-drawn buggies.

Functional obsolescence

Particular items may become functionally obsolete when they do not function in the manner that they did when they were created. This may be due to natural wear, or due to some intervening act. For example, if a new mobile phone technology is adopted, and there is no longer a provider who provides service based on the old technology, any mobile phone using that technology would be rendered obsolete due to the inability to access service.

Products which naturally wear out or break down may become obsolete if replacement parts are no longer available, or when the cost of repairs or replacement parts is higher than the cost of a new item. A product may intentionally be designed to use a faster wearing component - for example, use of soft rubber soles on shoes rather than for example rubber used in tires.

Planned obsolescence

Sometimes marketers deliberately introduce obsolescence into their product strategy, with the objective of generating long-term sales volume by reducing the time between repeat purchases. One example might be producing an appliance which is deliberately designed to wear out within five years of its purchase, pushing consumers to replace it within five years.

Style obsolescence

Jimi Hendrix's bell-bottoms

When a product is no longer desirable because it has gone out of the popular fashion, its style is obsolete. One example is flared leg jeans; although this article of clothing may still be perfectly functional, it is no longer desirable because style trends have moved away from the flared leg cut.

Because of the "fashion cycle", stylistically obsolete products may eventually regain popularity and cease to be obsolete. A current example is "acid-wash" jeans, which were popular in the 1980s, became stylistically obsolete in the mid to late 1990s, and returned to popularity in the 2000s.

Postponement obsolescence

Postponement obsolescence refers to a situation where technological improvements are not introduced to a product, even though they could be. One possible example is when an auto manufacturer develops a new feature for its line of cars, but chooses not to implement that feature in the production of the least expensive car in its product line.

Obsolescence management

Obsolescence management refers to the activities that are undertaken to mitigate the effects of obsolescence. Activities can include last-time buys, life-time buys and obsolescence monitoring.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Fowler HW and Fowler FG (1st ed.), Thompson Delia (ed.) (1995). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, 9th Ed., Clarendon Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-861319-9.
  2. ^ Example manufacturer's obsolescence notifications
  3. ^ Example of a manufacturer's obsolescence notifications web page

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • OBSOLESCENCE — Qu’une technique nouvelle jugée plus «rentable» se répande aux dépens d’une technique utilisée antérieurement, qu’un équipement nouveau devienne disponible et donne au travail une productivité plus élevée en abaissant les coûts de production, les …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • obsolescence — ob‧so‧les‧cence [ˌɒbsəˈlesns ǁ ˌɑːb ] noun [uncountable] when a product, system etc is becoming no longer useful because something better is available, possible etc: • Now markets are subject to the faster obsolescence of products due to greater …   Financial and business terms

  • obsolescence — ob·so·les·cence /ˌäb sə les əns/ n: a loss in the utility or value of property that results over time from intrinsic limitations (as outmoded facilities) or external circumstances ◇ Obsolescence is usu. distinguished from depreciation and… …   Law dictionary

  • obsolescence — (n.) 1809; see OBSOLESCENT (Cf. obsolescent) + ENCE (Cf. ence). Phrase Planned obsolescence coined 1932, revived as a disparaging term 1950s …   Etymology dictionary

  • Obsolescence — Ob so*les cence, n. [See {Obsolescent}.] The state of becoming obsolete. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Obsolescence — Sur les autres projets Wikimedia : « Obsolescence », sur le Wiktionnaire (dictionnaire universel) L’obsolescence[1] est le fait pour un produit d’être dépassé, et donc de perdre une partie de sa valeur en raison de la seule… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • obsolescence — A fall in the value of an asset as a result of its age. For example, plant and equipment may not have actually worn out but may have become out of date because technology has advanced and more efficient plant has become available. It also applies …   Big dictionary of business and management

  • obsolescence — noun Date: circa 1828 the process of becoming obsolete or the condition of being nearly obsolete < the gradual obsolescence of machinery > < reduced to obsolescence > …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • obsolescence — n. built in; planned obsolescence * * * [ˌɒbsə les(ə)ns] planned obsolescence built in …   Combinatory dictionary

  • obsolescence — ob|so|les|cence [ˌɔbsəˈlesəns US ˌa:b ] n [U] 1.) when something becomes old fashioned and no longer useful, because something newer and better has been invented 2.) planned/built in obsolescence when a product is designed so that it will soon… …   Dictionary of contemporary English


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