- Social welfare provision
:"Social welfare" redirects here. For other uses see
A social welfare provision refers to any program which seeks to provide a minimum level of income, service or other support for many marginalized groups such as the poor, elderly, and disabled people. Social welfare programs are undertaken by
governmentsas well as non-governmental organizations(NGO's). Social welfare payments and services are typically provided at the expense of taxpayers generally, funded by benefactors, or by compulsory enrollment of the poor themselves. Welfare payments can take the form of in-kind transfers (e.g., health care services) or cash (e.g., earned income tax credit). Examples of social welfare services include the following:
*Compulsory social insurance programs, often based on income, to pay for the social welfare service being provided. These are often incorporated into the taxation system and may be inseparable from
Pensions or other financial aid, including social securityand tax relief, to those with low incomes or inability to meet basic living costs, especially those who are raising children, elderly, unemployed, injured, sick or disabled.
*Free or low cost nursing, medical and hospital care for those who are sick, injured or unable to care for themselves. This may also include free antenatal and postnatal care. Services may be provided in the community or a medical facility.
*Free or low cost
public educationfor all children, and financial aid, sometimes as a scholarship or pension, sometimes in the form of a suspensory loan, to students attending academic institutions or undertaking vocational training.
*The state may also fund or operate social work and community based organizations that provide services that benefit disadvantaged people in the community.
*Welfare money paid to persons, from a government, who are in need of financial assistance but who are unable to work for pay.
Police, criminal courts, prisons, and other parts of the justice system are not generally considered part of the social welfare system, while child protection services are. There are close links between social welfare and justice systems as instruments of social control (see carrot and stick). Those involved in the social welfare system are generally treated much like those in the justice system. Assistance given to those in the justice system is more about allowing an individual to receive fair treatment rather than social welfare. While being involved in the justice system often excludes an individual from social welfare assistance, those exiting the justice system, such as released prisoners, and families of those involved in the justice system are often eligible for social welfare assistance because of increased needs and increased risk of recidivismif the assistance is not provided. In some countries, improvements in social welfare services have been justified by savings being made in the justice system, as well as personal healthcare and legal costs.
States or nations that provide social welfare programs are often identified as having a
welfare state. In such countries, access to social welfare services is often considered a basic and inalienable right to those in need. In many cases these are considered natural rights, and indeed that position is borne out by the UN Convention on Social and Economic Rightsand other treaty documents. Accordingly, many people refer to welfare within a context of social justice, making an analogy to rights of fair treatment or restraint in criminal justice.
Guaranteed minimum income
National Health Service
Social safety net
Social work, a profession intrinsically involved in the provision of welfare
* R. M. Blank (2001) "Welfare Programs, Economics of," "
International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences", pp. 16426-16432 [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7MRM-4MT09VJ-3SM&_rdoc=12&_hierId=151000138&_refWorkId=21&_explode=151000131,151000138&_fmt=high&_orig=na&_docanchor=&_idxType=SC&view=c&_ct=12&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=75e01354776c336e00d82c11a3535461 Abstract.]
*cite web | title = Welfare Incomes 2005 Report (Summer 2006) | author = National Council of Welfare, Canada | publisher = Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada | accessdate = 2006-09-09 | date = 2006 | url = http://www.ncwcnbes.net/htmdocument/reportWelfareIncomes2005/WI2005ENG.pdf
*cite encyclopedia | year = 2006 | title = welfare | encyclopedia = Encyclopædia Britannica | publisher = Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. | location = Oxford
*cite web | title = Unwelcome Benefits: Why Welfare Beneficiaries Reject Government Aid? | author = Barak Y. Orbach | publisher = Law and Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice | date = 2006 | url = http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=581161
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