- Russian Empire Census
The Russian Empire Census of
1897was the first and the only censuscarried out in the Russian Empire. It recorded demographic dataas of OldStyleDate|28 January|1897|15 January.
Previously, the Central Statistical Bureau issued statistical tables based on fiscal lists (ревизские списки).
The second Russian Census was scheduled for 1915, but was cancelled because of the
World War I(and never happened in the Russian Empire because of the Russian Revolution of 1917).
The census project was suggested by famous Russian
geographerand chief of the Central Statistical Bureau Pyotr Semenov-Tyan-Shanskyin 1877, and was approved by Tsar Nicholas IIin 1895.
The census was performed in two stages. In the first stage (December 1896 — January 1897) the counters (135,000 persons: literate soldiers, teachers and priests) visited all households and filled in the questionnaires, which were verified by local census managers. In the second stage (OldStyleDateDY|9 January|1898|
28 December 1897) the counters simultaneously visited all households to verify and update the questionnaires.
The data processing took 8 years using
Hollerith cardmachines. Publication of the results started in 1898 and ended in 1905. In total, 119 volumes for 89 " guberniyas", as well as a two-volume summary, were issued.
The questionnaire contained the following questions:
Family name, given name, patronymicor nickname(прозвище)
*Relation with respect to the head of the family or household
*Social status: "
sosloviye" ( estate of the realm), rank or title (сословие, состояние, звание)
*Place of birth
*Place of registration
*Usual place of residence
*Notice of absence
*Occupation (profession, trade, position of office or service), both primary and secondary
In the census summary tables,
nationalitywas based on the declared mother language of respondents.
The results of the census are too broad to publish, but its online Russian version can be found here: [http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_lan_97.php demoscope.ru] .
The total population of the Russian Empire was recorded to be 125,640,021 people (50.2 % female, 49.8 % male).
By native tongue
The most spoken languages, from which nationality was determined were:
**Russian language: 83,933,567
***Great Russian (i.e., Russian): 55,667,469
***Little Russian (i.e.,Ukrainian):22,380,551
***White Russian (i.e., Belarusian): 5,885,547
Czech(inc. Slovak): 50,385
**Serbian, Croatian and Slovenian: 1,815
**Moldavian and Romanian: 1,121,669
**Spanish and Portuguese: 138
Largest cities of the Empire according to the census (thousands of inhabitants):
Tiflis(Tbilisi) — 159,6
Wilno(Vilnius) — 154,5
Yekaterinoslav(Dnepropetrovsk) — 112,8
Kishinev(Chişinău) — 108,5
Helsingfors(Helsinki) — 93
Nizhny Novgorod— 90,1
Yekaterinodar(Krasnodar) — 65,6
Tsaritsyn(Volgograd) — 55,2
Ivanovo-Voznesensk(Ivanovo) — 54,2
* "Первая всеобщая перепись населенiя Россiйской Имперiи". Под редакцiею Н. А. Тройницкаго. — СПб.: Изданiе центральнаго статистическаго комитета министерства внутреннихъ делъ, 1905. (The First Total Census of Russian Empire. A publication of the central statictical bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Editor N. A. Troynitsky.)
* "РОССИЯ. Полное Географическое Описание Нашего Отечества". Под ред. П. П. Семенова-Тян-Шанского. — СПб., 1913. (Semenov-Tyan-Shanskiy, P. P. (Ed.): "RUSSIA. Complete Geographical Description of our Fatherland". — St. Petersburg, 1913. This latter work reproduces most of the results of the census, and is a good deal easier to find in western libraries than the original publication.)
* [http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_lan_97.php Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Распределение населения по родному языку и регионам] (First General Russian Empire Census of 1897. Population breakdown by mother tongue and regions) (Demoscope.ru) ru icon
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