Mid back rounded vowel


Mid back rounded vowel
Mid back rounded vowel
IPA number 307 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal) o​̞
Unicode (hex) U+006F U+031E

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The mid back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. While there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid back rounded vowel between close-mid [o] and open-mid [ɔ] (since no language is known to distinguish all three), ⟨o⟩ or ⟨ɔ⟩ may be used. If precision is desired, diacritics may be used (i.e. [o̞] or [ɔ̝], the former being more common).

Note that just because a language has only one non-close non-open back vowel, it still may not be a cardinal mid vowel. The Sulawesian language Tukang Besi, for example, has a close-mid [o], whereas the Moluccan language Taba has an open-mid [ɔ]; in neither language does this contrast with another open/close-mid vowel.

Contents

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɤ̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ä
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view
  • Its vowel height is mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close-mid vowel and an open-mid vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan Northern Catalan soc [ˈso̞k] 'clog' /ɔ/ and /o/ merge into [o̞] in these dialects. See Catalan phonology
Alguerese
Danish[1] monolog [mo̞no̞ˈlo̞ːˀ] 'monologue' See Danish phonology
English Yorkshire[2] coat [ko̟t] 'coat' Corresponds to /əʊ/ in other British dialects. See English phonology
Finnish[3] kello [ˈke̞llo̞] 'clock' See Finnish phonology
Hebrew[4] שלום [ʃäˈlo̞m] 'peace' Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script. See Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
Greek ωκεανός/okeanós [o̞ˌce̞aˈno̞s] 'ocean' See Modern Greek phonology
Japanese[5] ko [ko̞] 'child' See Japanese phonology
Korean[6] 보리 bori [po̞ˈɾi] 'barley' See Korean phonology
Romanian copil [ko̞ˈpil] 'child' See Romanian phonology
Russian[7] сухой [sʊˈxo̞j] 'dry' See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[8] čvȏr / чво̑р [tʃʋô̞ːr] 'knot' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Spanish[9] todo [ˈt̪o̞ð̞o̞] 'all' See Spanish phonology
Turkish[10] kol [kʰo̞ɫ] 'arm' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian поїзд [ˈpo̞jizd] 'train' See Ukrainian phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[11] do [d̪o̞] 'corn tassel'

Notes

References

  • Grønnum, Nina (1996), "Danish vowels: Scratching the recent surface in a phonological experiment", Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 28: 5–63 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • Jones, Daniel; Dennis, Ward (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarića, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Laufer, Asher (1999), "Hebrew", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, pp. 96–99 
  • Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–122, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114 
  • Okada, Hideo (1991). "Japanese". Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–96. doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X. 
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing 
  • Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan (1999), "Turkish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 154–158, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 

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