Berlin-Tegel Airport


Berlin-Tegel Airport

Infobox Airport
name = Berlin-Tegel Airport
nativename = Flughafen Berlin-Tegel
nativename-r = Berlin Airport in Tegel



IATA = TXL
ICAO = EDDT
type = Public
owner =
operator = Berlin Airports
city-served = Berlin, Germany
location = Tegel
passagers = over 13 Millions (2007)
elevation-f = 122
elevation-m = 37
coordinates = coord|52|33|35|N|013|17|16|E|type:airport
website = [http://www.berlin-airport.de/PubEnglish/PubTegel/index.html www.berlin-airport.de]
metric-rwy = Yes
r1-number = 08L/26R
r1-length-f = 9,918
r1-length-m = 3,023
r1-surface = Asphalt
r2-number = 08R/26L
r2-length-f = 7,966
r2-length-m = 2,428
r2-surface = Asphalt
footnotes = Source: German AIP at EUROCONTROL

Berlin-Tegel "Otto Lilienthal" Airport codes|TXL|EDDT (officially known as Berlin-Tegel Airport, but often shortened to Tegel) is the main international airport in Berlin, Germany. It lies in Tegel, a section of the northern borough of Reinickendorf. Tegel Airport is notable for its hexagonal terminal building around an open square, which makes for walking distances as short as 30 metres from the aircraft to the terminal exit. Tegel is referred to as the "Frequent Flyer Airport" and has the most scheduled flights of the three airports serving Berlin. In 2007, the airport served over 13,350,000 passengers. The airport is scheduled to close in 2012, six months after the completion of the new Berlin Brandenburg International Airport that is slated to handle all commercial flights from and to Berlin thenceforth. [http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601100&sid=aN9S5GAT7Rv0&refer=germany] Tegel is the main base of Air Berlin and Germania.

History

Cold War era

During the Berlin Airlift in 1948 what was then the longest runway in Europe (2,428 m) was built at Tegel.

West Berlin's special legal status during the Cold War era (8 May 1945 - 2 October 1990) meant that all air traffic to and from the Western half of Germany's divided former and present capital was restricted to the airlines of the three Western victorious powers of World War II, i.e. only those headquartered in the US, UK and France. In addition, all flightdeck crew, i.e. pilots, flight engineers and navigators, flying aircraft into and out of West Berlin through the Allied air corridors were required to hold American, British or French passports. ["Berlin Airport Company, Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, various editions April 1968 - October 1990]

Air France was the first airline to commence regular commercial operations at Tegel on 2 January 1960. The airline decided to transfer its operations from Tempelhof Airport to Tegel because the former airport's runways were too short to handle first generation jet aircraft such as the Aérospatiale Caravelle, Boeing 707, De Havilland Comet and Douglas DC-8 without payload or range restrictions. ["Berlin Airport Company - Special Report on Air France's 25th Anniversary at Berlin Tegel, March 1985 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1985]

Pan Am became the second airline to commence year-round, scheduled operations at Tegel Airport when it launched a thrice-weekly service from New York JFK in May 1964. [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,873948,00.html "Hot route in the Cold War", Friday, July 3, 1964] ] This service was operated with Boeing 707s or Douglas DC-8s which could not operate from Tempelhof, the airline's West Berlin base at the time, with a viable payload. The service routed either through Glasgow Prestwick in Scotland or Shannon, Ireland. It ceased in October 1971. ["Berlin Airport Company, June 1964 and October 1971 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1964 and 1971]

From April 1968 onwards all non-scheduled services, i.e. primarily the rapidly growing number of inclusive tour (IT) charter flights that several wholly privately owned, Independent UK airlines as well as a number of US supplemental carriers had operated from Tempelhof since the early 1960s under contract to West Berlin's leading package tour operators, were concentrated at Tegel to alleviate increasing congestion at the former airport and to make better use of the latter. (At the time Tegel was underutilised.)"Berlin Airport Company, April and August 1968 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1968] A new passenger handling facility exclusively dedicated to charter airline passengers was opened to accommodate the additional traffic. Both this facility (a wooden shed) and the original terminal used by Air France's and Pan Am's scheduled passengers (a pre-fabricated shed) were located at the airport's north side. Following the transfer of all charter traffic to Tegel, Channel Airways, Dan-Air Services, Laker Airways and Modern Air Transport began stationing several of their aircraft at the airport. Channel Airways' collapse in early 1972 provided the impetus for Dan-Air to take over the failed carrier's charter contracts and to expand its own operations at Tegel. ["Berlin Airport Company, April 1972 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1972] (Dan-Air, one of Britain's foremost wholly privately owned, Independent airlines during the 1970s and '80s, eventually became the third-biggest operator at Tegel Airport, ahead of Air France. In addition to firmly establishing itself as the airport's and West Berlin's leading charter airline, it also operated scheduled services linking Tegel with Amsterdam Schiphol, Saarbrücken and London Gatwick, its main operational base. By the time that airline was taken over by British Airways at the end of October 1992, it had served Tegel Airport for a quarter of a century. ["Berlin Airport Company, April 1981, January 1984, April 1990 and November 1992 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1981, 1984, 1990, 1992] ["Kompass - various editions", Dan Air Services Ltd., West Berlin, 1976-1986] ) Modern Air's departure in October 1974 coincided with Aeroamerica's arrival. ["Berlin Airport Company, October 1974 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1974] That carrier's departure following the end of the 1979 summer season was followed by Air Berlin USA's arrival. ["Berlin Airport Company, April 1980 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1980] Laker Airways' decision to replace its Tegel-based BAC One-Eleven fleet with one of its newly acquired Airbus A300 B4 widebodies from the 1981 summer season resulted in Monarch Airlines taking over that airline's long-standing charter contract with Flug Union Berlin, at the time West Berlin's second-largest tour operator (after Berliner Flug Ring). [ [http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1981/1981%20-%200570.html?search=Laker+++Berlin "Sir Freddie on brink of European legal action", Air Transport, Flight International, 7 March 1981, p. 612] ] [ [http://www.flightglobal.com/PDFArchive/View/1980/1980%20-%203164.html?search=Monarch%20Airlines,%201980 "New operators for Boeing 737", Flight International, 18 October 1980, p. 1493] ] ["Berlin Airport Company, April 1981 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1981] (Several years later, Monarch Airlines provided the aircraft as well as the flightdeck crew and maintenance support for EuroBerlin France, a Tegel-based scheduled airline headquartered in Paris, France. EuroBerlin was jointly owned by Air France and Lufthansa, with the former holding a 51% majority stake, thereby making it a French legal entity and enabling it to conduct commercial airline operations at West Berlin. ["Berlin Airport Company, October 1987 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1987] )

Other airlines operating regular services to/from Tegel Airport during the Cold War era included:

* Court Line Aviation - a major Independent British airline of the early 1970s that served Berlin Tegel with a series of regular charter flights from its base at London Luton Airport and Paris Le Bourget Airport between 1970 and March 1974 under contract to West Berlin's students union. ["Berlin Airport Company, April 1974 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1974]

* Touraine Air Transport - a French regional airline serving Berlin Tegel from Saarbrücken several times a day on a year-round basis from 1978 until early 1984. ["Berlin Airport Company, November 1978 and January 1984 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1978 and 1984]

* Berlin Regional UK - a Berlin-based UK regional airline founded in 1986 by a former British Airways general manager for that airline's Berlin operation to begin domestic and international regional scheduled services to destinations not served by any of West Berlin's contemporary scheduled operators from April 1987, utilising British Aerospace Jetstream commuter turboprop planes. [ [http://www.flightglobal.com/PDFArchive/View/1986/1986%20-%201322.html?search=Berlin%20European%20UK "Berlin Regional service to start", Flight International, 14 June 1986, p. 6] ] ["Berlin Airport Company, April 1987 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1987] [http://www.flightglobal.com/PDFArchive/View/1988/1988%20-%200850.html?search=Berlin%20Regional%20UK "Berlin's commuter market grows", Flight International, 2 April 1988, pp. 6, 8] ]

* TWA - the other major US flag carrier of that era served both Brussels (from 2 August 1987 ["Berlin Airport Company, July 1987 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1987] [ [http://www.flightglobal.com/PDFArchive/View/1988/1988%20-%201037.html?search=Berlin%20European%20UK "The battle for Berlin", Flight International, 23 April 1988, pp. 19-21] ] ) and Frankfurt Rhein-Main Airport (from 1989 ["Berlin Airport Company, April 1989 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1989] ) from Berlin Tegel twice daily.

* Pan Am Express - the regional commuter arm of Pan Am began operating from Berlin Tegel in November 1987 with two Avions de Transport Régional ATR-42 commuter turboprops. It operated year-round scheduled services to secondary and tertiary destinations that could not be viably served with Pan Am's Tegel-based "mainline" fleet of Boeing 727-200 "Advanced" and Airbus A310s. These included Basle, Bremen, Dortmund, Hanover, Innsbruck, Kassel, Kiel, Milan, Salzburg, Stockholm and Vienna. In addition, Pan Am Express also helped Pan Am increase the number of flights on some of the other scheduled routes it used to serve from Berlin such as Tegel-Zürich by operating additional off-peak frequencies.

In addition to the aforementioned airlines, a host of others - mainly British Independents and US supplementals - were frequent visitors to Berlin Tegel, especially during the early 1970s. These included Britannia Airways, British Airtours, British United, Caledonian, Caledonian/BUA / British Caledonian, Capitol International Airways, Overseas National Airways, Saturn Airways, Trans International Airlines, Transamerica Airlines and World Airways. Furthermore, during the early '70s both Pan Am and TWA used to operate regular "Advanced Booking Charter (ABC)" flights from Tegel to the USA as well. During that period the airport scene at Berlin Tegel could be very colourful, with Air France Caravelles, the UK Independents' BAC One-Elevens, De Havilland Comets and Hawker Siddeley Tridents as well as the US supplementals' Boeing 707s, Convair "Coronados" and Douglas DC-8s congregating on its ramp. During 1974 alone 22 airlines were operating at Tegel Airport."Berlin Airport Company - Summary of 1974 Annual Report, February 1975 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1975]

The airport's current main, hexagonally shaped terminal building, which is located at the airport's south side, became operational on 1 November 1974. A British Airways Lockheed L-1011 "Tristar" 1, a Laker Airways McDonnell Douglas DC-10-10, a Pan Am Boeing 747-100 and an Air France Airbus A300 B2 were among the widebodied aircraft specially flown in on that day for the inauguration of the new terminal building. Dan-Air operated the first commercial flight to arrive at the airport's new terminal at 06.00 a.m. local time with a BAC One-Eleven that was in-bound from Tenerife.

Following Pan Am's and British Airways' move from Tempelhof to Tegel on 1 September 1975, the latter replaced Tempelhof as the main airport of West Berlin. ["Berlin Airport Company, September and October 1975 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1975]

Post-reunification era

Following Germany's reunification on 3 October 1990, all access restrictions to the former West Berlin airports were lifted.

Lufthansa resumed flights to Berlin on 28 October 1990, initially operating twelve daily pairs of flights on a limited number of routes, including Tegel-Cologne, Tegel-Frankfurt and Tegel-London Gatwick. [http://www.flightglobal.com/PDFArchive/View/1990/1990%20-%203338.html?search=Pan%20Am%20Internal%20German%20Services,%201990 "Berlin Return boosts Lufthansa’s bid for Interflug", Operations: Air Transport, Flight International, 7-13 November 1990, p. 10] ] To facilitate the German flag carrier's resumption of services from/to Berlin, it purchased Pan Am's Internal German Services (IGS) division for US$150m. This included Pan Am's internal German traffic rights as well as its gates and slots at Tegel. This agreement, under which Lufthansa contracted up to seven of Pan Am's Tegel-based Boeing 727-200 "Advs" operated by that airline's flightdeck and cabin crews to ply its scheduled routes to Munich, Nuremberg and Stuttgart until mid-1991, also facilitated Pan Am's orderly exit from the internal German air transport market after 40 years' uninterrupted service as EU legislation prevented it from participating in the EU/EEA's internal air transport market as a non-EU/EEA headquartered carrier. However, Pan Am continued operating its daily non-stop Tegel-JFK service until Delta Air Lines assumed most of Pan Am's transatlantic scheduled services during 1991. Pan Am Express, which was not included in Pan Am's IGS sale to Lufthansa, continued operating all of its domestic and international regional scheduled routes from Tegel as an independent legal entity until its acquisition by TWA in 1991. Following TWA's takeover of Pan Am Express, the former Pan Am Express Berlin operations were closed. Until December 1994, Lufthansa also contracted EuroBerlin to operate some of its internal German flights from its new Tegel base, making use of that airline's gates and slots at Tegel as well.

As a US-registered airline Air Berlin found itself in the same situation as Pan Am following German reunification. It chose to reconstitute itself as a German company.

These were the days when liberalisation of the EU/EEA internal air transport market was still in progress and when domestic traffic rights were still reserved for each member country's own airlines. The German government therefore insisted that all non-German EU/EEA carriers either withdraw their internal German scheduled services from Berlin or transfer them to majority German-owned subsidiaries by the end of 1992. [http://www.flightglobal.com/PDFArchive/View/1992/1992%20-%200702.html?search=Delta%20Air,%201992 "BA stays in Germany by buying into Delta Air", Headlines, Flight International, 25-31 March 1992, p. 4] ] It also wanted the bulk of all charter flights from Berlin to be operated by German airlines. These measures were squarely aimed at UK carriers with a major presence in the internal German air transport market from Berlin as well as the city's charter market, specifically British Airways and Dan-Air. Lufthansa and other German airlines reportedly lobbied their government to curtail BA's and Dan-Air's activities in Berlin, arguing that German airlines enjoyed no equivalent rights in the UK at the time. This resulted in BA taking a 49% stake in Friedrichshafen-based German regional airline Delta Air, renaming it Deutsche BA and transferring its internal German traffic rights to the new airline. BA also replaced the commuter aircraft Deutsche BA had inherited from Delta Air with new Boeing 737-300s. These in turn replaced the Boeing 737-200 "Advs" and BAe ATP airliners BA had used on its internal German scheduled services from Berlin. At the time of German reunification Dan-Air had five aircraft permanently stationed at Berlin Tegel, comprising three Boeing 737s (one -400, one -300 and one -200 "Adv") and two HS 748s."Chairman's progress report on implementation of Dan-Air's scheduled service strategy", James, D.N., 1991 EGM, Gatwick Hilton Hotel, October 1991] The former were used to fly Berlin-based holidaymakers to overseas holiday destinations on IT flights under contract to German package tour operators. The latter operated the airline's scheduled routes from Tegel to Amsterdam and Saarbrücken. Dan-Air discontinued its charter operations from Berlin on behalf of German tour operators at the end of the 1990/'91 winter season and replaced the aging 748 turboprop it had used on its Amsterdam schedule since the mid-1980s with larger, more advanced BAe 146 100 series jet equipment. It also introduced new direct scheduled air links from Berlin to Manchester and Newcastle via Amsterdam. ["Dan-Air 1990/'91 Winter Timetable", Dan Air Services Ltd., October 1990] ["Berlin Airport Company, November 1990 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, Berlin, 1990] The Saarbrücken route was withdrawn at the end of the 1991 summer season, while the Amsterdam route was gradually taken over by NLM Cityhopper, the contemporary regional arm of Dutch flag carrier KLM. ["Dan-Air 1991/'92 Winter Timetable", Dan Air Services Ltd., October 1991] ["Berlin Airport Company, October 1991 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, Berlin, 1991] This reduced Dan-Air's presence in Berlin to a single daily scheduled service as well as up to four weekly charter flights linking the airline's Gatwick base with its former overseas base at Tegel, which were operated by Gatwick-based aircraft and crews until the firm's takeover by BA at the end of October 1992. ["Dan-Air 1992 Summer Timetable", Dan Air Services Ltd., March 1992 [http://www.airtimes.com/cgat/uk/danair.htm] ] ["Berlin Airport Company, April and October 1992 Monthly Timetable Booklets for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, Berlin, 1992] The restructuring of Dan-Air's long-established Berlin operation was not only the result of political changes. It was also driven by its own corporate restructuring, which aimed to refocus the airline as a Gatwick-based short-haul "mainline" scheduled operator and involved phasing out its smaller aircraft and thinner routes. [ [http://www.flightglobal.com/PDFArchive/View/1990/1990%20-%201612.html "Scheduled Transition", Flight International, 6-12 June 1990, p. 34] ]

Other airlines that commenced/resumed scheduled operations from Berlin Tegel at the beginning of the post-reunification era included Aero Lloyd, Alitalia, American Airlines, Austrian Airlines, SAS "Eurolink" Swissair and TWA."Berlin Airport Company, October 1990 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, West Berlin, 1990] ["Berlin Airport Company, March 1991 Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports", Berlin Airport Company, Berlin, 1991]

Aero Lloyd, Germania and Condor Berlin began operating charter flights from Berlin Tegel during that period.

Public transport

Several buses connect the airport to the rail network:
*The JetExpress TXL bus [http://bvg.de/index.php/en/Bvg/Detail/folder/734/id/3050/nb/1/name/Airport+service+TXL] connects to the Beusselstraße S-bahn station, Berlin Hauptbahnhof (main train station), and Alexanderplatz S/U-bahn station
*The X9 express bus connects to the Zoologischer Garten S/U-bahn station
*The 109 and 128 buses connect to Zoologischer Garten S/U-bahn station and Kurt-Schumacher-Platz U-bahn station, respectively

Warning: There is a "Tegel" S-bahn station / "Alt-Tegel" U-bahn station; but it is not related to Tegel Airport and there is no easy way to get to the airport from there. Do not go to this station if you are going to the airport.

Terminals

Tegel airport consists of four terminals. As the airport is small compared to other major airports, these terminals might be regarded as "halls" or "boarding areas"; nevertheless, they are officially referred to as "terminals".

*The main building (Terminal A) has the shape of an hexagon with a carpark in its middle. It features 16 jetway bridges (gates 00 to 15) with their respective check-in counters (A00-A15). All major airlines arrive and depart here (especially "prestigious" flights like intercontinental services or flights to the busy European hub airports).
*Terminal B is a small extension to the main building (check-in counters B20-B39) with some walk-boarding aircraft stands. Very few flights regularly arrive or depart here. It is mostly used for charter airlines or during peak times, when airberlin or Lufthansa flights to secondary destinations may be handled here, as well as for most flights to Eastern Europe.
*Terminal C was opened in May 2007 as a temporary solution because all other terminals were full to capacity. It is used nearly exclusively by airberlin, which gave it the name "airberlin-Terminal". It features 18 check-in counters (C40-C58) and 8 walk-boarding aircraft stands.
*Terminal D features 21 check-in counters (D70-D91, also used for evening check-in of early-morning flights) with three jetway bridges (gates 16 to 18, used mostly by TUIfly). Most passengers of airlines operating smaller aircraft (especially Lufthansa CityLine) are brought to the aircraft stand by bus from here. If an airline uses a larger aircraft for a particular flight or during off-peak hours, the flight may be handled in Terminal A instead. The lower level arrival area is called Terminal E.

Tegel Airport was originally planned to have four terminals (hexagons like the main building forming the shape of a clover leaf). Terminals 2, 3 and 4 were never built because of Berlin Municipal budgetary constraints.

Airlines and destinations

NOTE: The airlines and destinations listed here are not definite; not all airlines have a daily pier; this is based on regularity.

Terminal A

*Air Bee (Brescia) [starts 2 December 2008]
*airberlin (see also Terminals B, C)
**Domestic: Cologne/Bonn, Frankfurt, Düsseldorf, Munich
**International: Alicante, Antalya, Arrecife/Lanzarote, Faro, Hurghada, Jerez de la Forntera, Las Palmas, London-Stansted [ends 1 November 2008] , Luxor, Marsa Alam, Monastir, Naples, Paris-Orly [starts October, 2008] , Sharm El-Sheikh, Santa Cruz de la Palma, Zürich
*Air France (Paris-Charles de Gaulle)
*Air Malta (Malta)
*Air One (Milan-Malpensa)
*Air Via (Bourgas, Varna) [seasonal]
*Blue Air (Bucharest-Băneasa) [starts 28 October 2008]
*British Airways (London-Heathrow)
*Bulgaria Air (Sofia)
*Bulgarian Air Charter (Burgas, Varna) [seasonal]
*Clickair (Barcelona)
*Continental Airlines (Newark)
*Delta Air Lines (New York-JFK)
*Free Bird Airlines (Istanbul-Atatürk)
*Germania (Istanbul-Atatürk, Istanbul-Sabhia, Tel Aviv) (see also Terminal B)
*Hainan Airlines (Beijing)
*Hamburg International (Agadir, Bodrum, Larnaca)
*Iberia Airlines (Madrid)
*KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (Amsterdam)
**KLM Cityhopper (Amsterdam)
*LTU International (Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Punta Cana, Varadero)
*Lufthansa (Cologne/Bonn, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Ibiza, Istanbul-Atatürk, Moscow-Domodedovo, Munich, Palma de Mallorca, Stuttgart) (see also Terminals B, D)
*Luxair (Luxembourg, Saarbrücken)
*MIAT Mongolian Airlines (Moscow-Sheremetyevo, Ulaanbaatar)
*Qatar Airways (Doha)
*Sterling Airlines (Copenhagen)
*Swiss International Air Lines (Zürich)
*Transaero (Moscow-Domodedovo, St. Petersburg)
*Turkish Airlines (Istanbul-Atatürk)
*Ukraine International Airlines (Kiev-Boryspil, Simferopol)

Terminal B

*airberlin (Moscow-Domodedovo, St. Petersburg) (see also Terminals A, C)
*Blue Wings (Antalya, Istanbul-Atatürk)
*Germania (Adana, Ankara, Antalya, Athens [starts 12 December] , Bastia [seasonal] , Gaziantep, Heraklion, Izmir, Kayseri, Memmingen [starts 27 October] , Pristina, Samsun, Sulaymaniyah) (see also Terminal A)
*Inter Airlines (Antalya)
*Jat Airways (Belgrade)
*KD Avia (Kaliningrad)
*Lufthansa (see also Terminals A, D)
**Lufthansa Regional operated by Eurowings (Debrecen, Düsseldorf, London-City, Oradea)
**Lufthansa Regional operated by Lufthansa CityLine (Westerland/Sylt, Zürich)
*SunExpress (Antalya, Izmir)
*Sky Airlines (Antalya)

Terminal C

*airBaltic (Riga, Vilnius)
*airberlin (see also Terminals A, B)
**Domestic: Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden, Münster/Osnabrück, Nuremberg, Saarbrücken, Stuttgart, Westerland/Sylt
**International: Barcelona, Catania [seasonal] , Copenhagen, Corfu, Dalaman [seasonal] , Djerba [seasonal] , Fuerteventura, Funchal, Gothenburg-City, Helsinki, Heraklion, Ibiza, Kos, Lamezia Terme, Mahon, Málaga, Milan-Malpensa, Palma de Mallorca, Rhodes, Rome-Fiumicino, Samos [seasonal] , Stockholm-Arlanda, Tenerife-South, Thessaloniki, Vienna
**airberlin operated by LGW (Westerland/Sylt)
*Malév Hungarian Airlines (Budapest)
*Meridiana (Florence)
*transavia.com (Amsterdam, Insbruck [seasonal] )

Terminal D

*Avitrans (Växjö) [starts 26 October 2008]
*Alitalia (Rome-Fiumicino)
*Austrian Airlines
**Austrian Arrows operated by Tyrolean Airways (Vienna)
*Brussels Airlines (Brussels) [starts 26 October 2008]
*Cimber Air (Billund)
*Cirrus Airlines (Mannheim) [starts 26 October 2008]
*Czech Airlines (Prague)
*Finnair (Helsinki)
*InterSky (Friedrichshafen, Graz) [starts 26 October 2008]
*Jet Air (Bydgoszcz, Lodz, Krakow, Poznan)
*LOT Polish Airlines
**LOT Polish Airlines operated by EuroLOT (Warsaw)
*Lufthansa (Hamburg) (see also Terminals A, B)
**Lufthansa Regional operated by Lufthansa CityLine (Brussels, Cologne/Bonn, Dublin [seasonal] , Düsseldorf, Nuremberg, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Stuttgart, Vienna)
*Olympic Airlines (Athens, Thessaloniki)
*Scandinavian Airlines System (Copenhagen, Oslo, Stockholm-Arlanda)
*TUIfly (Antalya [seasonal] , Cairo, Corfu [seasonal] , Cologne/Bonn, Fuerteventura, Heraklion [seasonal] , Hurghada [seasonal] , Innsbruck [seasonal] , Klagenfurt, Las Palmas, Luxor [seasonal] , Memmingen, Palermo, Rhodos [seasonal] , Salzburg, Stuttgart, Tel Aviv, Tenerife-South, Venice)

Cargo airlines

*airberlin
*TNT Airways
*DHL

Former Airlines and destinations (post-reunification)

*American Airlines (Chicago-O'Hare)
*Delta Air Lines (Atlanta [via Hamburg] , Hamburg, Warsaw)
*Pan American World Airways (New York-JFK)
*Sabena (Brussels)
*Swissair (Geneva, Zürich)
*TWA (New York-JFK, Stuttgart, Zürich [via Stuttgart] )
*United Airlines (Hamburg, London-Heathrow [via Hamburg] )

Accidents and incidents

There are no recorded accidents or incidents involving commercial airline operations at Berlin Tegel itself. However, two commercial flights, one of which was due to arrive at Tegel Airport and the other which had departed the airport, were involved in fatal accidents. These accidents are listed below:

* On 15 November 1966 a Pan Am Boeing 727-21 (registration N317PA) operating the return leg of the airline's daily cargo flight from Berlin to Frankfurt Rhein-Main Airport (flight number PA 708) was due to land that night at Tegel Airport, rather than Tempelhof, due to runway resurfacing work taking place at that time at the latter. Berlin Control had cleared flight 708 for an ILS approach to Tegel Airport's runway 08, soon after the crew had begun its descent from FL030 before entering the southwest air corridor over East Germany on the last stretch of its journey to Berlin. The aircraft impacted the ground near Dallgow, East Germany, almost immediately after the crew had acknowledged further instructions received from Berlin Control, just ten miles from Tegel Airport. All three crew members lost their lives in this accident. Visibility was poor, and it was snowing at the time of the accident. Following the accident, the Soviet military authorities in East Germany returned only half of the aircraft's wreckage to their US counterparts in West Berlin. This excluded vital parts, such as the FDR, the CVR as well as the plane's flight control systems, its navigation and communication equipment. The subsequent NTSB investigation report concluded that the aircraft's descent below its altitude clearance limit was the accident's probable cause. However, the NTSB was unable to establish the factors that had caused the crew to descend below its cleared minimum altitude. [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19661115-0]

* On 24 November 2001 a Crossair Avro RJ100 (registration: HB-IXM) operating flight LX 3597 from Berlin Tegel to Zürich on behalf of Swiss International Air Lines crashed during a night time approach to Zürich's Kloten Airport, killing 24 of the aircraft's 33 occupants (three out of five crew members and 21 out of 28 passengers). [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20011124-0]

* Between 1969 and 1982 Berlin Tegel was the destination of several hijackings involving aircraft operated by LOT Polish Airlines on domestic flights within Poland. These hijackings were carried out by Polish citizens dissatisfied with life behind the Iron Curtain. The hijackings themselves were a means of forcing the authorities in communist Poland to let the hijackers emigrate to the West. Once the aircraft had landed at Tegel, the French military authorities in charge of the airport during the Cold War era let the hijackers and anyone else who did not wish to return to Poland disembark and claim political asylum in West Berlin. The aircraft, its crew and those passengers who did not want to disembark were subsequently returned to Poland. [http://aviation-safety.net/database/dblist.php?sorteer=datekey_desc&kind=%&cat=%&page=1&field=Operatorkey&var=5745]

Notes

References

*cite book| title=Berlin Airport Company (Berliner Flughafen Gesellschaft [BFG] ) - Monthly Timetable Booklet for Berlin Tempelhof and Berlin Tegel Airports, several issues (German language edition only), 1964-1992 | publisher=Berlin Airport Company | place=West Berlin, Germany

*cite journal| title=Flight International | publisher=Reed Business Information | place=Sutton, UK | issn= 0015-3710 (various backdated issues relating to commercial air transport at Berlin Tegel during the Allied period from 2 January 1960 until 2 October 1990)

*cite journal| title=OAG Flight Guide Worldwide | publisher=OAG Worldwide Ltd | place=Dunstable, UK | issn= 1466-8718 (October 1990 until December 1994)

*cite book| title=In Flight - Dan-Air's English language in-flight magazine (Special Silver Jubilee Edition), 1978 | publisher=Dan Air Services Ltd | place=London, UK

*cite book| title=Kompass - Dan-Air's German language in-flight magazine, various copies 1975-1990 | publisher=Dan Air Services Ltd | place=West Berlin, Germany

*cite book| author=Simons, Graham M. | title=The Spirit of Dan-Air| publisher=GMS Enterprises | place=Peterborough, UK | year=1993 | id=ISBN 1-8703-8420-2

*cite book| author=Eglin, Roger, and Ritchie, Berry | title=Fly me, I'm Freddie | publisher=Weidenfeld and Nicolson | place=London, UK | year=1980 | id=ISBN 0-2977-7746-7

External links

*WAD|EDDT
* [http://www.berlin-airport.de/PubEnglish/PubTegel/index.html Tegel Airport Homepage]
* [http://www.bvg.de/index.php/de/Common/Document/field/file/id/206 local public transportation map (PDF)]


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