Religion and homosexuality


Religion and homosexuality
Conservative Christian protesters at a 2006 gay pride event in San Francisco.

The relationship between religion and homosexuality can vary greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and sects, and regarding different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality. Present day doctrines of the world's major religions vary vastly generally and by denomination on attitudes toward these sexual orientations.

Among those sects that generally are negative towards these orientations, there are many different types of actions they may take: this can range from quietly discouraging homosexual activity, explicitly forbidding same-sex sexual practices among adherents and actively opposing social acceptance of homosexuality, to execution. Many argue that it is homosexual actions which are sinful, rather than the state of being homosexual itself. Several organizations exist that assert that conversion therapy can help diminish same-sex attraction.

However within many religions there are also people who view the two sexual orientations positively, and many religious denominations may bless same-sex marriages and support LGBT rights, and the amount of those that do are continuously increasing around the world as much of the developed world enacts laws supporting LGBT rights.

Historically, some cultures and religions accommodated, institutionalized, or revered, same-sex love and sexuality;[1][2] such mythologies and traditions can be found around the world.[3] In 2009, The United Kingdom Hindu Council became one of the first major religious organizations to support homosexuality when they issued a statement "Hinduism does not condemn homosexuality".[4]

Regardless of their position on homosexuality, many people of faith look to both sacred texts and tradition for guidance on this issue. However, the authority of various traditions or scriptural passages and the correctness of translations and interpretations are continually disputed.

Contents

Views of specific religious groups

Abrahamic religions

The Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, have traditionally forbidden sodomy, believing and teaching that such behavior is sinful.[5][6] Today some denominations within these religions are accepting of homosexuality and inclusive of homosexual people, such as Reform Judaism, the United Church of Christ and the Metropolitan Community Church. Some Presbyterian and Anglican churches welcome members regardless of same-sex sexual practices, with some provinces allowing for the ordination and inclusion of gay and lesbian clerics, and affirmation of same-sex unions. Reform Judaism incorporates lesbian and gay rabbis and same-sex marriage liturgies, while Reconstructionist Judaism and Conservative Judaism in the USA allows for lesbian and gay rabbis and same-sex unions.[7]

Judaism

The Torah (first five books of the Hebrew Bible) is the primary source for Jewish views on homosexuality. It states that: "[A man] shall not lie with another man as [he would] with a woman, it is a תועבה toeba ("abomination")" (Leviticus 18:22). (Like many similar commandments, the stated punishment for willful violation is the death penalty, although in practice rabbinic Judaism no longer believes it has the authority to implement death penalties.)

Orthodox Judaism views homosexual acts as sinful. Conservative Judaism has engaged in an in-depth study of homosexuality since the 1990s with various rabbis presenting a wide array of responsa (papers with legal arguments) for communal consideration. The official position of the movement is to welcome homosexual Jews into their synagogues, and also campaign against any discrimination in civil law and public society, but also to uphold a ban on homosexual sex as a religious requirement.

Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism in North America and Liberal Judaism in the United Kingdom view homosexuality to be acceptable on the same basis as heterosexuality. Progressive Jewish authorities believe either that traditional laws against homosexuality are no longer binding or that they are subject to changes that reflect a new understanding of human sexuality. Some of these authorities rely on modern biblical scholarship suggesting that the prohibition in the Torah was intended to ban coercive or ritualized homosexual sex, such as those practices ascribed to Egyptian and Canaanite fertility cults and temple prostitution.[citation needed][8]

Christianity

Advertisement promoting religious tolerance of homosexuality in the United States.

Christian denominations hold a variety of views on the issue of homosexual activity, ranging from outright condemnation to complete acceptance. Most Christian denominations welcome people attracted to the same sex, but teach that homosexual sex is sinful.[9][10] These denominations include the Roman Catholic Church,[11] the Eastern Orthodox church,[12] the Methodist Church,[9][13][14][15] and some other mainline denominations, such as the Reformed Church in America[16] and the American Baptist Church,[17] as well as Conservative Evangelical organizations and churches, such as the Evangelical Alliance,[18] and fundamentalist groups and churches, such as the Southern Baptist Convention.[19][20][21] Pentecostal churches such as the Assemblies of God,[22] as well as Restorationist churches, like Jehovah's Witnesses and Mormons, also take the position that homosexual sexual activity is sinful.[23][24].

Some liberal Christians are supportive of homosexuals. Other Christian denominations do not view monogamous same sex relationships as bad or evil. These include the United Church of Canada, the United Church of Christ[25], the Episcopal Church, the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada. In particular, the Metropolitan Community Church, a denomination of 40,000 members, was founded specifically to serve the Christian LGBT community, and is devoted to being open and affirming to LGBT people. The United Church of Christ and the Alliance of Baptists also condone gay marriage, and some parts of the Anglican and Lutheran churches allow for the blessing of gay unions. Within the Anglican communion there are openly gay clergy; for example, Gene Robinson and Mary Glasspool are openly homosexual bishops in the US Episcopal Church and Eva Brunne in Lutheran Church of Sweden. The Episcopal Church's recent actions vis-a-vis homosexuality have brought about increased ethical debate and tension within the Church of England and worldwide Anglican churches.

Passages from the Old Testament have been interpreted to argue that homosexuals should be punished with death, and AIDS has been portrayed by some small fringe sects such as Fred Phelps and Jerry Falwell[26] as a punishment by God against homosexuals.[27] In the 20th century, theologians like Karl Barth, Jürgen Moltmann, Hans Küng, John Robinson, Bishop David Jenkins, Don Cupitt, Bishop Jack Spong challenged traditional theological positions and understandings of the Bible; following these developments some have suggested that passages have been mistranslated, are taken out of context, or that they do not refer to what we understand as "homosexuality."[28][29]

Some Protestant churches condemn same-sex sexual relations, based on scripture texts such as describing a man lying with another man 18:22 as sinful acts. Where the Catholic view is founded on a natural law argument informed by scripture,[30] the traditional conservative Protestant view is based on an interpretation of scripture alone. Protestant conservatives also see homosexual relationships as an impediment to heterosexual relationships. They interpret some Biblical passages to be commandments to be heterosexually married.[31] Catholics, on the other hand, have accommodated unmarried people as priests, monks, nuns and single lay people for over a thousand years. A number of self-described gay and ex-gay Christians have reported satisfaction in mixed-orientation marriages.[32][33][34]

Catholic Church

The Catholic Church insists that those who are attracted to people of the same sex as well as anyone who is not married practice chastity.[35] The Church does not regard homosexual activity as a perfect expression of the marital act which it teaches is only possible within a lifelong commitment of a marriage between a man and a woman. According to the Church's sexual ethics, homosexual activity falls short in the areas complementarity (male and female organs complement each other) and fecundity (openness to new life) of the sexual act. This is not to be seen as a fault of people with homosexual attraction, but rather a statement of fact about reality.[36]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that no one should arouse sexual feelings outside of marriage, including those towards that same sex,[37] and that these feelings should be overcome through self-control and reliance on the atonement of Jesus Christ.[38][39] The church teaches that marriage is between a man and a woman, and is essential to God's eternal plan.[40]

Islam

What! Of all creatures do ye come unto the males, and leave the wives your Lord created for you? Nay, but ye are forward folk.

Quran , 26th sura, trans. Pickthal

Youth seeking his father's advice on choosing a lover
From the Haft Awrang of Jami, in the story A Father Advises his Son About Love; See Homosexuality and Islam; The Smithsonian, Washington, DC.

All major Islamic sects disapprove of homosexuality,[41] Islam views same-sex desires as a natural temptation; but, sexual relations are seen as a transgression of the natural role and aim of sexual activity.[42] Islamic teachings (in the hadith tradition) presume same-sex attraction, extol abstention and (in the Qur'an) condemn consummation.

The discourse on homosexuality in Islam is primarily concerned with activities between men. There are, however, a few hadith mentioning homosexual behavior in women; The fuqaha’ are agreed that there is no hadd punishment for lesbianism, because it is not zina. Rather a ta’zeer punishment must be imposed, because it is a sin..'".[43] Relations between women, if they are regarded as problems, are treated akin to adultery, and al-Tabari records an execution of a harem couple under Caliph al-Hadi.

Islam allows and promotes filial love between siblings of the same sex. However, sexual activities between them are totally prohibited. Ibn Hazm, Ibn Daud, Al-Mutamid, Abu Nuwas and many others used this edict to write extensively and openly of brotherly love between men while proclaiming to be chaste.

Bahá'í Faith

Bahá'í law limits permissible sexual relations to those between a man and a woman in marriage. Believers are expected to abstain from sex outside matrimony. Bahá'ís do not, however, attempt to impose their moral standards on those who have not accepted the Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh. While requiring uprightness in all matters of morality, whether sexual or otherwise, the Bahá’í teachings also take account of human frailty and call for tolerance and understanding in regard to human failings. In this context, to regard homosexuals with prejudice would be contrary to the spirit of the Bahá’í teachings.

Indian religions

Among the religions that originated in India, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, teachings regarding homosexuality are less clear than among the Abrahamic traditions. Unlike in western religions, homosexuality is rarely discussed. However, most contemporary religious authorities in the various dharmic traditions view homosexuality negatively, and when it is discussed, it is discouraged or actively forbidden.[44] Ancient religious texts such as the Vedas often refer to people of a third gender known as hijra, who are neither female nor male. Some see this third gender as an ancient parallel to modern western lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and/or intersex identities. However, this third sex is usually negatively valued as a pariah class in ancient texts.[45] Ancient Hindu law books, from the first century onward, categorize non-vaginal sex (ayoni) as impure.[46]

Hinduism

A monk caresses a layman, from the Temple of Visvanatha, Khajuraho, Central India, 10th century CE

Hinduism has taken various positions, ranging from positive to neutral or discouraging. Homosexuality is regarded as one of the possible expressions of human desire and Hindu mythic stories have portrayed homosexual experience as natural and joyful.[47] There are several Hindu temples which have carvings that depict both men and women indulging in homosexual sex.[48]

Rigveda,one of the four canonical sacred texts of Hinduism says 'Vikruti Evam Prakriti' (diversity is what nature is all about, or, what seems un-natural is also natural), which some scholars believe recognizes homosexuality as natural, if not an approval of homosexuality. Moreover, Rigveda recognizes the cyclical constancy of homosexual/transsexual dimensions of human life, like all forms of universal diversities.[49] However, sexuality is rarely discussed openly in Hindu society today, and homosexuality is largely a taboo subject — especially among the strongly religious. In a 2004 survey, most swamis said they opposed the concept of a Hindu-sanctified gay marriage.[50] Some of the law codes, such as that of Manu Smriti assert that a women polluting a virgin is a crime.[51] Punishments include ritual baths, fines, public humiliation and having fingers cut off. However, the bulk of sexual matters dealt with by the law books are heterosexual in nature.

A "third gender" has been acknowledged within Hinduism since Vedic times. Several Hindu texts, such as Manu Smriti[52] and Sushruta Samhita, assert that some people are born with either mixed male and female natures, or sexually neuter, as a matter of natural biology. They worked as hairdressers, flower-sellers, servants, masseurs and prostitutes. Today, many people of a "third gender" (hijras) live throughout India, mostly on the margins of society, and many still work in prostitution, or make a livelihood as beggars.

The Indian Kama Sutra, written in the 4th century AD, contains passages describing eunuchs or "third-sex" males performing oral sex on men.[53] However, the author was "not a fan of homosexual activities" and treated such individuals with disdain, according to historian Devdutt Pattanaik.[54] Similarly, some medieval Hindu temples and artifacts openly depict male homosexuality, lesbianism, and bisexuality within their carvings, such as the temple walls at Khajuraho. Some infer from these images that Hindu society and religion were previously more open to variations in human sexuality than they are at present.

Hindu scriptures contain several stories that metaphorically have homosexual, bisexual, transgender, or other kinds of queer overtones, often involving the most prominent Hindu deities. There are Hindu deities who are intersex (both male and female), e.g., Ardhanari, who is the unified form of Shiva and Parvati; who switch from male to female or from female to male, e.g., Mohini, who is the only female Avatar of Vishnu; male deities with female moods and female deities with male moods, e.g., Krishna turning into Mohini to fulfil Iravan's boon; deities born from two males or from two females, e.g., Ayyappan, who is considered to be "Harihara Putra", the son of Shiva and Vishnu, in his Mohini Avatar, and so on.

Jainism

Chastity is one of the five virtues in the fundamental ethical code of Jainism. For laypersons, the only appropriate avenue for sexuality is within marriage, and homosexuality is believed to lead to negative karma because the sexual act is outside marriage.[55] Jain author Duli Chandra Jain wrote in 2004 that homosexuality and transvestism "stain one's thoughts and feelings" because they involve sexual passion.[56] Some texts in Jainism have depicted of Eunuchs are born with genetic defects or due to social pressure. There is also a mention of correction and lead normal life. It is a mental imbalance which can be cured in few of the cases. (Brhatkalpa bhasya V, 517374.)

The liberal humanitarian attitude of the Jaina society in the formulation of rules and their exceptions is evidenced in the case of the enunuch (who is considered to be female) who was raped by unknown man. Such a eunuch was kept in the monastery was well looked after, was fed by nuns and when well advanced in pregnancy was handed over to a devoted physician. All her duties as a person were suspended till her child sucked her; even her child could be initiated. One particularly remarkable aspect was that those who teased or condemned her were compelled to undergo expiatory punishment. (Brh. kalp. Bha., 4129-46).

Buddhism

The most common formulation of Buddhist ethics are the Five Precepts and the Eightfold Path, one should neither be attached to nor crave sensual pleasure. These precepts take the form of voluntary, personal undertakings, not divine mandate or instruction. The third of the Five Precepts is "To refrain from committing sexual misconduct.[57] However, the "sexual misconduct" is such a broad term, and is subjected to interpretation relative to the social norms of the followers. In fact, Buddhism in its fundamental form does not define what is right and what is wrong in absolute terms for lay followers. Therefore the determination of whether or not homosexuality is acceptable for a layperson is not a religious matter as far as fundamental Buddhism is concerned.[58]

Buddhism is often characterized as distrustful of sensual enjoyment and sexuality in general.[59] Traditionally, homosexual conduct and gender variance are seen as obstacles to spiritual progress in most schools of Buddhism; as such monks are expected to refrain from all sexual activity, and the Vinaya (the first book of the Tripitaka) specifically prohibits sexual intercourse, then further explain that both anal, oral as well as vaginal intercourse amount to sexual intercourse, which will result in permanent exclusion from Sangha.[60] A notable exception in the history of Buddhism occurred in Japan during the Edo period, in which male homosexuality, or more specifically, love between young novices and older monks, was celebrated.[61]

References to pandaka, a deviant sex/gender category that is usually interpreted to include homosexual males, can be found throughout the Pali canon as well as other Sanskrit scriptures.[62] Leonard Zwilling refers extensively to Buddhaghosa's Samantapasadika, where pandaka are described as being filled with defiled passions and insatiable lusts, and are dominated by their libido. The Abhidharma states that a pandaka cannot achieve enlightenment in their own lifetime, but must wait for rebirth as a "normal" man or woman. According to one scriptural story, Ananda—Buddha's cousin and disciple—was a pandaka in one of his many previous lives.

The third of the Five Precepts of Buddhism states that one is to refrain from sexual misconduct; this precept has sometimes been interpreted to include homosexuality. The Dalai Lama of Tibetan Buddhism interprets sexual misconduct to include lesbian and gay sex, and indeed any sex other than penis-vagina intercourse, including oral sex, anal sex, and masturbation or other sexual activity with the hand; the only time sex is acceptable is when it performed for its natural purpose of procreation.[63] However, the Dalai Lama supports human rights for all, "regardless of sexual orientation."[64]

In Thailand, traditional accounts propose that "homosexuality arises as a karmic consequence of violating Buddhist proscriptions against heterosexual misconduct. These karmic accounts describe homosexuality as a congenital condition which cannot be altered, at least in a homosexual person's current lifetime, and have been linked with calls for compassion and understanding from the non-homosexual populace."[59] However, Buddhist leaders in Thailand have also condemned homosexuality,[65] ousted monks accused of homosexual acts, and banned kathoey from ordination. As per BBC article April 27, 2009, Senior monk Phra Maha Wudhijaya Vajiramedh is very concerned by flamboyant behavior of gay and transgender novices such as the wearing of make-up and tight or revealingly tight robes, carrying pink purses and having effeminately-shaped eyebrows. Phra Vajiramedhi acknowledged that it was difficult to exclude them from the monkhood - so he introduced Thailand's & Buddhism's "good manners" curriculum - the country's first.

Within Japanese traditions, there is a widespread forklore that homosexuality was "invented" by the Bodhisattva Manjusri of wisdom and the sage Kūkai, the founder of Buddhism in Japan.[66] Japanese Buddhist scholar and author of Wild Azaleas Kitamura Kigin said that heterosexuality was to be avoided for priests and homosexuality encouraged.[67]

Sikhism

Sikhism has no written view on the matter, but in 2005, a Sikh religious authority described homosexuality as "against the Sikh religion and the Sikh code of conduct and totally against the laws of nature," and called on Sikhs to support laws against gay marriage.[68] Many, Sikhs are however, are against[69] this view and state the Sikh Scriptures do not condemn homosexuality.[70]

Zoroastrianism

The man that lies with mankind as man lies with womankind, or as woman lies with mankind, is a man that is a Daeva [demon]; this man is a worshipper of the Daevas, a male paramour of the Daevas

Vendidad

The Vendidad, one of the later Zoroastrian texts composed in the Artificial Young Avestan language, has not been dated precisely. It is thought that some concepts of law, uncleanliness, dualism, and salvation were shared between the religions,[71] and subsequent interactions between the religions are documented by events such as the release of the Jews from the Babylonian captivity by Zoroastrian Cyrus the Great in 537 BC, and the Biblical account of the Magi visiting the infant Jesus. The Vendidad generally promotes procreation: "the man who has a wife is far above him who lives in continence; he who keeps a house is far above him who has none; he who has children is far above the childless man; he who has riches is far above him who has none." It details the penance for a worshipper who submits to sodomy under force as "Eight hundred stripes with the Aspahe-astra, eight hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana." (equal to the penalty for breaking a contract with the value of an ox),[72] and declares that for those participating voluntarily "For that deed there is nothing that can pay, nothing that can atone, nothing that can cleanse from it; it is a trespass for which there is no atonement, for ever and ever". However, those not practicing the Religion of Mazda were pardoned for past actions upon conversion.[73]

Chinese religions

Among the Taoic religions of East Asia, such as Taoism, passionate homosexual expression is usually discouraged because it is believed to not lead to human fulfillment.[74]

Confucianism

Homosexuality is not listed in the Analects of Confucius as a sin.[75] "Biting the bitter peel", a euphemism for homosexual relations, generally taken to mean anal sex, is mentioned as having been practiced by several individuals in the Classic of History as well as the Spring and Autumn Annals,[citation needed] both texts belonging to the Five Classics.

Taoism

There is no single official position on homosexuality in Taoism, as the term Taoism is used to describe a number of disparate religious traditions. Homosexuality is not unknown in Taoist history, such as during the Tang dynasty when Taoist nuns exchanged love poems.[76] Attitudes to homosexuality within Taoism often reflect the values and sexual norms of broader Chinese society (see Homosexuality in China.)

Taoist tradition holds that males need the energies of females, and vice versa, in order to bring about balance, completion and transformation, although these energies are thought best obtained through heterosexual relations. However, the practice of Qi Gong is said to align and balance yin and yang energies and this practice is believed especially important if the person engages in continuous homosexual relationships.[77]

Passionate homosexual expression is usually discouraged because it is believed to not lead to human fulfillment.[74]

Paganism

Neopagan religion

The Wiccan Charge of the Goddess, one of the most famous texts in Neopaganism, states in the words of the Goddess, "all acts of love and pleasure are my rituals".[78] In traditional forms of Wicca, such as Gardnerian and Alexandrian Wicca, magic is often performed between a man and a woman, and the "Great Rite" is a sex ritual performed between a Priest and Priestess representing the God and Goddess;[79] however, this is not generally seen as excluding homosexuals or magic between same-sex couples. Most groups still insist, however, that initiations be conferred from man to woman or woman to man. Any ritual sexual acts, whether actual or symbolic, take place between two consenting adults, normally a couple who are already lovers. See also LGBT topics and Wicca.

Satanism

Satanism, in the LaVey tradition, is open to all forms of sexual expression, and does not preclude homosexuality.[80]

Unitarian Universalism

The Unitarian Universalist Association supports the freedom to marry[81] and compares resistance to it to the resistance to abolition of slavery, women's suffrage, and the end of anti-miscegenation laws.[82] Several congregations have undertaken a series of organizational, procedural and practical steps to become acknowledged as a "Welcoming Congregation": a congregation which has taken specific steps to welcome and integrate gay, lesbian, bisexual & transgender (GLBT) members. UU ministers perform same-sex unions and now same-sex marriages where legal (and sometimes when not, as a form of civil protest). On June 29, 1984, the Unitarian Universalists became the first major church "to approve religious blessings on homosexual unions." Unitarian Universalists have been in the forefront of the work to make same-sex marriages legal in their local states and provinces, as well as on the national level. Gay men and lesbians are also regularly ordained as ministers, and a number of gay and lesbian ministers have, themselves, now become legally married to their partners. In May 2004, Arlington Street Church was the site of the first state-sanctioned same-sex marriage in the United States. The official stance of the UUA is for the legalization of same-sex marriage—"Standing on the Side of Love." In 2004 UU Minister Rev. Debra Haffner of The Religious Institute on Sexual Morality, Justice, and Healing published An Open Letter on Religious Leaders on Marriage Equality to affirm same-sex marriage from a multi-faith perspective.

Queer religions

Radical Faeries

The Radical Faeries are a worldwide queer spiritual movement, founded in 1979 in the United States.

Religious groups and public policy

Opposition to same-sex marriage and LGBT rights is often associated with conservative religious views. The American Family Association and other religious groups have promoted boycotts of corporations whose policies support the LGBT community.

In conservative Islamic nations, laws generally prohibit same-sex sexual behaviour, and interpretation of Sharia Law on male homosexuality carries the death penalty. This has been condemned as a violation of human rights by human rights organisation Amnesty International and by the writers of the Yogyakarta principles. With the signature of the USA in 2009, the proposed UN declaration on LGBT rights has now been signed by every European secular state and all western nations, as well as other countries—67 members of the UN in total. An opposing statement put forward by Muslim nations was signed by 57 member states, mostly in Africa and Asia. 68 out of the total 192 countries have not yet signed either statement. In 2011 the United Nations Human Rights Council passed a landmark resolution initiated by South Africa supporting LBGT rights (See Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity at the United Nations)

See also

General references

  • John Boswell, ISBN 0-226-06710-6, paperback Nov. 2005 ISBN 0-226-06711-4
  • Dane S. Claussen, ed. Sex, Religion, Media, Rowman & Littlefield, 2002. ISBN 0-7425-1558-3
  • Dag Øistein Endsjø, Sex and Religion: Teachings and Taboos in the History of World Faiths, Reaktion Books 2011. ISBN 9781861898159
  • Mathew Kuefler (editor), The Boswell Thesis : Essays on Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality, University Of Chicago Press, Nov. 2005 ISBN 0-226-45741-9
  • Macnutt, Francis (2006) "Can Homosexuality Be Healed?" publisher 'Chosen Books', ISBN 0800794095
  • Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (eds.), "Islamic Homosexualities: culture, history, and literature" NYU Press New York 1997
  • Arlene Swidler: Homosexuality and World Religions. Valley Forge 1993. ISBN 156338051X
  • Eckhart Tolle, The Power of Now: A Guide to Spiritual Enlightenment, New World Library, 1st ed. 1999, paperback 2004 ISBN 1-57731-480-8
  • Wafer, Jim (1991) "The Taste of Blood: Spirit Possession in Brazilian Candomblé" UPP Philadelphia
  • Wafer, Jim (1997) "Muhammad and Male Homosexuality" in "Islamic Homosexualities: culture, history, and literature" by Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (eds.), NYU Press New York
  • Wafer, Jim (1997) "The Symbolism of Male Love in Islamic Mysthical Literature" in "Islamic Homosexualities: culture, history, and literature" by Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (eds.), NYU Press New York 1997

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    The supreme body of Sikhism condemned homosexuality in 2005: World Sikh group against gay marriage bill, CBC News, Tuesday, 29 March 2005.
    Hinduism is diverse, with no supreme governing body, but the majority of swamis opposed same-sex relationships in a 2004 survey, and a minority supported them. See: Discussions on Dharma, by Rajiv Malik, in Hinduism Today. October/November/December 2004.
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  52. ^ Manu Smriti, 3.49
  53. ^ Kama Sutra, Chapter 9, "Of the Auparishtaka or Mouth Congress". Text online.
  54. ^ Pattanaik, Devdutt (2001). Homosexuality in Ancient India, Debonair 2000 or 2001. Essay available online from GayBombay.org.
  55. ^ Website: What Jains believe.
  56. ^ Duli Chandra Jain, Answers To Some Frequently Asked Questions, in 'Religious Ethics: A Sourcebook’, edited by Dr. Arthur B. Dobrin, published by Hindi Granth Karyalaya, Mumbai, 2004. Text onlinePDF link).
  57. ^ Higgins, Winton. "Buddhist Sexual Ethics". BuddhaNet Magazine. http://www.buddhanet.net/winton_s.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-15. 
  58. ^ GLBT in World Religions, Sermon by Rev. Gabriele Parks, along with Phil Manos and Bill Weber. Tpuuf.org
  59. ^ a b Jackson, Peter Anthony (December 1995). "Thai Buddhist accounts of male homosexuality and AIDS in the 1980s". The Australian Journal of Anthropology 6 (3): 140–53. doi:10.1111/j.1835-9310.1995.tb00276.x. PMID 12291560. http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-EPT/anth.htm. 
  60. ^ See, for example, the Pandakavatthu section of the Mahavagga. 1:61, 68, 69; Vinaya: Mahavagga, 1:71, 76. Additionally, "The Story of the Prohibition of the Ordination of Pandaka" justifies the ban by giving an example of a monk with an insatiable desire to be sexually penetrated by men, thus bringing shame upon the Buddhist community. Vinaya, Vol. 4, pp. 141–142.
  61. ^ Leupp, Gary P. (1995). Male Colors, the Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan. Berkeley: The University of California Press. ISBN 0-585-10603-7. 
  62. ^ Zwilling, Leonard (1992). "Homosexuality As Seen In Indian Buddhist Texts". In Cabezon, Jose Ignacio (ed.). Buddhism, Sexuality & Gender. State University of New York. pp. 203–214. 
  63. ^ Lattin, Don (1997-06-11). "Dalai Lama Speaks on Gay Sex - He says it's wrong for Buddhists but not for society". San Francisco Chronicle.  – Conkin, Dennis (1997-06-19). "Dalai Lama urges 'respect, compassion, and full human rights for all,' including gays". http://quietmountain.org/links/teachings/gayrites.htm.  – Nichols, Jack (1997-05-13). "Dalai Lama says 'oral and anal sex' not acceptable". http://badpuppy.com/gaytoday/garchive/events/051397ev.htm. 
  64. ^ "The Buddhist religion and homosexuality". Religioustolerance.org. http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_budd.htm. 
  65. ^ Ibid.
  66. ^ West, Donald James; Green, Richard (1997). Sociolegal Control of Homosexuality: Multi-nation Comparison. Springer. pp. 68. ISBN 0306455323. http://books.google.com/?id=AwD3FNUJjXwC&pg=PA68&dq=Kukai+homosexuality. "According to one legend, homosexuality was introduced into Japan in the ninth century by Shingon Buddhist monk, Kukai" 
  67. ^ Kumagusu, Miinakata; Ihara Saikaku (1996-12-30) [1996]. Stephen D. Miller. ed. Partings at Dawn: An Anthology of Japanese Gay Literature. trans. Paul Gordon Schalow (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Gay Sunshine Press. pp. 103. ISBN 0-940567-18-0. "The Buddha preached that Mount Imose (a metaphor for the love of women) was a place to be avoided, and thus priests of the dharma first entered this way as an outlet for their feelings, since their hearts were, after all, made of neither stone nor wood." 
  68. ^ World Sikh group against gay marriage bill, CBC News, Tuesday, 29 March 2005.
  69. ^ "Sikhism and same Sex Marriages". sarbat.net. p. 1. Archived from the original on 3rd October 2007. http://www.sarbat.net/2007/10/sikhism-and-same-sex-marriages/. Retrieved 3 September 2010. 
  70. ^ Naad, Project (2/9/2010). [www.projectnaad.com/wp-content/uploads/leaflets/sikhism_yoga_and_sexuality.pdf "Sikhism, Yoga and Sexuality"]. Project Naad. p. 33. Archived from the original on 2nd September 2010. www.projectnaad.com/wp-content/uploads/leaflets/sikhism_yoga_and_sexuality.pdf. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  71. ^ "How Persia created Judaism:Zoroastrian Influences on Judaism and Christianity (Part II) - Zoroastrianism: Theology". http://www.cais-soas*com/CAIS/Religions/non-iranian/judaism/persian_judaism/book2/pt4.htm. 
  72. ^ "Avesta: Vendidad (English): Fargard 4. Contracts and offenses". http://www.avesta.org/vendidad/vd4sbe.htm. 
  73. ^ "Avesta: Vendidad: Fargard 8. Funerals and purification, unlawful sex". http://www.avesta.org/vendidad/vd8sbe.htm. 
  74. ^ a b Wawrytko, Sandra (1993). Homosexuality and Chinese and Japanese Religions in "Homosexuality and World Religions", edited by Arlene Swidler. Trinity Press International, 1993.
  75. ^ Jeffrey S. Siker, Homosexuality and Religion: an encyclopedia. page 210. 2007. ISBN 0-313-33088-3
  76. ^ Homosexuality in China on glbtq.com.
  77. ^ Compassionate Dragon Healing: Taoist Sex
  78. ^ "Alternative Sexuality". Tangled Moon Coven. 2006-08-08. http://www.tangledmoon.org/sexuality.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-30. 
  79. ^ "Sex, Wicca and the Great Rite". The Blade & Chalice Spring 1993 (3). 
  80. ^ LaVey, Anton Szandor (1969). The Satanic Bible. New York: Avon Books. p. 66. ISBN 9780380015399. OCLC 26042819. http://books.google.com/books?id=nFKymDweQLcC&pg=PA113. Retrieved 2010-04-22. 
  81. ^ UUA.org
  82. ^ UUSM - Services & Sermons

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