Building science


Building science

Building science is the collection of scientific knowledge that focuses on the analysis and control of the physical phenomena affecting buildings. This includes the detailed analysis of building materials and building envelope systems.

The practical purpose of building science is to provide predictive capability to optimize building performance and understand or prevent building failures.

Building design

Design

All kinds of structures are projected according to two strain conditions: static and dynamic.The static ones are tied to the structure’s dead loads added to the so-called accidental loads (of people, furniture, etc.), the dynamic ones are tied to the natural and artificial movements (earthquake and wind) the structure can sustain during its life cycle.The parameters which characterize structure dynamics are tied to the geometry of the building and to the physical and mechanic properties of its composition. The parameters are:

- The fundamental frequency of vibration (f) and the respective oscillation period (T=1/f) (see oscillation frequency);

- The equivalent dumping coefficient (neq);

- The mode shape (the way in which the structure buckles);

The first parameter varies according to the structure stiffness; very tall and then very flexible buildings as skyscrapers (low oscillation frequencies) oscillate slowly with respect to lower and squat buildings, and according to the building mass.The second parameter takes into account all the dissipation phenomena tied to the viscosity of materials and to friction phenomena.The mode shape describes the way of deformation which the structure is subjected to during the seismic event, and highlights whether or not the structures presents a good seismic behavior.

Reducing the effect of earthquakes on buildings

By monitoring the response of structures subject to earthquakes and by applying new knowledge and technologies, scientists and engineers continuously develop design and repair techniques on buildings, so that their ability to control the earthquake effects will grow. In order to reduce the destructive effects of earthquakes both on new-built buildings and especially on older ones, there exist some seismic adjustment techniques, with the aim of reducing the strain effects that earthquake causes. These techniques can be divided into two different categories:

"Base isolation": it is aimed to untie the ground-foundation system, so that the structure can be seen as it is “floating” on the ground during the seismic event, thus reducing the strains.

"Dissipation systems": there exist various types of dissipation systems, but they all have in common the effect of increasing the previously seen viscous dissipation coefficient of the structure. The better known base isolation technique consists of inserting some special equipment (isolator (building design)) in the proximity of foundations. This equipment offers a high stiffness for vertical loads so that the structure is not subject to sinking, while offering a low stiffness for horizontal ones, which are peculiar of seismic events. This way all seismic effects are absorbed by the equipment, whereas the structure is subject to low oscillations and consequently to low strains.

The dissipation systems (dissipator (building design)) are made by a series of devices inserted on the inside of the building frame using different techniques, with the aim of slowing down the structure oscillation and dispelling seismic energy.

External links

* [http://www.eng.monash.edu.au/uicee/worldtransactions/WorldTransAbstractsVol1No1/Microsoft%20Word%20-%2014_Tan.pdf To go into the oscillation phenomena and their characterizing parameters issue ]
* [http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/Demos.html Do you like to watch at some animations of mechanical vibrations subjected to particular loads?]
* [http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/building/building.htm Build your own model buildings and verify their behavior in the case of earthquake]
* [http://www.scieds.com/spinet/historical/mexico_bldngs.html Click here to see how you can adopt new design strategies in order to protect structures from earthquakes]
* [http://www.succeed.ufl.edu/asce/Program/Extras%5CPres_855_1010.ppt Close examinations about all types and effects of isolation systems]
* [http://www.wheel.eng.fsu.edu/research/wbarnawi/REUJATPresentation.ppt Close examinations about dissipation systems]

ee also

* Seismic analysis
* Architectural engineering
* Architecture


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Science and technology in the People's Republic of China — has been growing rapidly. As China develops and becomes more connected to the global economy, the government has placed a stronger emphasis on science and technology as an integral part of the socio economic development of the country. This has… …   Wikipedia

  • building construction — Techniques and industry involved in the assembly and erection of structures. Early humans built primarily for shelter, using simple methods. Building materials came from the land, and fabrication was dictated by the limits of the materials and… …   Universalium

  • Building engineering education — Education in the field of Building Engineering, better known as Architectural Engineering in the United States, is the study of the integrated application of engineering principles and technology to building design and architecture. For… …   Wikipedia

  • Building envelope — A building envelope is the separation between the interior and the exterior environments of a building. It serves as the outer shell to protect the indoor environment as well as to facilitate its climate control. Building envelope design is a… …   Wikipedia

  • Science fiction on television — Science fiction first appeared on television during the golden age of science fiction, first in Britain (UK) and then in the United States (US). Special effects and other production techniques allow creators to present a living visual image of an …   Wikipedia

  • Building 470 — Building 470, called the “Pilot Plant” or sometimes “Anthrax Tower”, was a notorious seven story steel and brick building at Fort Detrick in Frederick, Maryland, USA, used in the small scale production of biological warfare (BW) agents. The… …   Wikipedia

  • Science and mathematics from the Renaissance to Descartes — George Molland Early in the nineteenth century John Playfair wrote for the Encyclopaedia Britannica a long article entitled ‘Dissertation; exhibiting a General View of the Progress of Mathematics and Physical Science, since the Revival of Letters …   History of philosophy

  • Science and the Church — • Dicsusses the relationship between the two subjects Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Science and the Church     Science and the Church      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Science and technology studies — (STS) is the study of how social, political, and cultural values affect scientific research and technological innovation, and how these in turn affect society, politics, and culture. More than two dozen universities worldwide offer baccalaureate… …   Wikipedia

  • Science and technology in Iran — Science and technology in Iran, formerly known as Persia, have a history, like the country itself. Persia was a cradle of science in earlier times. Persian scientists contributed to the current understanding of nature, medicine, mathematics, and… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.