Infobox Ethnic group
United States( Oklahoma)
rels=Christianity and Native American Church
related=Linguistic affiliation with Tanoan speakers
The Kiowa (pronEng|ˈkaɪoʊwə) are a nation of American Indians who migrated from what is now
Canadato their present location in Southwestern Oklahoma. Today the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma is federally recognized, with approximately 14,000 members. Kiowa refer to themselves as Kgoy-goo [kaw-eh-goo [pronounced] or 'koy-goo' [short] } meaning "the principal people" in their tribal language.
The word "Kiowa" originated after their migration through what the Kiowa refer to as "The Mountains of the Kiowa." This location is in the present eastern edge of Glacier National Park,
Montana, just below the Canadian border. The mountain pass they came through was heavily populated by grizzly bearand Blackfootpeople. The Blackfoot word for "grizzly bear" is "Kgyi-yo." Kgyi-yo was corrupted in English as the root translation for the word Kiow-a. Today, Kiowa, Montana is located on the very spot where ancient Kiowa passed through on their southward migration from Canada.
Other tribes who encountered the Kiowa used sign language to describe them by holding two stationary fingers near the lower outside edge of the eye and moving these stationary fingers back past the ear. This corresponded to the ancient Kiowa hairstyle cut horizontally from the lower outside edge of the eyes to the back of their ears. This was a functional practice to keep their hair from getting tangled as an arrow was let loose from a bow string. George Catlin painted Kiowa warriors with this hairstyle.
The Kiowas are considered nomadic hunter-gatherers. They migrated with the buffalo because it was their main food source.
In the early spring of 1790, at the place that would become
Las Vegas, New Mexico, a Kiowa party lead by war leader Guikate made an offer of peace to a Comanche party while both were visiting the home of a friend of both tribes. This led to a later meeting between Guikate and the head chief of the Nokoni Comanches. The two groups made an alliance to share the same hunting grounds and entered into a mutual defense pact. From that time on, the Comanches and Kiowa hunted, traveled, and made war together. An additional group, the Plains Apache(also called Kiowa-Apache), affiliated with the Kiowa at this time.
The Kiowa lived a typical Plains Indian lifestyle. Mostly
nomadic, they survived on buffalo meat and gathered vegetables, lived in lodges, and depended on their horses for hunting and military uses. From their hunting grounds south of the Arkansas River the Kiowa were notorious for long-distance raids as far west as the Grand Canyonregion, south into Mexicoand Central America, and north into Canada.
Famous Kiowa leaders were
Dohäsan(Tauhawsin), Over-Hanging Butte, alias Little Mountain, alias Little Bluff; Guipahgah (Old Chief Lonewolf), alias Guibayhawgu (Rescued From Wolves); sub-leaders Satantaand Satank. In 1871 Satanta and Big Tree were accused, arrested, transported and confined at Fort Richardson, Texas, after being convicted by a "cowboy jury" in the Trial of Satanta and Big Treein Jacksboro, Texas, for participating in the Warren Wagon Train Raid. During the transport to Fort Richardson, Satank was shot in an escape attempt by accompanying cavalry troops near Fort Sill, Indian Territory.
After 1840 the Kiowas, with their former enemies the Cheyennes, as well as their allies the Comanches and the
Apaches, fought and raided the Eastern natives moving into the Indian Territory. The United States military intervened, and in the Treaty of Medicine Lodgeof 1867 the Kiowa agreed to settle on a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma. Some bands of Kiowas remained at large until 1875.
August 6, 1901Kiowa land in Oklahoma was opened for white settlement, effectively dissolving the contiguous reservation. While each Kiowa head of household was allotted 160 acres (320,000 m²), the only land remaining in Kiowa tribal ownership today is what was the scattered parcels of 'grass land' which had been leased to the white settlers for grazing before the reservation was opened for settlement.Fact|date=September 2008
was a prolific producer of this art who chronicled his experiences before and at the Fort. Traditionally the artist's media for their pictographic images were natural objects and animal skins, but for the Kiowa in captivity the lined pages of the white man's record keeping books became a popular substitute, thus the name "ledger art".
Twentieth century Kiowa artists include the Kiowa Five, a group of artists who studied at the
University of Oklahoma. The "Five" referred to are the male members of the group. The pictographic art form known as "ledger art" was an Indian art form which had historically been dominated by the male members of the plains culture. However, the "Five" actually had a sixth member, a woman named [http://www.jacobsonhouse.com/about_kiowafive.html#lois Lois Smokey] . Another prolific and significant pre-Kiowa Five artisan during the early twentieth century was Silverhorn. Well known Kiowa artists of the later twentieth century include Bobby Hill (White Buffalo), Robert Redbird, Roland N. Whitehorse, and T. C. Cannon. The pictographic art of contemporary and traditional artist Sherman Chaddlesone has revived the ledger art form that was absent in most of the art of the Second Generation Modernists that had developed since Silverhorn and the Kiowa Five. Chaddlesone studied under Native American masters Allan Houserand Fritz Scholderand is considered a versatile and [http://www.bluedeergallery.com/chaddlesonebio.htm widely respected artist] .
The influence of Kiowa art and the revival of the plains ledger art is also illustrated in the early work of
Cherokee- Creekfemale artist Virginia Stroud and Spokane artist [http://www.wheatoncollege.edu/arts/flett/ledgerart.html George Flett] . While Stroud is of Cherokee-Creek descent, she was raised by a Kiowa family and the traditions of that [http://www.amerindianarts.us/artistprofiles/virginiastroud.shtml culture] , and the influence of the Kiowa tradition is evident in her early pictographic images.
N. Scott Momadaywon the 1969 Pulitzer Prize for his novel " House Made of Dawn". Other Kiowa authors include playwright Hanay Geiogamah, poet and film maker Gus Palmer, Jr., Alyce Sadongei, and Tocakut. Kiowa musicis often noted for its hymns that were traditionally accompanied by dance or played on the flute. Traditional performers include [http://www.hanksville.org/storytellers/pewe/ Cornel Pewewardy] and Phillip "Yogi" Bread. Contemporary Kiowa musicians include Kiowa-Comanche flutist Tom Mauchahty-Ware.
Native American tribes in Nebraska
In the book "The Things They Carried" (By Tim O' Brien), the word Kiowa is mentioned as a Native American character, as a soldier in the Vietnam War, with his dad being a preacher from Oklahoma City.
*Boyd, Maurice (1983). "Kiowa Voices: Myths, Legends and Folktales". Texas Christian University Press. ISBN 0-912646-76-4
*Corwin, Hugh (1958)." The Kiowa Indians, their history and life stories".
*Hoig, Stan (2000). "The Kiowas and the Legend of Kicking Bird". Boulder: The University Press of Colorado. ISBN 0-87081-564-4
*Mishkin, Bernard (1988). "Rank and Warfare Among The Plains Indians". AMS Press. ISBN 0-404-62903-2
*Richardson, Jane (1988). "Law & Status Among the Kiowa Indians (American Ethnological Society Monographs; No 1)". AMS Press. ISBN 0-404-62901-6
*Nye, Colonel W.S. (1983). "Carbine and Lance: The Story of Old Fort Sill". Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1856-3
*Momaday, N. Scott (1977). "The Way to Rainy Mountain". University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-0436-2
*Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian, Resource Center.
*Viola, Herman (1998). "Warrior Artists: Historic Cheyenne and Kiowa Indian Ledger Art Drawn By Making Medicine and Zotom". National Geographic Society. ISBN 0-7922-7370-2
* [http://www.kiowaok.com/mission.htm Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma (official site)]
* [http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761577573/Kiowa.html Kiowa Indians on Encarta Encyclopedia]
* [http://www.genealogynation.com/kiowa/ Kiowa Comanche Apache Indian Territory Project]
* [http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.eur/mtfhtml.0012 Kiowa Collection: Selections from the Papers of Hugh Lenox Scott]
* [http://texashistory.unt.edu/search/?q=kiowas&t=fulltext Photographs of Kiowa Indians] hosted by the [http://texashistory.unt.edu/ Portal to Texas History]
* [http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/KK/bmk10.html "The Handbook of Texas Online:" Kiowa Indians]
*Sketch of a [http://texashistory.unt.edu/widgets/pager.php?object_id=meta-pth-5828&recno=455&path=meta-pth-5828.tkl Chief of the Kiowas] from [http://texashistory.unt.edu/permalink/meta-pth-5828 "A pictorial history of Texas, from the earliest visits of European adventurers, to AD 1879"] , hosted by the [http://texashistory.unt.edu/ Portal to Texas History] .
* [http://www.nmnh.si.edu/naa/kiowa/kiowa.htm Kiowa ledger drawing in the Smithsonian] .
* [http://www.fineartstrader.com/kiowa_five.htm The Kiowa Five] .
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Look at other dictionaries:
Kiowa — Kicking Bird, ein Häuptling der Kiowa, 1870 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Kiowa — Kicking Bird, un jefe kiowa (ca. 1870) Población total 12.000 … Wikipedia Español
KIOWA — Indiens d’Amérique du Nord du groupe linguistique kiowa tano, les Indiens Kiowa vivaient dans le sud des Grandes Plaines de l’Amérique du Nord. Cette tribu fut l’une des dernières à capituler devant les États Unis. Dans les années 1990, on compte … Encyclopédie Universelle
Kiowa — Kiowa, CO U.S. town in Colorado Population (2000): 581 Housing Units (2000): 243 Land area (2000): 0.488095 sq. miles (1.264161 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.488095 sq. miles (1.264161 sq.… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Kiowa, CO — U.S. town in Colorado Population (2000): 581 Housing Units (2000): 243 Land area (2000): 0.488095 sq. miles (1.264161 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.488095 sq. miles (1.264161 sq. km) FIPS… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Kiowa, KS — U.S. city in Kansas Population (2000): 1055 Housing Units (2000): 569 Land area (2000): 1.059955 sq. miles (2.745270 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.059955 sq. miles (2.745270 sq. km) FIPS code … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Kiowa, OK — U.S. town in Oklahoma Population (2000): 693 Housing Units (2000): 335 Land area (2000): 1.287413 sq. miles (3.334383 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.003483 sq. miles (0.009022 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.290896 sq. miles (3.343405 sq. km) FIPS… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Kiowa — [kī′ō wä΄, kī′ə wə] n. [Sp Caygua < Kiowa kɔygú ] 1. pl. Kiowas or Kiowa a member of a North American Indian people formerly living in Colorado, Oklahoma, and other W states, and now living in Oklahoma 2. the Tanoan language of this people … English World dictionary
kiowa — adjetivo,sustantivo masculino y femenino 1. Que pertenece a un pueblo amerindio de América del Norte que actualmente vive en reservas: un antiguo poblado kiowa, la reserva de los kiowas. sustantivo masculino 1. Tipo de mocasín de suela flexible … Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española
Kiowa — (Kioway, spr. kāīowē), nordamerikan. Indianerstamm am obern Arkansas, hat entfernte Sprachverwandtschaft mit den Schoschonen. 1890 lebten 1140 Seelen in Reservationen im Indianerterritorium … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Kiowa — (izg. Kìova) m mn etn. sjevernoamerički Indijanci; među posljednjim plemenima koja su kapitulirala pred SAD om … Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika