David Petraeus


David Petraeus
David Petraeus
Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
Incumbent
Assumed office
September 6, 2011
President Barack Obama
Deputy Michael Morell
Preceded by Michael Morell (Acting)
Personal details
Born November 7, 1952 (1952-11-07) (age 59)
Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York, U.S.
Alma mater United States Military Academy
Ranger School
United States Army Command and General Staff College
Princeton University
Military service
Service/branch United States Army seal United States Army
Years of service 1974–2011
Rank US-O10 insignia.svg General
Commands International Security Assistance Force
United States Forces-Afghanistan
United States Central Command
Multinational Force-Iraq
United States Army Combined Arms Center
Fort Leavenworth
Multinational Security Transition Command-Iraq
101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)
1st Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division
3rd Battalion, 187th Infantry Regiment
A Company, 2nd Battalion, 9th Infantry Regiment (Mechanized)
Battles/wars Stabilisation Force
Operation Uphold Democracy
Operation Desert Spring
Iraq War
War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
Awards Defense Distinguished Service Medal (4)
Army Distinguished Service Medal (3)
Defense Superior Service Medal (2)
Legion of Merit (4)
Bronze Star Medal with Valor
Defense Meritorious Service Medal
NATO Meritorious Service Medal
Officer of the Order of Australia

David Howell Petraeus (pronunciation: /pɨˈtr.əs/; born November 7, 1952) is the current Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, sworn in on September 6, 2011.[1] Prior to his assuming the directorship of the CIA, Petraeus was a four-star general serving over 37 years in the United States Army. His last assignments in the Army were as commander of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and Commander, U.S. Forces Afghanistan (USFOR-A) from July 4, 2010 to July 18, 2011. His other four-star assignments include serving as the 10th Commander, U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM) from October 13, 2008, to June 30, 2010, and as Commanding General, Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I) from February 10, 2007, to September 16, 2008.[2] As commander of MNF-I, Petraeus oversaw all coalition forces in Iraq.[3][4]

Petraeus has a Bachelor of Science degree from the United States Military Academy from which he graduated in 1974 as a distinguished cadet (top 5% of his class). He was the General George C. Marshall Award winner as the top graduate of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College class of 1983.[5] He subsequently earned an M.P.A. in 1985 and a Ph.D. in International Relations in 1987 from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. He later served as Assistant Professor of International Relations at the United States Military Academy and also completed a fellowship at Georgetown University.[citation needed]

Some news reports have speculated that Petraeus may have interest in running for the presidency, especially after he visited a school known for hosting the presidential debates, New Hampshire's Saint Anselm College. Petraeus lives in New Hampshire.[6] Despite these accounts, Petraeus has categorically asserted that he has no political ambitions.[7][8][9][10] On June 23, 2010, President Barack Obama nominated Petraeus to succeed General Stanley McChrystal as commanding general of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan, technically a step down from his position as Commander of United States Central Command, which oversees the military efforts in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Central Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, and Egypt.[11][12][13]

On June 30, 2011, Petraeus was unanimously confirmed as the next Director of the CIA by the US Senate 94-0.[14] Petraeus relinquished command of U.S. and NATO forces in Afghanistan on July 18, and retired from the U.S. Army on August 31.[15]

Contents

Personal life

Petraeus was born in Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York, the son of Miriam (née Howell), a librarian, and Sixtus Petraeus, a sea captain from Franeker.[16] His mother was American and his father had immigrated to the United States from the Netherlands during the initial phase of World War II.[17] Sixtus settled in Cornwall-on-Hudson, where David Petraeus grew up and graduated from Cornwall Central High School in 1970. Residents called him 'Peaches' in reference to his often-mispronounced last name[18] and the nickname stuck with him as a cadet.[19]

Petraeus then went on to the United States Military Academy at West Point. Petraeus was on the intercollegiate soccer and ski teams, was a cadet captain on the brigade staff, and was a "distinguished cadet" academically, graduating in the top 5% of the Class of 1974 (ranked 43rd overall). In the class yearbook, Petraeus was remembered as "always going for it in sports, academics, leadership, and even his social life."[20]

Two months after graduation Petraeus married Holly Knowlton, a graduate of Dickinson College and daughter of Army General William A. Knowlton, who was superintendent of West Point at the time.[21] Holly, who is multi-lingual, was a National Merit Scholar in high school, and graduated summa cum laude from Dickinson College. They have a daughter and son, Anne and Stephen. Petraeus administered the oath of office at his son's 2009 commissioning into the Army after graduating from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[22][23] His son went on to serve in Afghanistan as a member of Alpha Company, 3rd Platoon, 1st Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment, 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team.[24]

Petraeus's official domicile in the United States is a rustic property in the small community of Springfield, New Hampshire, which his wife inherited from her family.[25]

Education and academia

Petraeus graduated from West Point in 1974. He earned the General George C. Marshall Award as the top graduate of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College Class of 1983 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. He subsequently earned an M.P.A. in 1985 and a Ph.D. in international relations in 1987 from Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, then served as an Assistant Professor of International Relations at the U.S. Military Academy from 1985 to 1987. His doctoral dissertation was entitled "The American Military and the Lessons of Vietnam: A Study of Military Influence and the Use of Force in the Post-Vietnam Era".[26] He also completed a military fellowship at Georgetown University's Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service in 1994–1995, although he was called away early to serve in Haiti as the Chief of Operations for the UN force there in early 1995.[citation needed]

From late 2005 through February 2007,[27] Petraeus served as Commanding General of Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and the U.S. Army Combined Arms Center (CAC) located there. As commander of CAC, Petraeus was responsible for oversight of the Command and General Staff College and seventeen other schools, centers, and training programs as well as for developing the Army’s doctrinal manuals, training the Army’s officers, and supervising the Army’s center for the collection and dissemination of lessons learned. During his time at CAC, Petraeus and Marine Lt. Gen. James N. Mattis jointly oversaw the publication of Field Manual 3-24, Counterinsurgency, the body of which was written by an extraordinarily diverse group of military officers, academics, human rights advocates, and journalists who had been assembled by Petraeus and Mattis.[28][29] Additionally, at both Fort Leavenworth and throughout the military's schools and training programs, Petraeus integrated the study of counterinsurgency into lesson plans and training exercises. In recognition of the fact that soldiers in Iraq often performed duties far different than those they trained for, Petraeus also stressed the importance of teaching soldiers how to think as well as how to fight and the need to foster flexibility and adaptability in leaders,[30][31] he has been called "the world's leading expert in counter-insurgency warfare".[32] Later, having refined his ideas on counterinsurgency based on the implementation of the new COIN doctrine in Iraq, he published both in Iraq as well as in the Sep/Oct 2008 edition of Military Review his "Commander's Counterinsurgency Guidance" to help guide leaders and units in the Multi-National Force-Iraq.[33]

U.S. Army Gen. David H. Petraeus, during his time in the Army.

Military operations

1970s

Upon his graduation from West Point in 1974, Petraeus was commissioned an infantry officer. After completing Ranger School (Distinguished Honor Graduate and other honors), Petraeus was assigned to the 509th Airborne Battalion Combat Team, a light infantry unit in Vicenza, Italy. Ever since, light infantry has been at the core of his career, punctuated by assignments to mechanized units, unit commands, staff assignments, and educational institutions. After leaving the 509th as a first lieutenant, Petraeus began a brief association with mechanized units when he became assistant operations officer on the staff of the 2nd Brigade, 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized) at Fort Stewart, Georgia. In 1979, he assumed command of a company in the same division: ALPHA Company, 2nd Battalion, 19th Infantry Regiment (Mechanized), and then served as that battalion's operations officer, a major's position that he held as a junior captain. In 1988–1989, he also served as operations officer to the 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized)'s 1st Battalion, 30th Infantry Regiment (Mechanized) and its 1st Brigade.

1980s

In 1981, Petraeus became aide-de-camp to the Commanding General of the 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized).[34] He spent the next few years furthering his military and civilian education, including spending 1982-83 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, attending the Command and General Staff College. At graduation in 1983, he was the General George C. Marshall Award winner as the top graduate of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. From 1983-85 he was at Princeton; and 1985-87 at West Point. After earning his Ph.D. and teaching at West Point, Petraeus continued up the rungs of the command ladder, serving as military assistant to Gen. John Galvin, the Supreme Allied Commander in Europe. From there, he moved to the 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) and then to a post as aide and assistant executive officer to the U.S. Army Chief of Staff, Gen. Carl Vuono, in Washington, D.C.

1990s

Upon promotion to lieutenant colonel, Petraeus moved from the office of the Chief of Staff to Fort Campbell, Kentucky, where he commanded the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)'s 3rd Battalion, 187th Infantry Regiment from 1991–1993. As battalion commander of the Iron Rakkasans, he suffered one of the more dramatic incidents in his career; in 1991 he was accidentally shot in the chest with an M-16 assault rifle during a live-fire exercise when a soldier tripped and his rifle discharged.[35] He was taken to Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, where he was operated on by future U.S. Senator Bill Frist. The hospital released him early after he did fifty push ups without resting, just a few days after the accident.[36][37]

During 1993–94, Petraeus continued his long association with the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) as the division's Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 (plans, operations and training) and installation Director of Plans, Training, and Mobilization (DPTM). In 1995, he was assigned to the United Nations Mission in Haiti Military Staff as its Chief Operations Officer during Operation Uphold Democracy. His next command, from 1995–97, was the 1st Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division, centered on the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment. At that post, his brigade's training cycle at Fort Polk's Joint Readiness Training Center for low-intensity warfare was chronicled by novelist and military enthusiast Tom Clancy in his book Airborne. From 1997-99 Petraeus served in the Pentagon as Executive Assistant to the Director of the Joint Staff and then to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, Gen. Henry Shelton, who described Petraeus as "a high-energy individual who likes to lead from the front, in any field he is going into."[38] In 1999, as a brigadier general, Petraeus returned to the 82nd, serving as the assistant division commander for operations and then, briefly, as acting commanding general. During his time with the 82nd, he deployed to Kuwait as part of Operation Desert Spring, the continuous rotation of combat forces through Kuwait during the decade after the Gulf War.

2000s

From the 82nd, he moved on to serve as Chief of Staff of XVIII Airborne Corps at Fort Bragg during 2000–2001. In 2000, Petraeus suffered his second major injury, when, during a civilian skydiving jump, his parachute collapsed at low altitude due to a hook turn, resulting in a hard landing that broke his pelvis. He was selected for promotion to Major General in 2001.[39] During 2001–2002, as a brigadier general, Petraeus served a ten-month tour in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of Operation Joint Forge. In Bosnia, he was the NATO Stabilization Force Assistant Chief of Staff for Operations as well as the Deputy Commander of the U.S. Joint Interagency Counter-Terrorism Task Force, a command created after the September 11 attacks to add counterterrorism capability to the U.S. forces attached to the NATO command in Bosnia. In 2004, he was promoted to Lieutenant General.[40] In 2007, he was promoted to General.[41] On April 23, 2008, Secretary of Defense Gates announced that President Bush was nominating General Petraeus to command U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM), headquartered in Tampa, Florida. The nomination required and received Senate confirmation.[42] He was confirmed by the Senate on June 30, 2010,[43] and took over command from temporary commander Lieutenant-General Sir Nick Parker on July 4, 2010.[44]

Involvement in the Iraq War

101st Airborne Division
Maj. Gen. David H. Petraeus (right), commanding general, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), looks on as Lt. Gen. William S. Wallace, V Corps commanding general speaks to soldiers, March 21, 2003, Kuwait.

In 2003, Petraeus, then a Major General, saw combat for the first time when he commanded the 101st Airborne Division during V Corps's drive to Baghdad. In a campaign chronicled in detail by Pulitzer Prize-winning author Rick Atkinson of The Washington Post in the book In the Company of Soldiers, Petraeus led his division through fierce fighting south of Baghdad, in Karbala, Hilla and Najaf. Following the fall of Baghdad, the division conducted the longest heliborne assault on record in order to reach Ninawa Province, where it would spend much of 2003. The 1st Brigade was responsible for the area south of Mosul, the 2nd Brigade for the city itself, and the 3rd Brigade for the region stretching toward the Syrian border. An often-repeated story of Petraeus's time with the 101st is his asking of embedded Washington Post reporter Rick Atkinson to "Tell me how this ends,"[45] an anecdote he and other journalists have used to portray Petraeus as an early recognizer of the difficulties that would follow the fall of Baghdad.[46][47][48][49][50][51]

In Mosul, a city of nearly two million people, Petraeus and the 101st employed classic counterinsurgency methods to build security and stability, including conducting targeted kinetic operations and using force judiciously, jump-starting the economy, building local security forces, staging elections for the city council within weeks of their arrival, overseeing a program of public works, reinvigorating the political process,[52][53][54] and launching 4,500 reconstruction projects in Iraq.[55] This approach can be attributed to Petraeus, who had been steeped in nation-building during his previous tours in nations such as Bosnia and Haiti and thus approached nation-building as a central military mission and who was "prepared to act while the civilian authority in Baghdad was still getting organized," according to Michael Gordon of The New York Times.[56] Some Iraqis gave Petraeus the nickname 'King David,'[52][57] which was later adopted by some of his colleagues.[58][59][60] Newsweek has stated that "It's widely accepted that no force worked harder to win Iraqi hearts and minds than the 101st Air Assault Division led by Petraeus."

One of the General's major public works was the restoration and re-opening of the University of Mosul.[61][62] Petraeus strongly supported the use of commanders' discretionary funds for public works, telling Coalition Provisional Authority director L. Paul Bremer "Money is ammunition" during the director's first visit to Mosul.[63][64] Petraeus' often repeated[65][66][67] catchphrase was later incorporated into official military briefings[68][69] and was also eventually incorporated into the U.S. Army Counterinsurgency Field Manual drafted with Petraeus's oversight.[70]

In February 2004, the 101st was replaced in Mosul by a portion of I Corps headquarters, but operational forces consisted solely of a unit roughly one quarter its size—a Stryker brigade. The following summer, the Governor of Nineveh Province was assassinated and most of the Sunni Arab Provincial Council members walked out in the ensuing selection of the new governor, leaving Kurdish members in charge of a predominantly Sunni Arab province. Later that year, the local police commander defected to the Kurdish Minister of Interior in Irbil after repeated assassination attempts against him, attacks on his house, and the kidnapping of his sister. The largely Sunni Arab police collapsed under insurgent attacks launched at the same time Coalition Forces attacked Fallujah in November 2004.

There are differing explanations for the apparent collapse of the police force in Mosul. The Guardian quoted an anonymous US diplomat saying "Mosul basically collapsed after he [Petraeus] left". Former diplomat Peter Galbraith criticized Petraeus' command of the 101st, saying his achievements have been exaggerated and his reputation is inflated. He wrote for The New York Review of Books that "Petraeus ignored warnings from America's Kurdish allies that he was appointing the wrong people to key positions in Mosul's local government and police."[71] On the other hand, in the book Fiasco, Washington Post reporter Tom Ricks wrote that "Mosul was quiet while he (Petraeus) was there, and likely would have remained so had his successor had as many troops as he had—and as much understanding of counterinsurgency techniques." Ricks went on to note that "the population-oriented approach Petraeus took in Mosul in 2003 would be the one the entire U.S. Army in Iraq was trying to adopt in 2006."[72] Time columnist Joe Klein largely agreed with Ricks, writing that the Stryker brigade that replaced the 101st "didn't do any of the local governance that Petraeus had done." Moving away from counterinsurgency principles, "they were occupiers, not builders."[73] New York Times reporter Michael Gordon and retired General Bernard Trainor echoed Ricks and Klein, including in their book Cobra II a quote that Petraeus "did it right and won over Mosul."[74]

Multi-National Security Transition Command – Iraq

In June 2004, less than six months after the 101st returned to the U.S., Petraeus was promoted to lieutenant general and became the first commander of the Multi-National Security Transition Command Iraq. This newly created command had responsibility for training, equipping, and mentoring Iraq's growing Army, Police, and other security forces as well as developing Iraq's security institutions and building associated infrastructure, such as training bases, police stations, and border forts. During Petraeus's fifteen months at the helm of MNSTC-I, he stood up a three-star command virtually from scratch and in the midst of serious fighting in places like Fallujah, Mosul, and Najaf. By the end of his command, some 100,000 Iraqi Security Forces had been trained; Iraqi Army and Police were being employed in combat; countless reconstruction projects had been executed; and hundreds of thousands of weapons, body armor, and other equipment had been distributed in what was described as the "largest military procurement and distribution effort since World War II," at a cost of over $11 billion.[75]

In September 2004, Petraeus wrote an article for The Washington Post in which he described the tangible progress being made in building Iraq's security forces from the ground up while also noting the many challenges associated with doing so. "Although there have been reverses -- not to mention horrific terrorist attacks," Petraeus wrote, "there has been progress in the effort to enable Iraqis to shoulder more of the load for their own security, something they are keen to do."[76] Some of the challenges involved in building security forces had to do with accomplishing this task in the midst of a tough insurgency—or, as Petraeus wrote, "making the mission akin to repairing an aircraft while in flight -- and while being shot at." Other challenges included allegations of corruption as well as efforts to improve Iraq's supply accountability procedures. For example, according to former Interim Iraq Governing Council member Ali A. Allawi in The Occupation of Iraq: Winning the War, Losing the Peace, "under the very noses of the security transition command, officials both inside and outside the ministry of defense were planning to embezzle most, if not all, of the procurement budget of the army."[77] The Washington Post stated in August 2007 that the Pentagon had lost track of approximately 30% of weapons supplied to the Iraqi security forces. The General Accounting Office said that the weapons distribution was haphazard, rushed, and did not follow established procedures—particularly from 2004 to 2005, when security training was led by Petraeus and Iraq's security forces began to see combat in places like Najaf and Samarra.[78] Over a hundred thousand AK-47 assault rifles and pistols were delivered to Iraqi forces without full documentation, and some of the missing weapons may have been abducted by Iraqi insurgents.[79][80] Thousands of body armour pieces have also been lost.[81] The Independent has stated that the military believed "the situation on the ground was so urgent, and the agency responsible for recording the transfers of arms so short staffed, that field commanders had little choice in the matter."[82] The Pentagon conducted its own investigation, and accountability was subsequently regained for many of the weapons.[83]

Following his second tour in Iraq, Petraeus authored a widely read article in Military Review, listing fourteen observations he had made during two tours in Iraq, including: do not do too much with your own hands, money is ammunition, increasing the number of stakeholders is critical to success, success in a counterinsurgency requires more than just military operations, ultimate success depends on local leaders, there is no substitute for flexible and adaptable leaders, and, finally, a leader's most important task is to set the right tone.[84]

Multi-National Force – Iraq (spring 2007)

In January 2007, as part of his overhauled Iraq strategy, President George W. Bush announced that Petraeus would succeed Gen. George Casey as commanding general of MNF-I to lead all U.S. troops in Iraq. On January 23, the Senate Armed Services Committee held Petraeus' nomination hearing, during which he testified on his ideas for Iraq, particularly the strategy underpinning the "surge" of forces. During his opening statement, Petraeus stated that "security of the population, especially in Baghdad, and in partnership with the Iraqi Security Forces, will be the focus of the military effort." He went on to state that security will require establishing a persistent presence, especially in Iraq's most threatened neighborhoods. He also noted the critical importance of helping Iraq increase its governmental capacity, develop employment programs, and improve daily life for its citizens.[85]

Throughout Petraeus' tenure in Iraq, Multi-National Force-Iraq endeavored to work with the Government of Iraq to carry out this strategy that focuses on securing the population. Doing so required establishing—and maintaining—persistent presence by living among the population, separating reconcilable Iraqis from irreconcilable enemies, relentlessly pursuing the enemy, taking back sanctuaries and then holding areas that have been cleared, and continuing to develop Iraq's security forces and to support local security forces, often called Sons of Iraq, and to integrate them into the Iraqi Army and Police and other employment programs.[86][87][88]

The strategy underpinning the "surge" of forces, as well as the ideas Petraeus included in US army Field Manual 3-24, Counterinsurgency, have been referred to by some journalists and politicians as the "Petraeus Doctrine," although the surge itself was proposed a few months before Petraeus took command. Despite the misgivings of most Democratic and a few Republican senators over the proposed implementation of the "Petraeus Doctrine" in Iraq, specifically regarding the troop surge, Petraeus was unanimously confirmed as a four-star general and MNF-I commander on January 27.[89][90]

Before leaving for Iraq, Petraeus recruited a number of highly educated military officers, nicknamed "Petraeus guys" or "designated thinkers," to advise him as commander, including Col. Mike Meese, head of the Social Sciences Department at West Point and Col. H.R. McMaster, famous for his leadership at the Battle of 73 Easting in the Gulf War and in the pacification of Tal Afar more recently, as well as for his doctoral dissertation on Vietnam-era civil-military relations entitled Dereliction of Duty. While most of Petraeus's closest advisers are American military officers, he also hired Lt. Col. David Kilcullen of the Australian Army, who was working for the US State Department.[91] Kilcullen upon his return from Iraq published The Accidental Guerrilla,[92] and has discussed the central front of the war and lessons learned in Iraq in The Washington Post.[93]

U.S. Army Gen. David H. Petraeus, the commander of Multi-National Force - Iraq, briefs reporters at the Pentagon April 26, 2007, on his view of the current military situation in Iraq.

After taking command of MNF-I on February 10, 2007, Petraeus inspected U.S. and Iraqi units all over Iraq, visiting outposts in greater Baghdad, Tikrit, Baquba, Ramadi, Mosul, Kirkuk, Bayji, Samarra, Basrah and as far west as al-Hit and Al Qaim. In April 2007, Petraeus made his first visit to Washington as MNF-I Commander, reporting to President Bush and Congress on the progress of the "surge" and the overall situation in Iraq. During this visit he met privately with members of Congress and reportedly argued against setting a timetable for U.S. troop withdrawal from Iraq.[94]

By late May 2007, Congress did not impose any timetables in war funding legislation for troop withdrawal.[95] The enacted legislation did mandate that Petraeus and U.S. Ambassador to Iraq, Ryan Crocker, deliver a report to Congress by September 15, 2007, detailing their assessment of the military, economic and political situation of Iraq.

In June 2007, Petraeus stated in an interview that there were “astonishing signs of normalcy” in Baghdad, and this comment drew criticism from Senate majority leader Harry Reid. In the same interview, however, Petraeus stated that "many problems remain" and he noted the need to help the Iraqis "stitch back together the fabric of society that was torn during the height of sectarian violence" in late 2006.[96] Petraeus also warned that he expected that the situation in Iraq would require the continued deployment of the elevated troop level of more than 150,000 beyond September 2007; he also stated that U.S. involvement in Iraq could last years afterward.[97] These statements are representative of the fact that throughout their time in Iraq, Petraeus and Crocker remained circumspect and refused to classify themselves as optimists or pessimists, noting, instead, that they were realists and that the reality in Iraq was very hard. They also repeatedly emphasized the importance of forthright reports and an unvarnished approach.[98][99] "Indeed, Petraeus' realistic approach and assessments were lauded during the McLaughlin Group's 2008 Year-End Awards, when Monica Crowley nominated Petraeus for the most honest person of the year, stating, "...[H]e spoke about the great successes of the surge in Iraq, but he always tempered it, never sugar-coated it."[100]

Multi-National Force – Iraq (summer and fall 2007)

In July 2007, the White House submitted to Congress the interim report on Iraq, which stated that coalition forces had made satisfactory progress on 6 of 18 benchmarks set by Congress. On September 7, 2007, in a letter addressed to the troops he was commanding, Petraeus wrote that much military progress had been made, but that the national level political progress that was hoped for had not been achieved.[101] Petraeus' Report to Congress on the Situation in Iraq was delivered to Congress on September 10, 2007.

On August 15, 2007, The Los Angeles Times stated that, according to unnamed administration officials, the report "would actually be written by the White House, with inputs from officials throughout the government."[102] However, Petraeus declared in his testimony to Congress that "I wrote this testimony myself." He further elaborated that his testimony to Congress "has not been cleared by, nor shared with, anyone in the Pentagon, the White House, or Congress."[103][104]

In his September Congressional testimony, Petraeus stated that "As a bottom line up front, the military objectives of the surge are, in large measure, being met." He cited numerous factors for this progress, to include the fact that Coalition and Iraqi Forces had dealt significant blows to Al-Qaeda Iraq and had disrupted Shia militias, that ethno-sectarian violence had been reduced, and that the tribal rejection of Al-Qaeda had spread from Anbar Province to numerous other locations across Iraq. Based on this progress and additional progress expected to be achieved, Petraeus recommended drawing down the surge forces from Iraq and gradually transitioning increased responsibilities to Iraqi Forces, as their capabilities and conditions on the ground permitted.[105]

Democratic Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid of Nevada argued Petraeus' "plan is just more of the same" and "is neither a drawdown or a change in mission that we need." Democratic Representative Robert Wexler of Florida accused Petraeus of "cherry-picking statistics" and "massaging information".[106] Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee Tom Lantos of California called the General and U.S. Ambassador to Iraq Ryan Crocker "Two of our nation's most capable public servants" and said Democrats feel "esteem for their professionalism." He also said that "We can no longer take their assertions on Iraq at face value"; concluding, "We need to get out of Iraq, for that country's sake as well as our own."[107]

Republican Presidential candidate Duncan Hunter called the report "a candid, independent assessment given with integrity".[108] Republican Senator Jon Kyl of Arizona stated that "I commend General Petraeus for his honest and forthright assessment of the situation in Iraq."[109] Anti-war Republican Senator Chuck Hagel of Nebraska criticized the report while praising Petraeus, saying "It's not your fault, general... It's not Ambassador Crocker's fault. It's this administration's fault."[110] A USA Today/Gallup poll taken after Petraeus' report to Congress showed virtually no change in public opinion toward the war.[111] A Pew Research Center survey found that most Americans who have heard about the report approve of Petraeus' recommendations.[112]

On September 20, the Senate passed an amendment by Republican John Cornyn III of Texas designed to "strongly condemn personal attacks on the honor and integrity of General Petraeus". Cornyn drafted the amendment in response to a controversial full-page ad by the liberal group Moveon.org in the September 10, 2007, edition of The New York Times. All forty-nine Republican Senators and twenty-two Democratic Senators voted in support.[113] The House passed a similar resolution by a 341-79 vote on September 26.

In December 2007, The Washington Post's "Fact Checker" stated that "While some of Petraeus's statistics are open to challenge, his claims about a general reduction in violence have been borne out over subsequent months. It now looks as if Petraeus was broadly right on this issue at least".[114]

Based on the conditions on the ground, in October 2007, Petraeus and U.S. Ambassador to Iraq Ryan Crocker revised their campaign plan for Iraq. In recognition of the progress made against Al Qaeda Iraq, one of the major points would be "shifting the U.S. military effort to focus more on countering Shiite militias".[115]

Multi-National Force – Iraq (spring 2008)

On February 18, 2008, USA Today stated that "the U.S. effort has shown more success" and that, after the number of troops reached its peak in fall 2007, "U.S. deaths were at their lowest levels since the 2003 invasion, civilian casualties were down, and street life was resuming in Baghdad."[116] In light of the significant reduction in violence and as the surge brigades began to redeploy without replacement, Petraeus characterized the progress as tenuous, fragile, and reversible and repeatedly reminded all involved that much work remains to be done.[117][118] During an early February trip to Iraq, Defense Secretary Robert Gates endorsed the idea of a period of consolidation and evaluation upon completion of the withdrawal of surge brigades from Iraq.[119]

Petraeus and Crocker continued these themes at their two full days of testimony before Congress on April 8 and 9th. During his opening statement, Petraeus stated that "there has been significant but uneven security progress in Iraq," while also noting that "the situation in certain areas is still unsatisfactory and that innumerable challenges remain" and that "the progress made since last spring is fragile and reversible." He also recommended a continuation of the drawdown of surge forces as well as a 45-day period of consolidation and evaluation after the final surge brigade has redeployed in late July.[120] Analysts for USA Today and The New York Times stated that the hearings "lacked the suspense of last September's debate," but they did include sharp questioning as well as both skepticism and praise from various Congressional leaders.[121][122]

In late May 2008, the Senate Armed Services Committee held nomination hearings for Petraeus and Lieutenant General Ray Odierno to lead United States Central Command and Multi-National Force-Iraq, respectively. During the hearings, Committee Chairman Carl Levin praised these two men, stating that "we owe Gen. Petraeus and Gen. Odierno a debt of gratitude for the commitment, determination and strength that they brought to their areas of responsibility. And regardless of how long the administration may choose to remain engaged in the strife in that country, our troops are better off with the leadership these two distinguished soldiers provide."[123] During his opening statement, Petraeus discussed four principles that would guide his efforts if confirmed as CENTCOM Commander: seeking to strengthen international partnerships; taking a "whole of government" approach; pursuing comprehensive efforts and solutions; and, finally, both supporting efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan and ensuring readiness for possible contingency operations in the future. Petraeus also noted that during the week before his testimony, the number of security incidents in Iraq was the lowest in over four years.[124] After Petraeus's returned to Baghdad, and despite the continued drawdown of surge forces as well as recent Iraqi-led operations in places like Basrah, Mosul, and Baghdad, the number of security incidents in Iraq remained at their lowest level in over four years.[125]

Multi-National Force – Iraq (summer and fall 2008)

In September 2008, Petraeus gave an interview to BBC News stating that he did not think using the term "victory" in describing the Iraq war was appropriate, saying "This is not the sort of struggle where you take a hill, plant the flag and go home to a victory parade... it's not war with a simple slogan."[126]

Petraeus had discussed the term 'victory' before in March 2008, saying to NPR News that "an Iraq that is at peace with itself, at peace with its neighbors, that has a government that is representative of—and responsive to—its citizenry and is a contributing member of the global community" could arguably be called 'victory'.[127] On the eve of his change of command, in September 2008, Petraeus stated that "I don't use terms like victory or defeat... I'm a realist, not an optimist or a pessimist. And the reality is that there has been significant progress but there are still serious challenges."[128]

Change of command
Iraq Defense Minister Abdul Qadir presents a gift to Petraeus during a farewell ceremony in Baghdad on September 15, 2008.

On September 16, 2008, Petraeus formally gave over his command in Iraq to General Raymond T. Odierno in a government ceremony presided by Defense Secretary Robert Gates.[128] During the ceremony, Gates stated that Petraeus "played a historic role" and created the "translation of a great strategy into a great success in very difficult circumstances". Gates also told Petraeus he believed "history will regard you as one of our nation's greatest battle captains."[128] He presented Petraeus with the Defense Distinguished Service Medal.[128] At the event, Petraeus mentioned the difficulty in getting the Sons of Iraq absorbed in the central Government of Iraq and warned about future consequences if the effort stalls.[128] Indeed, when speaking of these and other challenges, Petraeus is the first to note that "the gains [achieved in Iraq] are tenuous and unlikely to survive without an American effort that outlasts his tenure". Even so, as Petraeus departed Iraq, it was clear to all that he was leaving a much different Iraq than the one that existed when he took command in February 2007. As described by Dexter Filkins, "violence has plummeted from its apocalyptic peaks, Iraqi leaders are asserting themselves, and streets that once seemed dead are flourishing with life."[129] This is also illustrated by the Iraq Trends charts that the MNF-I produces weekly. The January 3, 2009, "Iraq Trends Chart" clearly depicts over time, the increases in incidents followed by the sharp decline as described by Dexter Filkens and others.

General Petraeus's critical role in Iraq is widely acknowledged. In her introduction of Petraeus at the Baccalaureate ceremony for the Class of 2009, Princeton University President Shirley Tilghman described his accomplishments. While acknowledging that much remains to be accomplished in Iraq, Tilghman paid tribute to Petraeus' "leadership in rethinking American military strategy through his principles of counterinsurgency," which are, she said, "eliminating 'simplistic definitions of victory and defeat in favor of incremental and nuanced progress'."[130]

U.S. Central Command (fall 2008 to summer 2010)

Gen David H. Petraeus speaking at the New Hampshire Institute of Politics at Saint Anselm College

On October 31, 2008, Petraeus assumed command of the United States Central Command (USCENTCOM) headquartered in Tampa, Florida. Petraeus was responsible for U.S. operations in 20 countries spreading from Egypt to Pakistan—including Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. During his time at CENTCOM, Petraeus advocated that countering the terrorist threats in the CENTCOM region requires more than just counter-terrorism forces, demanding instead whole-of-governments, comprehensive approaches akin to those of counterinsurgency.[131] Petraeus reiterated this view in a 2009 interview published in Parade magazine.[132] In a recent interview for Newsweek magazine’s "Interview Issue: The View From People Who Make a Difference", Petraeus expressed his support for President Obama’s announced Afghanistan strategy and discussed his view that reconciliation efforts in Afghanistan should for the time being occur "at the lower and midlevels".[133]

In mid-August, 2009, Petraeus established the Afghanistan-Pakistan Center of Excellence within the USCENTCOM Directorate of Intelligence to provide leadership to coordinate, integrate and focus analysis efforts in support of operations in Afghanistan and Pakistan.[134]

On March 16, 2010, testimony to the Senate Armed Services Committee, Petraeus described the continuing Israeli–Palestinian conflict as a challenge to U.S. interests in the region. According to the testimony, the conflict was "fomenting anti-American sentiment" due to "a perception of U.S. favoritism for Israel." This was widely commented on in the media.[135][136][137][138] When questioned by journalist Philip Klein, Petraeus said the original reporter "picked apart" and "spun" his speech. He believes there are many important factors standing in the way of peace, including “a whole bunch of extremist organizations, some of which by the way deny Israel’s right to exist. There’s a country that has a nuclear program who denies that the Holocaust took place. So again we have all these factors in there. This [Israel] is just one."[139][140]

In March 2010, Petraeus visited the New Hampshire Institute of Politics at Saint Anselm College to speak about Iraq and Afghanistan.[141] Petraeus spoke a few days after the seventh anniversary of the U.S. invasion of Iraq, noting the successful changes in Iraq since the U.S. troop surge. The visit to Saint Anselm created rumors that Petraeus was contemplating a run for the Presidency; however, he denied the speculation saying that he was not aware that the college has been the site of numerous presidential debates.[142]

Toward the close of his tenure as CENTCOM Commander, including in his interview published in Vanity Fair, Petraeus discussed the effort to determine and send to Afghanistan the right “inputs” for success there; these inputs include several structures and organizations that proved important in Iraq, including “an engagement cell to support reconciliation…a finance cell to go after financing of the enemy…[a] really robust detainee-operations task force, a rule-of-law task force, an energy-fusion cell—all these other sort of nonstandard missions that are very important.”[143]

On May 7, 2010, Petraeus announced that Times Square bombing suspect, Faisal Shahzad, is a "lone wolf" terrorist who did not work with others.[144] On May 10, 2010, Attorney General Eric Holder said that the evidence shows the Pakistani Taliban directed this plot.[145]

Commander of US and ISAF forces in Afghanistan

Vice President Joe Biden speaks with Petraeus aboard a helicopter over Afghanistan in January 2011.

On June 23, 2010, President Obama announced that he would nominate Petraeus to succeed General Stanley A. McChrystal as the commander of U.S. Forces in Afghanistan. The change of command was prompted by McChrystal's comments about the Obama administration and its policies in Afghanistan during an interview with Rolling Stone magazine.[12] The nomination was technically a positional step down from his position as commander of Central Command, however the President believed that he was the best man for the job. After being confirmed by the Senate on June 30,[43] Petraeus formally assumed command on July 4.[146] During the assumption of command remarks,[147] Petraeus provided his vision and goals to NATO, the members of his command, and his Afghan partners. As he was known to do while the Commander in Iraq, Petraeus delivered his first Letter to the Troops [148] on the same day he assumed command.[149]

On August 1, 2010, shortly after the disclosure of the Afghan war logs on Wikileaks, Petraeus issued his updated Tactical Directive for the prevention of civilian casualties, providing guidance and intent for the use of force by the U.S. military units operating in Afghanistan (replacing the July 1, 2009 version). This directive reinforced the concept of "disciplined use of force in partnership with Afghan Security Forces" in the fight against insurgent forces.

We must never forget that the center of gravity in this struggle is the Afghan people; it is they who will ultimately determine the future of Afghanistan ... Prior to the use of fires, the commander approving the strike must determine that no civilians are present. If unable to assess the risk of civilian presence, fires are prohibited, except under of the following two conditions (specific conditions deleted due to operational security; however, they have to do with the risk to ISAF and Afghan forces).[150]

In the October 2010 issue of Army Magazine, Petraeus discusses changes that have taken place over the last 18 months including: Setting the Conditions for Progress, Capitalizing on the Conditions for Progress, Improving Security, Supporting Governance Expansion, Promoting Economic Development, and discussing how the Troops are Carrying Out a Difficult Mission.[151]

In early March, 2011, Petraeus made a "rare apology" following a NATO helicopter airstrike under his command which resulted in the deaths of nine Afghan boys and the wounding of a 10th, as they gathered firewood in Eastern Afghanistan. In a statement, Petraeus apologized to the members of the Afghan government, the people of Afghanistan and the surviving family members, and said: "These deaths should have never happened." Several journalists and observers noted the humanitarian candor in Petraeus' open regrets.[152][153] Petraeus relinquished command of U.S. and NATO forces in Afghanistan on July 18.[154] He received the Defense Distinguished Service Medal and the NATO Meritorious Service Medal for his service.

Promotions
Rank Date
US-O10 insignia.svgGeneral 2007
US-O9 insignia.svgLieutenant General 2004
US-O8 insignia.svgMajor General 2003
US-O7 insignia.svgBrigadier General 2000
US-O6 insignia.svgColonel 1995
US-O5 insignia.svgLieutenant Colonel 1991
US-O4 insignia.svgMajor 1985
US-O3 insignia.svgCaptain 1978
US-OF1A.svgFirst Lieutenant 1976
US-OF1B.svgSecond Lieutenant 1974

Retirement from Army

Petaeus retired from the U.S. Army on 31 August 2011. His retirement ceremony was held at Joint Base Myer-Henderson Hall.[155] During this ceremony, he was awarded the Army Distinguished Service Medal by Deputy Secretary of Defense William J. Lynn.[156] During the ceremony, Lynn in his remarks noted that, General Petraeus has played an important role as both a combat leader and strategist in the post-9/11 world. Lynn also cited General Petraeus' efforts in current counter insurgency strategy.[157] Admiral Michael Mullen, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in his remarks compared General Petraeus to Ulysses S. Grant, John J. Pershing, George Marshall and Dwight D. Eisenhower as one of the great battle captains of American history.[158]

CIA Director

On Thursday, April 28, 2011, President Barack Obama announced that he had nominated Petraeus to become the new Director of the CIA.[159] On June 27, 2011, Secretary of Defense Gates sent a note of congratulations along with his appreciation of Petraeus' four decades of service to the nation and his continuing service in Gates' former position as Director of the CIA. His nomination to become the next Director of the Central Intelligence Agency was confirmed by the United States Senate 94-0 on June 30, 2011.[160] He was sworn in on September 6, 2011.

Health problems

General Petraeus was diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer in February 2009 and underwent two months of successful radiation treatment at Walter Reed Army Medical Center.[161] The diagnosis and treatment was not publicly disclosed until October 2009 because Petraeus and his family regarded his illness as a personal matter that did not interfere with the performance of his duties.[162]

On June 15, 2010, Petraeus momentarily fainted while being questioned by the Senate Armed Services Committee. He quickly recovered and was able to walk and exit the room without assistance.[163] He attributed the episode to possible dehydration.

Decorations and badges

U.S. military decorations
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Defense Distinguished Service Medal (with 3 Oak Leaf Clusters)
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Distinguished Service Medal (with 2 Oak Leaf Clusters)
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Defense Superior Service Medal (with Oak Leaf Cluster)
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Legion of Merit (with 3 Oak Leaf Clusters)
V
Bronze Star (with V Device)
Defense Meritorious Service ribbon.svg Defense Meritorious Service Medal
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Meritorious Service Medal (with 2 Oak Leaf Clusters)
Joint Service Commendation ribbon.svg Joint Service Commendation Medal
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Army Commendation Medal (with 2 Oak Leaf Clusters)
Us jointservachiev rib.svg Joint Service Achievement Medal
Army Achievement Medal ribbon.svg Army Achievement Medal
U.S. unit awards
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Joint Meritorious Unit Award (with 3 Oak Leaf Clusters)
Meritorious Unit Commendation ribbon.svg Army Meritorious Unit Commendation
Army Superior Unit Award ribbon.svg Army Superior Unit Award
U.S. non-military decorations
USA - DOS Distinguished Service Award.png State Department Secretary's Distinguished Service Award
USA - DOS Distinguished Honor Award.png State Department Distinguished Honor Award
Superior Honor Award.svg State Department Superior Honor Award
U.S. service (campaign) medals and service and training ribbons
Bronze star
Bronze star
National Defense Service Medal (with 2 Service Stars)
Bronze star
Bronze star
Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal (with 2 Service Stars)
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Afghanistan Campaign Medal (with 3 Service Stars)
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Iraq Campaign Medal (with 4 Service Stars)
Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary ribbon.svg Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal
Global War on Terrorism Service ribbon.svg Global War on Terrorism Service Medal
Armed Forces Service Medal ribbon.svg Armed Forces Service Medal
Humanitarian Service ribbon.svg Humanitarian Service Medal
Army Service Ribbon.svg Army Service Ribbon
Army Overseas Service Ribbon (with award numeral 8)
Foreign military decorations
Gold Award of the Iraqi Order of the Date Palm Ribbon.png Gold Award of the Iraqi Order of the Date Palm
Ribbon of the French commemorative Medal French Military Campaign Medal
CZE Cross of Merit Min-of-Def 1st BAR.svg Cross of Merit of the Minister of Defence of the Czech Republic (1st Grade)
Croce al merito dei carabinieri gold medal BAR.svg Italian Gold Cross of Merit of the Carabinieri (Croce d'Oro al Merito dell'Arma dei carabinieri)[164]
Polish Iraq Star Polish Iraq Star
Polish Army Medal (Gold) Polish Army Medal (Gold)
Romanian Emblem of Honor Romanian Chief of Defense Honor Emblem[165]
Meritorious Service Cross (Canada) Meritorious Service Cross (Canada) Military Division[166]
Military Merit Order First Class Ribbon.png Military Merit Order First Class, United Arab Emirates
Tong-il Security Medel Ribbon.png Order of National Security Merit (Korea), Tong-il Security Medal
Foreign civil decorations
Legion Honneur Commandeur ribbon.svg French National Order of the Legion of Honour Commander Legion of Honor
Order of Australia (Military) ribbon.png Honorary Officer of the Order of Australia
POL Order Zaslugi RP kl3 BAR.png Commander of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland
Non-U.S. service medals and ribbons
UNMIH.svg United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) Medal[167]
Bronze star
NATO Meritorious Service Medal Iraq & Afghanistan with bronze service star
Bronze star
Bronze star
NATO Medal for Yugoslavia, NTM-I, Afghanistan with 2 bronze service stars
U.S. badges, patches and tabs
Expert Infantry Badge.svg Expert Infantryman Badge
Combat Action Badge.svg Combat Action Badge
US Army Airborne master parachutist badge.gif Master Parachutist Badge (United States)
AirAssault.gif Air Assault Badge
GeneralStaffID.gif Army Staff Identification Badge
US - Joint Chiefs.png Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Identification Badge
Ranger Tab.png Ranger Tab
101AirborneDivCSIB.jpg 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) Patch

worn as his Combat Service Identification Badge – Former War Time Service (SSI-FWTS).

ArmyOSB.jpg 11 Overseas Service Bars
Foreign badges
Wings badge.JPG British Army Parachutist Badge (Junior level)
Brevet Parachutiste.jpg Basic French Parachutist Badge (French: Brevet de Parachutisme militaire)
Springerabzeichen de.jpg German Parachutist Badge in bronze (German: Fallschirmspringerabzeichen)
German Armed Forces Badge for Military Proficiency2.JPG German Armed Forces Badge for Military Proficiency Bronze

Additional recognition of note

In 2007, Time named Petraeus one of the 100 most influential leaders and revolutionaries of the year as well as one of its four runners up for Time Person of the Year.[168][169] He was also named the second most influential American conservative by The Daily Telegraph[170] as well as The Daily Telegraph's 2007 Man of the Year.[171][172] In 2005, Petraeus was selected as one of America's top leaders by US News and World Report.[173]

In 2008, a poll conducted by Foreign Policy and Prospect magazines selected Petraeus as one of the world's top 100 public intellectuals.[174] Also in 2008, the Static Line Association named Petraeus as its 2008 Man of the Year, and Der Spiegel named him "America's most respected soldier."[175] As 2008 came to a close, Newsweek named him the 16th most powerful person in the world in its December 20, 2008, edition,[176] and Prospect magazine named him the "Public Intellectual of the Year".[177] He was also named as one of the "75 Best People in the World" in the October 2009 issue of Esquire,[178]

On December 9, 2010, Barbara Walters' picked Petraeus for the Most Fascinating Person of 2010. Walters called the top commander in Afghanistan "an American hero."[179] Petraeus was chosen as "one of Time magazine's 50 "People Who Mattered" in December 2010.[180] The same year he was named number 12 of 50 people who mattered in 2010 by the New Statesmen magazine,[181] and Petraeus was listed as number 8 of 100 Foreign Policy Top 100 Global Thinkers for 2011.[182]

Early January 2011, Pete Hegseth and Wade Zirkle from Vets for Freedom, wrote an Op-Ed for the Wall Street Journal making a claim that Petraeus should be promoted to Five-Star which would make him General of the Army.[183] In April, Petraeus was named in the 2011 Time 100.[184] The Institute for the Study of War, 2011, National Security Leadership Award was presented to Petraeus on August 4, 2011. The New Statesman annual survey presents the most influential people from pop stars and dissident activists to tech gurus and heads of state, the people doing most to shape our world keep changing. September 26, 2011, Petraeus was listed as number 2 of the 50 for 2011.[185] The Association of Special Operations Professionals named Petraeus as its 2011 Man of the Year for 2011, and was presented the award at Ft. Bragg on November 2, 2011 at it annual Special Operations Exposition. [186]

Speeches and public remarks

  • "Institutionalizing Change: Transformation in the US Army, 2005-2007,” May 2010.[187]
  • National Committee on American Foreign Policy George F. Kennan Award Acceptance Remarks. American Foreign Policy Interests, July/August 2009, 31(4).
  • "The Foreign Policy Interview with Gen. David H. Petraeus," January/February 2009.[188]

Published works

See also

Notes and references

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Further reading

  • Cloud, David; Greg Jaffe (2009). The Fourth Star: Four Generals and the Epic Struggle for the Future of the United States Army. Random House. ISBN 978-0307409065. 
  • Robinson, Linda (2008). Tell Me How This Ends: General David Petraeus and the Search for a Way Out of Iraq. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1586487669.

External links

News articles (date sequence)
Military offices
Preceded by
William Wallace
Commandant of the United States Army Command and General Staff College
2005–2007
Succeeded by
William Caldwell
Preceded by
George Casey
Commanding General of the Multinational Force-Iraq
2007–2008
Succeeded by
Raymond Odierno
Preceded by
Martin Dempsey
Acting
Commander of United States Central Command
2008–2010
Succeeded by
John Allen
Acting
Preceded by
Stanley McCrystal
Commander of the International Security Assistance Force
2010–2011
Succeeded by
John Allen
Government offices
Preceded by
Michael Morell
Acting
Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
2011–present
Incumbent


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