- Raki (alcoholic beverage)
Raki (Turkish: rakı IPA2|rakɯ) is a non-sweet usually
anise-flavored apéritifthat is produced by twice distilling either only suma or suma that has been mixed with ethyl alcohol in traditional copper alembics of 5000 litres (1320 US gallon, 1100 UK gallon) volume or less with aniseed. [cite book
title=About Raki] It is similar to several kinds of
alcoholic beverages available in the Mediterranean, Middle East, and Colombia, including pastis, ouzo, sambuca, arak, anise castellano, and aguardiente. In the Balkans, however, raki refers to a non-anise-flavored drink made from distilled pomace, similar to Italian grappa, Greek tsipouro, Cretan tsikoudia, Cypriot zivaniaand Spanish orujo.cite book
title=Traditional Turkish Drinks]
In Turkey, raki is the unofficial 'national drink' and it is traditionally drunk mixed with water; the dilution causes this alcoholic drink to turn a milky-white colour, and possibly because of its colour, this mixture is popularly called "aslan sütü" (or "arslan sütü"), literally meaning "lion's milk" ("a(r)slan" is also used to mean "strong, brave man", hence "milk for the brave").
The word "rakı" (raki) derives from the Arabic عرق [IPA|ʕaraq] , other variants being "araka", "araki", "ariki". "Araq" means "sweat" in Arabic,cite book
title=Turcizmi u srpskohrvatskom-hrvatskosrpskom jeziku
year=1985] which could refer to "
condensate" (when raki is being distilled it falls drop by drop like sweat), or to "that which makes one sweat" (if one drinks too much raki one does sweat).
In the Ottoman Empire, due to the Islamic restrictions, until 19th century
meyhanes generally run by Greeks, but sometimes also by Albanians, Armenians, or Jews[Music of the Sirens, Inna Naroditskaya, Linda Phyllis Austern, Indiana University Press, p.290 ] would mainly serve winealong with meze. Although there were many Muslims among meyhane attendants, shariaauthorities could, at times, persecute them. With the relatively liberal atmosphere of TanzimatTurkey, meyhane attendance among Muslims rose considerably. However, believers would still approach wine with a certain suspicion. Rakı became a favourite among meyhane-goers. By the end of the century, raki took its current standard form and its consumption surpassed that of wine.
During the days of the
Ottoman Empire, rakı was produced by distillation of grape pomace("cibre") obtained during wine fermentation. When the amount of pomace was not sufficient, alcohol imported from Europe would be added. If anise was not added, it would take the name "düz rakı" (straight raki) or "douziko" (in Greek). Raki prepared with the addition of gum mastic was named "sakız rakısı" (gum raki) or "mastika", especially produced on the island of Tenedos.
During the first years of the Republic, a grape-based rakı began to be distilled by the state-owned spirits monopoly,
Tekel(literally meaning "Monopoly"). With increasing sugar beetproduction, Tekel also began to distill the alcohol from molasses. A new brand of raki made from sugar-beet alcohol was called "Yeni Rakı" (literally "New Rakı"). Molasses gave rakı a distinctive bitter taste and helped it to become popular.
The standard raki is a
grapeproduct, though it may also be produced from various fruits. Raki produced from figs, particularly popular in southern provinces of Turkey, is called "incir boğması", "incir rakısı" (fig raki), or in Arabic, "tini". Tekel ceased producing fig raki in 1947.
Suma is generally produced from
raisinsbut raki factories around established wine-producing areas ( Tekirdağ, Nevşehir, İzmir) may also use fresh grapes for higher quality. Recently, "yaş üzüm rakısı" (fresh-grape raki) has become more popular in Turkey. A recent brand, "Efe Rakı", was the first company to produce raki exclusively of fresh grape suma, called "Efe Yaş Üzüm Rakısı" (Efe Fresh Grape Raki). "Tekirdağ Altın Seri" (Tekirdağ Golden Series) followed the trend and many others have been produced by other companies.
"Dip rakısı" (bottom raki) is the raki that is remains in the bottom of the tanks during production. Bottom raki is thought to best capture the dense aroma and flavour of raki. It is called "özel rakı" (special raki) and is not generally sold; instead, raki factories reserve it as a prestigious gift.
The best-known brands of Mey Alkol (In recent past Tekel has handed over the alcohol production rights to Mey Alcohol) are "Yeni Rakı" and "Tekirdağ Rakısı" from the region of Tekirdağ, which is famous for its characteristic flavour. The secret of this flavour is said to be the
artesianwater from Çorlu, used in its production. "Yeni Rakı" has an alcohol content of 45% and 1.5 grams of anise per litre; "Tekirdağ Rakısı" has 1.7 grams of anise per litre. There are also two top-quality brands called "Kulüp Rakısı" and "Altınbaş" with 50% alcohol. "Yeni Rakı" contains about 20% sugar beet alcohol; the other brands of Tekel are produced only from suma. After the privatisation of state-owned spirit industry of Tekel in 2004, different producers and brands emerged. There are currently many brands and types of Raki available, including "Efe Rakı", "Çilingir Rakı", "Mercan Rakı", "Fasıl Rakı", "Burgaz Rakı", "Ata Rakı", and "Anadolu Rakı". "Sarı Zeybek Rakısı", another recent brand, is aged in oakcasks, which gives it a distinctive golden colour.
Ways of drinking
Turkey, raki is consumed with meze(a selection of appetisers or small dishes taken with alcohol); it is especially popular with white cheese and melon and with fish. Raki is generally drunk mixed with cold water. Ice cubes may be added, preferably to diluted raki, since its anise may otherwise crystallize. When the water is added, the mixture turns a whitish colour, similar to the "louche" of absinthe. In addition to mixing raki with water in its own glass, it is customary to drink raki with a separate but complementary beverage. For the casual raki drinker, a glass of cold water is suitable. For the serious connoisseur of raki with kebab, a glass of şalgamstands as the best accompaniment to "Lion's Milk". Sometimes raki is drunk with ayran(in a separate glass), which is said to prevent hangover.Fact|date=March 2007
Culture of Turkey
* Arak, a similar drink from the
* list of anise-flavored liqueurs
rakia, a similar drink of Balkan countries
Zivania, the ouzo/tsipouro of Cyprus
ouzo, Greek anise flavoured drink
ouzo effect, the science behind the milky appearance
tsipouro, Greek distilled drink
tsikoudia, the tsipouro of Crete
ţuică, a similar Romanian alcoholic drink (plum flavoured)
Raki in Albania, an alcoholic drink with the same name in Albania
* [http://www.raki.com/raki.asp Turkish national drink, Raki]
* [http://turkishcook.com/turkishfoodforum/photos/turkish_raki/default.aspx Turkish Raki] Turkishcook.com
* [http://www.raki.8k.com/ About Raki subculture in Turkey]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EYtROn11NAc Turkish Raki Commercial]
* [http://www.shopperswines.com/product.asp?ItemNo=41821 Purchase Turkish Raki Online]
* Forbes, Robert, J.; Short History of the Art of Distillation from the Beginnings Up to the Death of Cellier Blumenthal; Brill Academic Publishers; ISBN 90-04-00617-6; hardcover, 1997
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Alcoholic beverage — A row of alcoholic beverages – in this case, spirits – in a bar. An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: beers, wines, and spirits. They … Wikipedia
Raki — may mean: * An alternate name for Rangi, the sky father in the South Island dialect of Māori *Rakia or Raki, alcoholic beverage, popular throughout the Balkans. **Raki (alcoholic beverage), an alcoholic beverage of Turkey. * An alternate name for … Wikipedia
Raki rrushi — (Grape Brandi) is an alcoholic beverage considered to be the national drink by Albanians.Fact|date=July 2007 It is sipped in tiny amounts. Raki was made by Albanians. It is 100% pure grape Brandi. Hangovers from this specific liqueur is… … Wikipedia
Distilled beverage — Liquor redirects here. For the similar term, see Liqueur. An old whiskey still … Wikipedia
Efes Beverage Group — For the basketball club sponsored by this company, see Efes Pilsen S.K.. Efes Beer Group Type Public Industry Beverage Founded … Wikipedia
Arak (distilled beverage) — Arak or araq (Arabic: عرق, pronounced|ʕaraq; oghi in Armenian) is a clear, colourless, unsweetened aniseed flavoured distilled alcoholic drink, produced and consumed in the eastern Mediterranean countries, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Iraq, Jordan and … Wikipedia
Tonto (beverage) — Tonto is a traditional Ugandan fermented beverage made from bananas. It is also referred to as mwenge bigere. Tonto is made by ripening green bananas in a pit for several days. The juice is then extracted, filtered, and diluted before being mixed … Wikipedia
Oghi (beverage) — Oghi (sometimes oghee, Armenian: օղի òġi) is an Armenian spirit distilled from fruits or berries. Oghi, a clear fruit vodka, is also referred to as aragh, which is the generic Armenian word for vodka of all kinds. It is widely produced as… … Wikipedia
Anise — Taxobox name = Anise image width = 240px regnum = Plantae divisio = Magnoliophyta classis = Magnoliopsida ordo = Apiales familia = Apiaceae genus = Pimpinella species = P. anisum binomial = Pimpinella anisum binomial authority = L. [http://cougar … Wikipedia
Ţuică — (in Romanian IPA|/ ʦuj.kə/, sometimes spelled tuica, tzuika, tsuika, tsuica, or tzuica), is a traditional Romanian alcoholic beverage, usually made from plums. Țuica is officially, after the Romanian standards for drinks, the name for the drink… … Wikipedia