Friedrich Solmsen

Friedrich Solmsen

Friedrich W. Solmsen (January 25, 1905 – January 30, 1989) was a philologist and professor of classical studies. His edition of Hesiod is considered definitive. He published nearly 150 books, monographs, scholarly articles, and reviews from the 1930s through the 1980s. [Estimated on the basis of an author search of "L'Année philologique" [ online] , which would include his publications from 1949 to his death (retrieved August 2, 2008), and of JSTOR, which is limited to participating academic journals but includes publications of the 1930s and 1940s (retrieved August 9, 2008).] Solmsen's work is characterized by a prevailing interest in the history of ideas. [G.M. Kirkwood, "Foreword to the Paperback Edition," in Friedrich Solmsen, "Hesiod and Aeschylus" (Cornell University Press, 1995), p. ix.] He was an influential scholar in the areas of Greek tragedy, particularly for his work on Aeschylus, and the philosophy of the physical world and its relation to the soul, especially the systems of Plato and Aristotle.

Life and career

Friedrich Solmsen, sometimes called "Fritz" by friends and intimates, was born and educated in Germany. He was among the "Graeca" of Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, the Graeca being a group of "young scholars" [Graduate students might be the contemporary American equivalent.] who met in his home during his last decade of life. In an essay fifty years later, Solmsen recalled those years and the legendary philologist in a biographical sketch that combines politico-historical perspective, sociology of academia, and personal, sometimes wry observations. "I do not recall Wilamowitz ever laughing aloud," he mused in a footnoted aside. "Nor did he ever grin." [Friedrich Solmsen, "Wilamowitz in His Last Ten Years," "Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies" 20 (1979), pp. 89 and 92.] Solmsen was also a student of Eduard Norden, Otto Regenbogen, and Werner Jaeger, to the three of whom along with Wilamowitz he dedicated the first volume of his collected papers. ["Kleine Schriften", vol. 1 (Hildesheim 1968), dedicatory page (not numbered).] He was one of the last people to whom the terminally ill Wilamowitz addressed correspondence. [William A. Calder III, "Seventeen Letters of Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff to Eduard Fraenkel," "Harvard Studies in Classical Philology" 81 (1977), p. 294, note 119.]

Solmsen was not untouched by the compromises of intellectual life in the Germany of the 1920s-1930s. The classicist and historian of scholarship William M. Calder III produced documentation that indicates, in his view, Norden's complicity when Solmsen was let go from his academic position on the grounds that he was "non-aryan." [William M. Calder III, "Studies in the Modern History of Classical Scholarship" (Jovene 1984), pp. 60–61.] Calder also rebuked Solmsen for signing, along with six other scholars, [The six are John F. Callahan, Helen F. North, Martin Ostwald, Ruth S. Scodel, Zeph Stewart, and Richard F. Thomas.] a published letter objecting to a 1981 article by Calder calling Jaeger and Richard Harder "reluctant fellow-travelers to Fascism". [William M. Calder III, "Research Opportunities in the Modern History of Classical Scholarship," "Classical World" 74 (1981), p. 245; "A Reply to William M. Calder III" "bis", "Classical World" 75 (1981) 117–118.] Also a student of Wilamowitz, Calder has characterized Solmsen's essay on their teacher as "the recollection of an adoring student" and his assessment of the philologist's relations with Friedrich Nietzsche as "ignorant and vulgar" [William M. Calder III, "Wilamowitz on Schliemann," p. 232, and "The Wilamowitz-Nietzsch Struggle: New Documents and a Reappraisal," p. 221, both in "Studies in the Modern History of Classical Scholarship" (Jovene 1984).] — remarks which have been taken to reveal the fine line between "psychologizing," as the classicist Hugh Lloyd-Jones termed it, and "ad hominem" criticism. [Hugh Lloyd-Jones, review of "Wilamowitz nach 50 Jahren" by William M. Calder III, Hellmut Flashar and Theodore Lindken (Darmstadt 1985), in "Classical Review" 36 (1986), p. 295; Jones detected a "spiteful" tendency (p. 296).]

Solmsen's dissertation on Aristotelian logic and rhetoric was published in 1928. He left Germany to escape Nazism in the mid-1930s, [Leo R. Ward, "My Fifty Years at Notre Dame", [ chapter 6.] ] and after a time in England came to the United States, where he taught at Olivet College (1937–1940) in Michigan. He then moved to Cornell University, becoming chair of the classics department. ["Friedrich Solmsen, Professor, 84," "New York Times" (February 10, 1989), [ obituary] .] He taught at Cornell for twenty-two years. Among his courses was "Foundations of Western Thought," which explored the history of philosophical, scientific and religious ideas from early Greece through the Hellenistic and Roman periods. [G.M. Kirkwood, "Foreword to the Paperback Edition," in Friedrich Solmsen, "Hesiod and Aeschylus" (Cornell University Press, 1995), p. ix.]

In 1962, he was named Moses Slaughter Professor of Classical Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. ["Friedrich Solmsen, Professor, 84," "New York Times" (February 10, 1989), obituary.] In 1972 he won the Goodwin Award of Merit, presented by the American Philological Association for an outstanding contribution to classical scholarship, for his Oxford Classical Text edition of Hesiod's works, the "Theogony," the "Works and Days," and "The Shield of Heracles". ["Hesiodi Theogonia; Opera et dies; Scutum" (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970); 2nd edition, 1983; 3rd edition, 1990; Goodwin Award of Merit 1951–2007 [ list of winners.] ] He retired in 1974. ["Friedrich Solmsen, Professor, 84," "New York Times" (February 10, 1989), obituary.]

In retirement, Solmsen lived in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, and continued to publish. He gave occasional lectures at the University of North Carolina, conducted a National Endowment for the Humanities seminar, and led readings in Pindar and Plotinus. ["Tabulae," newsletter of the Department of Classics, University of North Carolina (Fall 1989), p. iii.] The bulk of his library was donated to the universityFact|date=August 2008 upon his death at the age of 84. He was survived by his wife, Lieselotte. ["Friedrich Solmsen, Professor, 84," "New York Times" (February 10, 1989), obituary. Lieselotte Solmsen published two articles on Herodotus in the 1940s, "Speeches in Herodotus' Account of the Ionic Revolt," "American Journal of Philology" 64 (1943) 194–207, and "Speeches in Herodotus' Account of the Battle of Plataea," "Classical Philology" 39 (1944) 241–253.] Colleagues mourned him as "one of the last giants of the German tradition of classical humanism." ["Tabulae," newsletter of the Department of Classics, University of North Carolina (Fall 1989), p. iii.]

The Institute for Research in the Humanities at the University of Wisconsin offers four one-year fellowships in his name for postdoctoral work on literary and historical studies of the Classical, Medieval, and Renaissance periods to 1700. The fellowship fund was established by a bequest from Friedrich and Lieselotte Solmsen. [Institute for Research in the Humanities, University of Wisconsin-Madison, [ "Fellowships."] ]


In his essay on Wilamowitz, Solmsen reflected on classical studies as a discipline and an intellectual pursuit within a broadly historical context. "The post-World-War-I generation for whom the value of the Classics had become a problem," he writes, "did not find [from Wilamowitz] an answer to their question what made ancient civilization particularly significant and worth intensive study," adding that Wilamowitz "did not realize the need of justifying their study to a generation for whom the continuity of a tradition that reached back to the age of Goethe was weakened (though not completely broken) and whose outlook was still in the process of formation; many in fact were consciously striving for a new orientation." [Friedrich Solmsen, "Wilamowitz in His Last Ten Years," "Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies" 20 (1979), pp. 94 and 101.]

The following bibliography, arranged by topic and then chronologically within the topic, attempts to represent the range of Solmsen's contributions to scholarship but is by no means exhaustive. Omitted are most articles in German, reviews, [Solmsen's reviews tend to be brief and specific; he rarely wrote essays that developed arguments parallel to the reviewed work in the manner of Ronald Syme or Arnaldo Momigliano. Any reviews listed here have been chosen for the significance of the work under review or the depth of Solmsen's engagement with it.] and notes (i.e., articles of less than three pages). The articles are for the most part collected in his "Kleine Schriften", 3 vols. (Hildesheim 1968–1982).

Hesiod and Homer

* "Hesiod and Aeschylus". Cornell University Press, 1949; republished with a new foreword by G.M. Kirkwood, 1995. [ Online preview.] ISBN 0801482747

* "The Gift of Speech in Homer and Hesiod." "Transactions of the American Philological Association" 85 (1954) 1-15.

* "Zur Theologie im grossen Aphrodite-Hymnus." "Hermes" 88 (1960) 1-13.

* "Hesiodic Motifs in Plato." In "Hésiode et son influence: six exposées et discussions", edited by Kurt von Fritz (Geneva: Fondation Hardt, 1962) 171-211.

* "The Days of the "Works and Days"." "Transactions of the American Philological Association" 94 (1963) 293-320.

* "Ilias" XVIII, 535-540." "Hermes" 93 (1965) 1-6.

* "Hesiodi Theogonia, Opera et Dies, Scutum" (with selected fragments edited by R. Merkelbach and M.L. West). Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970. Second edition with a new appendix of fragments, 1983. Third edition, 1990. Oxford Classical Text edition of the Greek text of Hesiod's "Theogony", "Works and Days", and "Shield" (usually in translation as "The Shield of Heracles").

* "Hesiodic φρόνησις." "Classical Philology" 71 (1976) 252-253.

* "The Sacrifice of Agamemnon's Daughter in Hesiod's "Ehoeae"." "American Journal of Philology" 102 (1981) 353-358.

* "The Earliest Stages in the History of Hesiod's Text." "Harvard Studies in Classical Philology" 86 (1982) 1-31.

* "The Two Near Eastern Sources of Hesiod." "Hermes" 117 (1989) 413-422.

Greek tragedy

* "Euripides' "Ion" im Vergleich mit anderen Tragödien". Berlin 1934.

* "Ὄνομα and πρᾶγμα in Euripides' "Helen"." "Classical Review" 48 (1934) 119–121.

* "The Erinys in Aischylos' "Septem"." "Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association" 68 (1937) 197–211.

* "Strata of Greek Religion in Aeschylus." "Harvard Theological Review" 40 (1947) 211–226.

* "Hesiod and Aeschylus". See under "Hesiod and Homer" (preceding).

* "Electra and Orestes: Three Recognitions in Greek Tragedy." Berlin 1967. ["Logically defective," was the pronouncement of A.D. Fitton-Brown, while noting that the monograph's psychological approach was welcome; reviewed in "Classical Review" 19 (1969) 100–101.]

* "'Bad Shame' and Related Problems in Phaedra's Speech (Eur. "Hipp." 380-388)." "Hermes" 101 (1973) 420-425. On a passage from the "Hippolytus" of Euripides.

* "Φρήν, καρδία, ψυχή in Greek tragedy." In "Greek Poetry and Philosophy: Studies in Honour of Leonard Woodbury." Edited by Douglas E. Gerber. Scholars Press, 1984, pp. 265-274.

* "Ἀλλ᾽ εἰδέναι χρὴ δρῶσαν: The Meaning of Sophocles' "Trachiniai" 588-93." "American Journal of Philology" 106 (1985) 490-496.


* "The Background of Plato's Theology." "Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association" 67 (1936) 208–218. On Book 10 of Plato's "Laws".

* "Plato and the Unity of Science." "Philosophical Review" 49 (1940) 566–571.

* "Plato's Theology". Cornell University Press, 1942. Reviewed at length by William C. Greene in "Classical Philology" 40 (1945) 128–133.

* "On Plato's Account of Respiration." "Studi italiani di filologia classica" 27–28 (1956) 544-548.

* "Platonic Influences in the Formation of Aristotle's Physical System." In "Aristotle and Plato in the Mid-Fourth Century. Papers of the Symposium Aristotelicum Held at Oxford in August, 1957." Edited by Ingemar During and G.E.L. Owen. Göteborg 1960, pp. 213-235.

* "Hesiodic Motifs in Plato." See under "Hesiod and Homer" above.

* "Republic" III,389b2–d6: Plato's Draft and the Editor's Mistake." "Philologus" 109 (1965) 182-185.

* Review of "Preface to Plato" by Eric A. Havelock (Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1963). In "American Journal of Philology" 87 (1966) 99–105.

* "Plato's First Mover in the Eighth Book of Aristotle's "Physics"." "Philomathes: Studies and Essays in the Humanities in Memory of Philip Merlan." Edited by Robert B. Palmer and Robert Hamerton-Kelly. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1971, pp. 171-182.

* "Plato and Science." In "Interpretations of Plato: A Swarthmore Symposium". Edited by Helen F. North. E. J. Brill, 1977.

* "Platonic Values in Aristotle's Science." "Journal of the History of Ideas" 39 (1978) 3-23.

* "Some Passages in Plato's "Laws" IV and V." "Illinois Classical Studies" 5 (1980) 44-48.

* "The Academic and the Alexandrian editions of Plato's Works." "Illinois Classical Studies" 6 (1981) 102-111.

* "Plato and the Concept of the Soul (Psyche): Some Historical Perspectives." "Journal of the History of Ideas" 44 (1983) 355-367.


* "Die aristotelische Methodenlehre und die spätplatonische Akademie", dissertation. Berlin 1928. Revised and published as "Die Entwicklung der aristotelischen Logik und Rhetorik" in 1975 and again in [ 2001.]

* "The Origins and Methods of Aristotle's "Poetics"." "Classical Quarterly" 29 (1935) 192–201.

* "The Aristotelian Tradition in Ancient Rhetoric." "American Journal of Philology" 62 (1941) 35–50 and 169–190.

* "Boethius and the History of the Organon." "American Journal of Philology" 65 (1944) 69–74.

* "Aristotle's Syllogism and Its Platonic Background." "Philosophical Review" 60 (1951) 563-571.

* Introduction to the Modern Library edition of Aristotle's "Rhetoric", translated by W. Rhys Roberts, and "Poetics", translated by Ingram Bywater. New York 1954.

* "Antecedents of Aristotle's Psychology and Scale of Beings." "American Journal of Philology" 76 (1955) 148-164.

* "Aristotle and Prime Matter: A Reply to H. R. King." "Journal of the History of Ideas" 19 (1958) 243-252.

* "Aristotle and Presocratic Cosmogony." "Harvard Studies in Classical Philology" 63 (1958) 265-282.

* "Aristotle's System of the Physical World: A Comparison with His Predecessors". Cornell University Press, 1960. This lengthy, densely packed book investigates the natural philosophy of the Presocratics and Plato as well as Aristotle's "Physics", "De caelo", "De generatione et corruptione" and "Meteorologica". [Gregory Vlastos, review, "Isis" 54 (1963) 151–152.]

* "Aristotle's Word for Matter." In "Didascaliæ: Studies in Honor of Anselm M. Albareda, Prefect of the Vatican Library." Edited by Sesto Prete. New York 1961, pp. 393-408.

* "Misplaced Passages at the End of Aristotle's "Physics"." "American Journal of Philology" 82 (1961) 270-282.

* "Leisure and Play in Aristotle's Ideal State." "Rheinisches Museum" 107 (1964) 193-220.

* Review of "Aristotle and the Problem of Value" by Whitney J. Oates (Princeton University Press, 1963). In "Journal of Philosophy" 62 (1965) 298–303.

* "Ursprünge und Methoden der aristotelischen Poetik". Darmstadt 1968.

* "Dialectic without the Forms." In "Aristotle on Dialectic: The" Topics". Proceedings of the Third Symposium Aristotelicum." Edited by G. E. L. Owen. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968, pp. 49-68.

* "The Fishes of Lesbos and Their Alleged Significance for the Development of Aristotle." "Hermes" 106 (1978) 467-484.

* "Citations in Their Bearing on the Origin of 'Aristotle' " Meteorologica" IV." "Hermes" 113 (1985) 448-459.

Empedocles, Epicurus, Lucretius

* Review of "T. Lucreti Cari, De rerum natura, Libri sex", edition and commentary by William Ellery Leonard and Stanley Barney Smith (University of Wisconsin Press, 1942), in "Philosophical Review" 53 (1944) 208–211.

* "Epicurus and Cosmological Heresies." "American Journal of Philology" 72 (1951) 1-23.

* "Epicurus on the Growth and Decline of the Cosmos." "American Journal of Philology" 74 (1953) 34-51.

* "Αἴσθησισ in Aristotelian and Epicurean Thought". Amsterdam, 1961. "Aisthesis" originally meant both cognitive perceptions and feelings (as of pleasure and pain); Solmsen traces the restriction of the term by Plato to cognitive perceptions and so in Aristotle and the Stoics; Epicurus, however, uses the word to mean the capacity of feeling pleasure and pain as conveyed by the "soul atoms" generally to the body. [Solmsen's thesis is summarized and argued against by G.B. Kerford, "Two Studies in Greek Philosophy" (review), "Classical Review" 13 (1963) 192–192.]

* "Love and Strife in Empedocles' Cosmology." "Phronesis" 10 (1965) 109-148.

* "Ζωρός in Empedocles." "Classical Review" 17 (1967) 245-246.

* "A Peculiar Omission in Lucretius' Account of Human Civilization." "Philologus" 114 (1970) 256-261.

* "Eternal and Temporary Beings in Empedocles' Physical Poem." "Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie" 57 (1975) 123-145.

* "Epicurus on Void, Matter and Genesis: Some Historical Observations." "Phronesis" 22 (1977) 263-281.

* "Empedocles' Hymn to Apollo." "Phronesis" 35 (1980) 219-227.

* "Abdera's Arguments for the Atomic Theory." "Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies" 29 (1988) 59-73.

* "Lucretius' Strategy in "De rerum natura" I." "Rheinisches Museum" 131 (1988) 315-323.

Philosophical and literary topics

* "Cicero's First Speeches: A Rhetorical Analysis." "Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association" 69 (1938) 542–556.

* "Some Works of Philostratus the Elder." "Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association" 71 (1940) 556–572.

* "Eratosthenes as Platonist and Poet." "Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association" 73 (1942) 192–213.

* "Chaos and Apeiron." "Studi italiani di filologia classica" 24 (1949) 235-248.

* Review of "Empedocles' Mixture, Eudoxan Astronomy and Aristotle's Connate Pneuma" by Harald A. T. Reiche (Amsterdam 1960), in "American Journal of Philology" 84 (1963) 91–94.

* "The Eleatic One in Melissus". Amsterdam, 1969.

* "Tissues and the Soul: Philosophical Contributions to Physiology." "Philosophical Review" 59 (1950) 435-468.

* "Neglected Evidence for Cicero's "De re publica"." "Museum Helveticum" 13 (1956) 38-53.

* "The Vital Heat, the Inborn Pneuma and the Aether." "Journal of Hellenic Studies" 77 (1957) 119-123.

* "Greek Philosophy and the Discovery of the Nerves." "Museum Helveticum" 18 (1961) 150-167 and 169-197.

* "Cleanthes or Posidonius? The Basis of Stoic physics". Amsterdam 1961. A study of the sources of Cicero's "De natura deorum", II, 23-32.

* "Anaximander's Infinite: Traces and Influences." "Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophi" 44 (1962) 109-131.

* "Anaxagoras B 19 Diels-Kranz." "Hermes" 91 (1963) 250-251.

* "Nature as Craftsman in Greek Thought." "Journal of the History of Ideas" 24 (1963) 473-496.

* "Diogenes of Apollonia B3D.-K." "Classical Review" 20 (1970) 6.

* "Thucydides' Treatment of Words and Concepts." "Hermes" 99 (1971) 385-408.

* "The Tradition about Zeno of Elea Re-examined." "Phronesis" 16 (1971) 116-141.

* "Parmenides and the Description of Perfect Beauty in Plato's "Symposium"." "American Journal of Philology" 92 (1971) 62-70.

* "Intellectual Experiments of the Greek Enlightenment". Princeton University Press, 1975. Six chapters dealing with such topics as argumentation, persuasion, utopianism and reform, language experiments, and empirical psychology. [As summarized and reviewed by G.J. de Vries, who did not think it Solmsen's best work, in "Mnemosyne" 29 (1976) 445–446.]

* "Light from Aristotle's Physics on the text of Parmenides B 8 D-K." "Phronesis" 1977 XXII : 10-12.

* "Theophrastus and Political Aspects of the Belief in Providence." "Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies" 19 (1978) 91-98.

* "Emendations in Cosmological Texts." "Rheinisches Museum" 124 (1981) 1-18.

* "Plotinus v,5,3,21 ff.: A Passage on Zeus." "Museum Helveticum" 43 (1986) 68-73.

Augustan poetry

* "Horace's First Roman Ode." "American Journal of Philology" 68 (1947) 337–352.

* "Propertius in his Literary Relations with Tibullus and Vergil." "Philologus" 105 (1961) 273-289.

* "Three Elegies of Propertius' First Book." "Classical Philology" 57 (1962) 73-88.

* "Tibullus as an Augustan poet." "Hermes" 90 (1962) 295-325.

* "On Propertius I, 7." "American Journal of Philology" 86 (1965) 77-84.

* "Catullus' Artistry in "C." 68: A Pre-Augustan Subjective Love-Elegy." "Monumentum Chiloniense: Studien zur augusteischen Zeit. Kieler Festschrift für Erich Burck zum 70. Geburtstag." Edited by Eckard Lefèvre. Amsterdam 1975, pp. 260-276.

Afterlife, religion, myth

* Review of "The Greeks and the Irrational" by E.R. Dodds, in "American Journal of Philology" 75 (1954) 190–196.

* Review of "Αἰών da Omero ad Aristotele" by Enzo Degani (University of Padua, 1961). In "American Journal of Philology" 84 (1963) 329–332.

* "Two Pindaric Passages on the Hereafter." "Hermes" 96 (1968) 503-506.

* "Greek Ideas of the Hereafter in Vergil's Roman Epic." "Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society" 92 (1968) 8-14.

* "Ἀμοιβή in the Recently Discovered 'Orphic' Katabasis." "Hermes" 96 (1968) 631-632.

* "The World of the Dead in Book 6 of the "Aeneid"." "Classical Philology" 67 (1972) 31-41.

* "Symphytos Aion" (A., "Ag." 106)." "American Journal of Philology" 100 (1979) 477-479. On Aeschylus, "Agamemnon", line 106.

* "Isis among the Greeks and Romans". Harvard University Press, 1979. "It was a surprise, but also a pleasure," noted J. Gwyn Griffiths, "to find Friedrich Solmsen concerning himself with the impact of Isis on the Graeco-Roman world." [J. Gwyn Griffiths, review in "Classical Review" 32 (1982), p. 53.]

* "Achilles on the Islands of the Blessed: Pindar vs. Homer and Hesiod." "American Journal of Philology" 103 (1982) 19-24.

* "'Aeneas Founded Rome with Odysseus.'" "Harvard Studies in Classical Philology" 90 (1986) 93-110.

Christian topics

* "The Powers of Darkness in Prudentius' "Contra Symmachum": A Study of His Poetic Imagination." "Vigiliae Christianae" 19 (1965) 237–257.

* "The Conclusion of Theodosius' Oration in Prudentius' "Contra Symmachum"." "Philologus" 109 (1965) 310-313.

* "Providence and the Soul: A Platonic Chapter in Clement of Alexandria." "Museum Helveticum" 26 (1969) 229-251.

* "George A. Wells on Christmas in Early New Testament Criticism." "Journal of the History of Ideas" 31 (1970) 277-280.

* "Early Christian Interest in the Theory of Demonstration." In "Romanitas et Christianitas; studia Iano Henrico Waszink." Edited by W. den Boer. Amsterdam 1973, pp. 281–291.

* "Reincarnation in Ancient and Early Christian Thought." In "Kleine Schriften", vol. 3. Hildesheim 1982, pp. 465-494.


"Friedrich Solmsen, Professor, 84." "New York Times" (February 10, 1989), [ obituary] .

Kirkwood, G.M. "Foreword to the Paperback Edition." In [,M1 "Hesiod and Aeschylus"] by Friedrich Solmsen. Cornell University Press, 1995, pp. ix–xi.

Solmsen, Friedrich. "Kleine Schriften", 3 vols. Hildesheim 1968–1982.

Solmsen, Friedrich. "Wilamowitz in His Last Ten Years." "Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies" 20 (1979) 89-122.

"Tabulae." Newsletter of the [ Department of Classics] , University of North Carolina (Fall 1989), [ pp. iii–iv.]

Ward, Leo R. "My Fifty Years at Notre Dame", [ chapter 6.]


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