Raku ware


Raku ware
A 16th century black Raku-style chawan, used for thick tea (Tokyo National Museum)
File:Tea bowl with designs of pine boughs and interlocking circles, unknown raku-ware workshop, Kyoto, 18th-19th Cent, Freer Gallery of Art.jpg
Tea bowl with designs of pine boughs and interlocking circles, unknown raku ware workshop, Kyoto, 18th-19th Century, Freer Gallery of Art

Raku-yaki (楽焼)(raku ware) is a type of Japanese pottery that is traditionally used in the Japanese tea ceremony, most often in the form of tea bowls. It is traditionally characterized by hand molded, rather than turned, clay, which results in each piece being "one-of-a-kind"; fairly porous vessels, which result from low firing temperatures; lead glazes; and the removal of pieces from the kiln while still glowing hot. In the traditional Japanese process, the fired raku piece is removed from the hot kiln and is allowed to cool in the open air or in a container filled with combustible material. Raku techniques have been modified by contemporary potters worldwide.

Contents

History

Raku means "enjoyment" or "ease" and is derived from Jurakudai, the name of a palace, in Kyoto, that was built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537–1598), who was the leading warrior statesman of the time.

In the 16th century, Sen Rikyu, the Japanese tea master, was involved with the construction of the Jurakudai and had a tile-maker, named Chōjirō, produce hand-moulded tea bowls for use in the wabi-styled tea ceremony that was Rikyū's ideal. The resulting tea bowls made by Chōjirō were initially referred to as "ima-yaki" ("contemporary ware") and were also distinguished as Juraku-yaki, from the red clay (Juraku) that they employed. Hideyoshi presented Jokei, Chōjirō's son, with a seal that bore the Chinese character for raku[1]. Raku then became the name of the family that produced the wares. Both the name and the ceramic style have been passed down through the family (sometimes by adoption) to the present 15th generation (Kichizaemon). The name and the style of ware has become influential in both Japanese culture and literature.

In Japan, there are "branch kilns" (wakigama), in the raku-ware tradition, that have been founded by Raku-family members or potters who apprenticed at the head family's studio. One of the most well-known of these is Ōhi-yaki (Ōhi ware).

After the publication of a manual in the 18th century, raku ware was also made in numerous workshops by amateur potters and tea practitioners in Kyoto,and by professional and amateur potters around Japan.

Raku ware marked an important point in the historical development of Japanese ceramics, as it was the first ware to use a seal mark and the first to focus on close collaboration between potter and patron. Other famous Japanese clay artists of this period include Dōnyū (grandson of Chōjirō, also known as Nonkō; 1574–1656), Hon'ami Kōetsu (1556–1637) and Ogata Kenzan (1663–1743).

In literature

  • Raku tea bowls play an important part in Rituals, a 1983 novel by the Dutch author, Cees Nooteboom.

Oxidation Reduction

In raku firing, the aluminium container acts as a reduction tube, which is a container that allows the carbon dioxide to pass through a small hole[2]. , Areduction atmosphere is created by closing the container [3]. A reduction atmosphere induces a reaction between oxygen and clay, which affects the color[4] . It also has extraordinary effects on the metals inside the glaze. Reduction is a decrease in oxidation number [5]. Closing the can starves the air of oxygen after the combustible materials such as sawdust catch fire and forces the reaction to pull oxygen from the glazes and the clay [6] . For example, luster duster gets its interesting color from deprivation of oxygen. The reduction agent is a substance from which electrons are being taken by another substance[7] . The reaction uses oxygen from the atmosphere within the reduction tube, and, to continue, it receives the rest of the oxygen from the glazes [8]. This leaves ions and iridescent luster behind. This creates a pleasing metallic effect. Pieces with no glaze have nowhere to get the oxygen from, so they take it from clay. This atmosphere will turn clay black, making an unattractive, matte color, without sheen.

Reduction Firing 2

Reduction firing is when the kiln atmosphere, which is full of combustible material, is heated up. “Reduction is incomplete combustion of fuel, caused by a shortage of oxygen, which produces carbon monoxide” (Arbuckle, 4) Eventually, all of the available oxygen is used. This then draws oxygen from the glaze and the clay to allow the reaction to continue. Oxygen serves as the limiting reactant in this scenario because the reaction that creates fire needs a constant supply of it to continue; when the glaze and the clay come out hardened, this means that the oxygen was subtracted from the glaze and the clay to accommodate the lack of oxygen in the atmosphere. Consequently, the raku piece appears black or white, which depends upon the amount of oxygen that was lost from each area of the piece. The empty spaces that occur from the reduction of oxygen are filled in by carbon molecules in the atmosphere of the container, which makes the piece blacker in spots where more oxygen was retracted.[9][10]

Western raku techniques

Raku became popularized in America in the late 1950s with the help of Paul Soldner. Americans kept the general process of firing, that is, heating the pottery very quickly at high temperatures and then cooling it very fast. Besides this, America has formed its own, unique style of raku.

It is raku’s unpredictable results and intense color that attract modern potters. These patterns and color result from the harsh cooling process and the amount of oxygen that is allowed to reach the pottery. Depending on what effect the artist wants, the pottery is either instantly cooled in water, cooled slowly in the open air, or placed in a barrel filled with combustible material, such as newspaper, covered, and allowed to smoke the fired raku piece is removed from the hot kiln and is allowed to cool in the open air or in a container filled with combustible material[11] . Water immediately cools the pottery, stopping the chemical reactions of the glaze and fixing the colors. The combustible material results in smoke, which stains the unglazed portions of the pottery black. The amount of oxygen that is allowed during the firing and cooling process affects the resulting color of the glaze and the amount of crackle.

Unlike traditional Japanese raku, which is mainly hand built bowls of modest design, western raku tends to be vibrant in color, and comes in many shapes and sizes. Western raku can be anything from an elegant vase, to an eccentric abstract sculpture. Although some do hand build, most western potters use throwing wheels while creating their raku piece. Western culture has even created a new sub branch of raku called horse hair raku. These pieces are often white with squiggly black lines and smoke-like smudges. These effects are created by placing horse hair, feathers, or even sugar on the pottery as it is removed from the kiln and still extremely hot.

Kilns and firing

The first working Japanese kiln in the west was built by Tsuronosuke Matsubayashi at Leach Pottery, St Ives in 1922.[12]

A vase glazed and fired using the western raku technique, showing the soot, crackle glazing, and random reduction-oxidation typical of this pottery technique.

The type and the size of kilns that are used in raku are crucial in the outcome. One aspect that can affect the results is the use of electric versus gas kilns. Electric kilns allow easy temperature control. Gas kilns, which comprise brick or ceramic fibers, can be used in either oxidation or reduction firing and use propane or natural gas. Gas kilns also heat more quickly than electric kilns, but it is more difficult to maintain temperature control. There is a note-worthy difference when using an updrift kiln rather than a downdrift kiln. An updrift kiln has shelves that trap heat. This effect creates uneven temperatures throughout the kiln. Conversely, a downdrift kiln pulls air down a separate stack on the side and allows a more even temperature throughout and allows the work to be layered on shelves.[13]

It is important for a kiln to have a door that is easily opened and closed, because, when the artwork in the kiln has reached the right temperature (over 1000 degrees Celsius), it must be quickly removed and put in a metal or tin container with combustible material, which reduces the pot and leaves certain colors and patterns.[14]

The use of a reduction chamber at the end of the raku firing was introduced by the American potter Paul Soldner in the 1960s to compensate for the difference in atmosphere between wood-fired Japanese raku kilns and gas-fired American kilns. Typically, pieces removed from the hot kiln are placed in masses of combustible material (e.g., straw, sawdust, or newspaper) to provide a reducing atmosphere for the glaze and to stain the exposed body surface with carbon.

Western raku potters rarely use lead as a glaze ingredient, due to its serious level of toxicity, but may use other metals as glaze ingredients. Japanese potters substitute a non-lead frit. Although almost any low-fire glaze can be used, potters often use specially formulated glaze recipes that "crackle" or craze (present a cracked appearance), because the crazing lines take on a dark color from the carbon.

Western raku is typically made from a stoneware clay body, bisque fired at 900 °C (1,650 °F) and glaze fired (the final firing) between 800–1000 °C (1472–1832 °F), which falls into the cone 06 firing temperature range. The process is known for its unpredictability, particularly when reduction is forced, and pieces may crack or even explode due to thermal shock. Pots may be returned to the kiln to re-oxidize if firing results do not meet the potter's expectations, although each successive firing has a high chance of weakening the overall structural integrity of the pot. Pots that are exposed to thermal shock multiple times can break apart in the kiln, as they are removed from the kiln, or when they are in the reduction chamber.

The glaze firing times for raku ware are short: an hour or two as opposed to up to 16 hours for high-temperature cone 10 stoneware firings. This is due to several factors: raku glazes mature at a much lower temperaturee (under 980 °C/1,800 °F, as opposed to almost 1,260 °C/2,300 °F for high-fire stoneware); kiln temperatures can be raised rapidly; and the kiln is loaded and unloaded while hot and can be kept hot between firings.

Because temperature changes are rapid during the raku process, clay bodies used for raku ware must be able to cope with significant thermal stress. The usual way to add strength to the clay body and to reduce thermal expansion is to incorporate a high percentage of quartz, grog, or kyanite into the body before the pot is formed. At high additions, quartz can increase the risk of dunting or shivering. Therefore, kyanite is often the preferred material, as it contributes both mechanical strength and, in amounts up to 20%, significantly reduces thermal expansion. Although any clay body can be used, white stoneware clay bodies are unsuitable for the western raku process unless some material is added to deal with thermal shock. Porcelain,however is often used but it must be thinly thrown.

Aesthetic considerations include clay color and fired surface texture, as well as the clay's chemical interaction with raku glazes.

In a craft conference in Kyoto in 1979, a heated debate sprang up between Western raku artists Paul Soldner and Rick Hirsh and the youngest in the dynastic raku succession, Kichiemon, (of the fourteenth generation of the "Raku" family of potters) concerning the right to use the title "raku". The Japanese artists maintain that any work by other craftsman should hold their own name, (i.e., Soldner-ware, Hirsh-ware), as that was how "raku" was intended.[15]

Raku in the west has been abstracted and is now a more philosophical approach with the emphasis on the spontaneity of surface pattern creation rather than purely a firing technique. Consequently this has expanded its application from pots to sculptural ceramics.

Design Considerations

detail on one piece on which horse hair was used

Raku is a unique form of pottery making; what makes it so unique is the range of designs that can be created by simply altering certain variables. These variables--which include wax resist, glazes, temperature, and timing[16]--ultimately determine the outcome when firing a piece of clay. Wax resist, which is painted over the bare untainted clay, results in the suspension of wax in water [17] before the raku glaze goes on. This is done so that the glaze does not cover the area where the wax resist was applied, thus creating a design. When in the kiln, the wax melts off and the carbon, that results from oxygen reduction, replaces the wax[18]. This is the result of the combustion reaction. Raku glazes contain alumina, which has a very high melting point. Therefore, carbon will not replace the glaze as it does the melted wax. Raku glazes also contain metallic compounds such as copper, iron, cobalt, which produce different colors. After the glaze has reached its a certain temperature, the metal in the glaze assumes its color[19]. For example, cobalt produces dark-blue, and copper produces green but produces a red when the oxygen in the glaze is completely gone[20]. Any unglazed areas turn black due to the carbon given off from the reduction of oxygen. Next, the clay is moved from the kiln to a container(usually a trashcan), which contains combustible organic materials such as leaves, sawdust, or paper. Once the lid of the container is closed, the reduction oxidation (redox) process begins[21]. The temperature change from the kiln to the container is where the magic of raku occurs. The change in temperature and in the redox sometimes cause cracking or crazing. Crazing is a consistent cracking in the glaze of a piece, as is seen on the white crackle glaze. This either enhance or detract from the design. The timing of removal and placement in water directly affects the shades of each color[22]. Introducing the water to the raku at the right time is incredibly important; if the raku does not cool enough before placement in water, the Raku can crack, break, or even explode!

Raku-glaze color

The potter may use one or more glazes, which comprise metal and oxygen. The glaze is responsible for the metallic glow that is visible on the pottery after the combustion reaction occurs in the trashcan (Mitchell). This is because when the combustion reaction occurs, oxygen is a reactant in the chemical reaction. When all the oxygen from the trashcan is used, the combustion reaction strips the oxygen from the raku glaze, therefore leaving behind the metallic glow (Mitchell). “For example, cobalt oxide (Co304) is processed in three grades, 71.5%, 72.5% (ceramic grade) and 73.5%. The percentage represents the cobalt contained in the oxide. Each grade can affect the intensity of the blue that will be generated in a glaze. In addition, the quantity of trace elements in a metallic coloring oxide can influence its effect on the glaze color” (Zamek). The amount of oxygen that is present in the trashcan is also what makes the different colors, because if the lid of the kiln used in the second firing process was not correctly in place, then there would be more oxygen present, therefore continuing the firing process longer, turning the colors on the pottery to “hues of ugly green” (Mitchell). On the other hand, if the trashcan cover was tightly in place, the combustion reaction would be shorter because the oxygen supply would run out, therefore the colors would be more black and shiny (Mitchell). The results of the pottery depend on the content of the raku glaze and the amount of oxygen present during the combustion reaction. Different glazes also effect the changing of the colors, making copper the most interesting, and on a certain glaze called white crackle, the glaze actually lets carbon in, making the pottery crackle.

See also

References

  1. ^ Byers, Ian (1990). The The Complete Potter: Raku. Series Ed. Emmanuel Cooper. B.T. Batsford Ltd 1990, pp. 16. ISBN 0713461306
  2. ^ source(Knapp, Brian J. Oxidation and Reduction. Port Melbourne, Vic.: Heinemann Library, 1998. Print.)
  3. ^ source(Knapp, Brian J. Oxidation and Reduction. Port Melbourne, Vic.: Heinemann Library, 1998. Print.)
  4. ^ source(Birks, Tony. The New Potter's Companion. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1982. Print.)
  5. ^ source(Birks, Tony. The New Potter's Companion. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1982. Print.)
  6. ^ source(Birks, Tony. The New Potter's Companion. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1982. Print.)
  7. ^ source(Birks, Tony. The New Potter's Companion. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1982. Print.)
  8. ^ source(Knapp, Brian J. Oxidation and Reduction. Port Melbourne, Vic.: Heinemann Library, 1998. Print.)
  9. ^ Arbuckle. "Reduction Firing." Reduction Firing. Web. 6 May 2010. <http://lindaarbuckle.com/handouts/reduction_fire.pdf>.
  10. ^ "Oxidation/Reduction Firing." Frog Pond Pottery. Web. 29 May 2010. <http://www.frogpondpottery.com/pottalk/oxred.htm>.
  11. ^ Branfman, Steven (2001). Raku. United States: krause publications. pp. 17. 
  12. ^ http://www.studiopottery.com/cgi-bin/mp.cgi?item=9
  13. ^ Warshaw, Josie. The Practical Potter: a Step-by-step Handbook : a Comprehensive Guide to Ceramics with Step-by-step Projects and Techniques. London: Hermes House, 2003. Print.
  14. ^ Reid, Kimberly. “What Is a Raku Kiln?  Ehow.com.” EHow  How To Do Just About Everything!  How To Videos & Articles. EHow Inc. Web. 07 May 2010. <httpy://www.ehow.com/facts_4913506_what-raku-kiln. html>.
  15. ^ http://www.koryu.com/library/wbodiford1.html
  16. ^ Branfman
  17. ^ Herb
  18. ^ Branfman
  19. ^ Herb
  20. ^ Branfman
  21. ^ Herb
  22. ^ Branfman
  • Pitelka, Morgan. Handmade Culture: Raku Potters, Patrons, and Tea Practitioners in Japan. University of Hawaii Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8248-2970-0.
  • Hamer, Frank and Janet. The Potter's Dictionary of Materials and Techniques. A & C Black Publishers, Limited, London, England, Third Edition 1991. ISBN 0-8122-3112-0.
  • Peterson, Susan. The Craft and Art of Clay. The Overlook Press, Woodstock, NY, Second Edition 1996. ISBN 0-87951-634-8.
  • Watkins, James C. Alternative Kilns & Firing Techniques: Raku * Saggar * Pit * Barrel, Lark Ceramics Publications, 2007. ISBN 9781579904555, ISBN 1579904556.
  • Branfman, Steven. "Raku FAQs." Ceramics Today. Ceramics Today, Sept. 2002. Web. 6 May 2010.
  • Herb, Bill. "What Is Raku." Dimensional Design. Bill Herb A.k.a Dimensional Design, Jan. 2000. Web. 6 May 2010.
  • Knapp, Brian J. Oxidation and Reduction. Port Melbourne, Vic.: Heinemann Library, 1998. Print.
  • Birks, Tony. The New Potter's Companion. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1982. Print.
  • Mitchell, John. Personal Interview. 30 Apr. 2010.
  • Rhodes, Daniel. “Special Glazes and Surface Effects.” Clay and Glazes for the Potter. Revised ed.

Randor: Chilton Book Company, 1973. 318. Print.

  • Zamek, Jeff. "» Glazes: Materials, Mixing, Testing, Firing." » Ceramic Arts Daily –

Featured Tip of the Day. Ceramic Publications Company, 5 Nov. 2009. Web. 26 May 2010. <http://ceramicartsdaily.org/ceramic-glaze-recipes/glaze-chemistry-ceramic-glaze-recipes-2/glazes-materials-mixing-testing-firing/?floater=99>.

  • Andrews, Tim " Raku:a review of contemporary work".A.C.Black,London.1994 ISBN 0-7136836-2
  • Andrews, Tim " Raku". A.C.Black, London. 2nd Ed.2005 ISBN 0-71366490-8

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Look at other dictionaries:

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