Desmond O'Malley


Desmond O'Malley
Desmond O'Malley
Leader of the Progressive Democrats
In office
21 December 1985 – 12 October 1993
Preceded by New position
Succeeded by Mary Harney
Minister for Industry and Commerce
In office
12 July 1989 – 4 November 1992
Preceded by Ray Burke
Succeeded by Pádraig Flynn
In office
5 July 1977 – 30 June 1981
Preceded by Justin Keating
Succeeded by John Kelly
Minister for Trade, Commerce and Tourism
In office
9 March 1982 – 7 October 1982
Preceded by John Kelly
Succeeded by Paddy Power
Minister for Justice
In office
5 May 1970 – 14 March 1973
Preceded by Micheál Ó Móráin
Succeeded by Patrick Cooney
Government Chief Whip
In office
2 July 1969 – 5 May 1970
Preceded by Michael Carty
Succeeded by David Andrews
Teachta Dála
In office
28 May 1968 – 25 April 2002
Preceded by Donogh O'Malley
Succeeded by Tim O'Malley
Constituency Limerick East
Personal details
Born 2 February 1939 (1939-02-02) (age 72)
Limerick, Ireland
Political party Fianna Fáil (1968–1985)
Progressive Democrats (1985–2002)
Spouse(s) Pat O'Malley

Desmond Joseph "Des" O'Malley (born 2 February 1939) is a former Irish politician.[1]

Born in Limerick, O'Malley was raised in a local political dynasty that had a strong association with Fianna Fáil. Elected to Dáil Éireann in 1968, he quickly became a trusted confidante of Taoiseach Jack Lynch. After briefly serving as Lynch's Parliamentary Secretary, he was appointed to the highly sensitive position of Minister for Justice in the wake of the Arms Crisis in 1970. His three-year tenure was dominated by attempts to limit the rise of the Provisional IRA, a task which made him a target for assassination. When Fianna Fáil returned to power in 1977 O'Malley was appointed Minister for Industry and Commerce at a time when Ireland's economic fortunes were going into rapid decline.

When Lynch retired as Taoiseach in 1979 Charles Haughey was elected as his successor. O'Malley, like many other members of the cabinet, were deeply distrusting of the new Taoiseach, however, he was retained in his Industry and Commerce potfolio and was reappointed to a similar but expanded position in the short-lived 1982 government. A large number of TDs quickly grew disillusioned with Haughey's leadership and threw their support behind O'Malley in an effort to oust the incumbent leader. A number of leadership heaves were initiated by the Gang of 22 throughout 1982 and 1983, however, Haughey faced down the challengers and isolated his opponents within the party. O'Malley was expelled from the Fianna Fáil parliamentary party in 1984 after clashing with the party over its policy on Northern Ireland and was eventually expelled from the party the following year after abstaining on a vote regarding the liberalisation of the sale of contraceptives.

While many thought that this would be the end of O'Malley's political career, by the end of the year he had established the Progressive Democrats. The new party became the third largest in the Dáil after the 1987 general election and, two years later, entered into coalition government with Fianna Fáil and supported Charles Haughey for Taoiseach. O'Malley returned to the cabinet to his old position as Minister for Industry and Commerce. Albert Reynolds succession of Haughey as Taoiseach created tensions in the coalition and O'Malley's party eventually withdrew from government when Reynolds accused O'Malley of being "dishonest" in his evidence at the Beef Tribunal.

O'Malley stepped down as leader of the Progressive Democrats in 1993. He failed to be elected to the European Parliament in 1994 and effectively retired to the backbenches. He retired from politics at the 2002 general election.

Contents

Early life

O'Malley was born in Limerick City in 1939. His family had long been involved in politics: His grandfather was killed during the War of Independence by the Black and Tans, two of his uncles and his father held the office of Mayor of Limerick, and his uncle Donogh O'Malley was a Minister for Education.

O'Malley was educated at the Jesuit Crescent College and at University College Dublin, from which he graduated with a degree in law in 1962. In 1968, after Donogh O'Malley died suddenly, Desmond O'Malley was elected to Dáil Éireann for Fianna Fáil in the consequent by-election in the Limerick East constituency. At the time it was believed that this by-election victory was partly due to Neil Blaney and his "Donegal Mafia". Neil Blaney would subsequently regret aiding O'Malley in his election.

Following the 1969 general election O'Malley was appointed Parliamentary Secretary to the Taoiseach, Jack Lynch, and also Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Defence, Jim Gibbons. O'Malley had a central role in the prosecutions that arose from the Arms Crisis of 1970. The case against the accused government ministers Charles Haughey and Neil Blaney was dismissed in the Supreme Court, and both ministers were acquitted.

In 1970 O'Malley succeeded Micheál Ó Móráin as Minister for Justice. His plans to introduce internment without trial for Provisional IRA suspects in the Republic were not implemented, but he was the subject of an assassination threat, was forced to carry a loaded pistol and was frequently moved from house to house.

Fianna Fáil majority

In the 1977 general election Fianna Fáil received a 23-seat majority in Dáil Éireann and O'Malley became Minister for Industry and Commerce. In 1979, following Jack Lynch's resignation as Taoiseach and leader of Fianna Fáil, two candidates fought in the leadership election, George Colley and Charles Haughey. O'Malley and Martin O'Donoghue managed Colley's campaign, but Haughey won. Colley and O'Malley retained their positions in the government, but O'Donoghue's department was scrapped.

Opposition to Haughey

Following the February 1982 general election Fianna Fáil, led by Haughey, failed to win an overall majority in the Dáil. Haughey was seen as the main reason for the election defeat. George Colley threw his support behind O'Malley as a leadership challenger, but no vote on the party leadership was taken. Haughey was elected Taoiseach again after negotiating confidence and supply arrangements with the SFWP and two independents. O'Malley was appointed to the Cabinet as Minister for Trade, Commerce and Tourism.

On 1 October 1982, another challenge to Haughey was initiated by the Kildare TD, Charlie McCreevy. O'Malley was on holiday in Spain at the time but rushed back to put his own name forward as a possible alternative to Haughey. He and his supporters resigned from the Cabinet. Haughey won an open vote by 58 votes to 22, with the result that those TDs who voted against Haughey, including O'Malley, became known as the Gang of 22.

In 1983 a Fine GaelLabour Party coalition government took office and its Minister for Justice, Michael Noonan, revealed that Haughey's government had been involved in the tapping of certain journalists' telephones. This set off another leadership struggle, with O'Malley, Gerry Collins, Michael O'Kennedy, Brian Lenihan and John P. Wilson all showing an interest in replacing Haughey. However, an official inquiry into the telephone tapping cleared Haughey of any wrongdoing and put more blame on Martin O'Donoghue than the other TDs involved. Haughey retained the leadership by 40 votes to 33.

George Colley died in 1983 and Martin O'Donoghue was no longer a TD. O'Malley became isolated within Fianna Fáil, with many of his supporters giving up hope of ever beating Haughey.

Expulsion from Fianna Fáil

In May 1984 the New Ireland Forum Report was published. Haughey had been a key figure in the Forum and had agreed to several possible solutions for solving the problem of Northern Ireland. However he responded to the publication by declaring that the only possible solution was a united Ireland. O'Malley strongly criticised this position and accused Haughey of stifling debate. At a meeting of the Fianna Fáil Parliamentary Party to discuss the report the whip was removed from O'Malley and he became an Independent TD.

In early 1985 a bill was introduced by the Fine Gael–Labour Party government to liberalise the sale of contraceptives. Fianna Fáil opposed the bill, but O'Malley considered it a matter of conscience and wanted to support it. When it came to a vote he abstained. On 26 February 1985 he was summoned to a party meeting and charged with "conduct unbecoming". Following a roll-call vote he was expelled from Fianna Fáil by 73 votes to 9.

The Progressive Democrats

Immediately afterwards, Desmond O'Malley was contacted by a young Fine Gael activist, Michael McDowell, who encouraged O'Malley to found a new political party and offered any help he could give. On 21 December 1985, O'Malley announced the formation of the Progressive Democrats. He was joined by Mary Harney (like O'Malley, an Independent TD expelled from Fianna Fáil), and later by Fianna Fáil TDs Bobby Molloy and Pearse Wyse and Fine Gael TD Michael Keating. In the 1987 general election, the Progressive Democrats won 14 seats, making the new party the third biggest in the Dáil. Among the TDs elected were O'Malley and his cousin Patrick O'Malley; Anne Colley, daughter of George Colley, Martin Gibbons, son of the former Fianna Fáil Minister; and Martin Cullen. Fianna Fáil returned to power with Haughey as head of a minority government.

Coalition with Fianna Fáil

In May 1989 Haughey called an early general election in the hope of winning an overall majority, but Fianna Fáil actually lost seats. The Progressive Democrats also lost seats, but held the balance of power. Haughey failed to be elected Taoiseach, as the Progressive Democrats voted for Fine Gael's leader Alan Dukes, but after Haughey formally resigned he entered into negotiations with the Progressive Democrats about forming a coalition. On 5 July 1989 Haughey and O'Malley agreed a deal for government, and O'Malley was appointed Minister for Industry and Commerce.

In 1990 Fianna Fáil's nominee in the presidential election was Brian Lenihan. A few weeks before the election a scandal broke over the accusation that Lenihan had phoned President Hillery in 1982, asking him not to dissolve the Dáil following the fall of Garret FitzGerald's government. Lenihan had always denied this, but now new evidence had come to light. O'Malley told Haughey that the Progressive Democrats would pull out of the coalition and support a no-confidence motion tabled by the opposition unless Lenihan left the government or Haughey opened an investigation into the incident. Haughey sacked Lenihan.

In early 1992 the programme for government was up for renewal. When it was revealed by Seán Doherty that Haughey had authorised the tapping of two journalists' telephones in 1982, O'Malley decided that the Progressive Democrats could no longer remain in his government. Haughey resigned on 11 February 1992 and was replaced as party leader and Taoiseach by Albert Reynolds. O'Malley and the Progressive Democrats continued in the coalition until Reynolds accused O'Malley of being "dishonest" while giving evidence to the Beef Tribunal. The collapse of the coalition led to the general election. Fianna Fáil returned to power in coalition with the Labour Party and the Progressive Democrats moved into Opposition.

Retirement

In October 1993 O'Malley retired as leader of the Progressive Democrats. He was succeeded by Mary Harney, one of the co-founders of the party. In 1994 O'Malley ran for the European Parliament but was defeated by Pat Cox, a sitting MEP who left the Progressive Democrats to run as an independent when O'Malley was selected as the candidate to replace him. O'Malley remained as a TD until his retirement from politics at the 2002 general election, when he was succeeded as TD by his cousin Tim O'Malley. His daughter, Fiona O'Malley, was elected to the Dáil as a Progressive Democrats TD. His son, Eoin O'Malley, is a political scientist in Dublin City University.

See also

References

Oireachtas
Preceded by
Donogh O'Malley
Fianna Fáil Teachta Dála for Limerick East
1968–1985
Succeeded by
O'Malley leaves Fianna Fáil and founds the Progressive Democrats
Preceded by
O'Malley was previously a member of Fianna Fáil
Progressive Democrats Teachta Dála for Limerick East
1985–2002
Succeeded by
Tim O'Malley
Political offices
Preceded by
Michael Carty
Government Chief Whip
1969–1970
Succeeded by
David Andrews
Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Defence
1969–1970
Preceded by
Micheál Ó Móráin
Minister for Justice
1970–1973
Succeeded by
Patrick Cooney
Preceded by
Justin Keating
Minister for Industry and Commerce
1977–1981
Succeeded by
John Kelly
Preceded by
John Kelly
Minister for Trade, Commerce and Tourism
Feb–Oct 1982
Succeeded by
Paddy Power
Preceded by
Ray Burke
Minister for Industry and Commerce
1989–1992
Succeeded by
Pádraig Flynn
Party political offices
Preceded by
New political party
Leader of the Progressive Democrats
1985–1993
Succeeded by
Mary Harney

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