- The Apostles (Elgar)
"The Apostles", op. 49, is an
oratoriofor soloists, chorus and orchestracomposed by Edward Elgar. It was first performed on October 14, 1903.
Elgar had experienced international success with the "
Enigma Variations" and " The Dream of Gerontius", and was encouraged by a commission from the Birmingham Triennial Music Festival(which had also produced "Gerontius") to compose the large work he had long been contemplating. He said he had been thinking about the topic, and selecting the words, since boyhood. "The Apostles", like its successor "The Kingdom", depicts the disciples of Jesusand their reactions to the extraordinary events surrounding them.
It is a narrative work, dealing with the calling of the Apostles and their experiences of Jesus’ preaching,
crucifixion(which is not directly depicted), and ascension. "The Kingdom" would carry the story onward. Elgar was more interested in human motivations than philosophical underpinnings, and the most memorable characters in the work are the two sinners Mary Magdaleneand Judas Iscariot.
Elgar's conception outgrew the confines of a single work: "The Kingdom" was first conceived as the last part of "The Apostles", but later Elgar considered them as the first two parts of a
trilogy. In any case, the projected third part was never written.
"The Apostles" is written for a large
orchestra, of typical late Romantic proportions, with the addition of a shofar(usually substituted by a more conventional instrument, such as a flugelhorn), which announces the dawn. There is a double chorus with semichorus, and six solo singers representing:
- Blessed Virgin / Angel Gabriel (
- St John / Narrator (
- St Peter (bass)
The work is in two parts and seven sections, each played without a break. Words were selected by Elgar from the
New Testamentand Apocrypha.
# (Part 1) "The Calling of the Apostles". The music begins just before dawn; the sun rises, and one by one the Apostles are chosen.
# "By the Wayside". This depicts Jesus' teaching, and particularly evokes the
# "By the Sea of Galilee". Crossing the sea is incidental; Mary Magdalene is the focus here. After a stormy night scene, her conversion is portrayed, and the scene moves to Caesarea Philippi and
Capernaum. The scene is followed by a choral epilogue, "Turn ye to the stronghold," added late in the composition of the piece.
# (Part 2) "The Betrayal". Although it follows the Passion narrative, the section is chiefly concerned with the character and motivation of Judas. He is shown as trying to maneuver Jesus so that he is forced to show his divine power and establish his kingdom. The events of the trial and condemnation happen "off-stage", with occasional contributions by the chorus (in the roles of singers in the temple and the mob). In the end Judas gives way to despair.
# "Golgotha". The scene of the crucifixion is, in Elgar's words, "a mere sketch". Jesus' dying words "Eli, eli, lama sabachthani" are declaimed by the orchestra alone; after which the chorus respond pianissimo, "Truly this was the son of God".
# "At the Sepulchre". The story of the Resurrection is briefly told by the narrator and a chorus of angels, in a blissful, spring-like interlude.
# "The Ascension". The miracle is almost incidental; the point is that the Apostles, though here joining in praise with the angels, are about to establish the church on earth. This idea informs the final climax of the work, scored for the full forces of soloists, chorus and orchestra.
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/classical/elgar/notes/note_apostles.shtml The Apostles - 1902-03]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/classical/elgar/notes/synopsis_apostles.shtml THE APOSTLES - Synopsis]
* [http://www.elgar.org/3apostle.htm Elgar - His Music : The Apostles]
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