Vaud


Vaud

Infobox Canton|short_name=Vaud
local_names=Vaud|coord= coord|46|37|N|6|33|E|region:CH-VD_type:adm1st|display=title
flag_img_path=Flag of Canton of Vaud.svg
coa_img_path=Vaud-coat of arms.svg
locatormap_img_path=Swiss_Canton_Map_VD.pngcantonalmap_img_path=Karte Kanton Waadt.pngcapital=Lausanne
area=3212|area_rank=4th|area_scale=9
population=657,700|population_rank=3rd|population_asof=2004
population_density=205
since=1803
abbr=VD
languages=French
executive=Conseil d'Etat|executive_members=7
legislative=Grand Conseil|parliament_members=150
highest=Les Diablerets|highest_m=3210|lowest=Lake Geneva|lowest_m=372
municipalities_number=376 (as of 2008-01-01)
districts_designation=districts|districts_number=10|

The Canton of Vaud (French pronunciation IPA| [vo] ) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland and is located in Romandy, the southwestern part of the country. The capital is Lausanne.

Geography

The canton stretches from Lake Neuchâtel in the north, where it borders the canton of Neuchâtel to Lake Geneva in the south, bordering the canton of Geneva, Haute-Savoie (lake border with France) and canton of Valais. On the Jura ranges in the west, the canton borders the French départements of Ain, Jura, and Doubs. In the east, it borders canton of Fribourg and canton of Bern. The total area is convert|3212|km2|sqmi|1|lk=on|sp=us.

In the north, there is an exclave containing Avenches surrounded by canton of Fribourg and Lake Neuchâtel. On the other hand, there are two enclaves of the canton of Fribourg, as well as two enclaves of the canton of Geneva, that are surrounded by the canton of Vaud.

The areas in the southeast are mountainous, situated in the Alps (Bernese Alps). The Diablerets massif, peaking at convert|3210|m|ft|0|lk=on|sp=us, is the highest mountain of the canton, which also host several popular skiing destinations such as Villars, Les Diablerets and Leysin. The central area of the canton, in contrast, consists of moraines and is thus hilly. There are plains along the lakes.

History

Along the lakes, Vaud was inhabited in prehistoric times. Later on, the Celtic tribe of the Helvetii inhabited the area. The tribe was defeated by Caesar's troops in 58 BC and as a consequence the Romans settled the area. The towns of Vevey ( _la. Viviscus) and Lausanne ("Lausonium" or "Lausonna") are two of the many towns established by the Romans.

In 27 BC the state of "Civitas Helvetiorum" was established around the capital of Avenches ("Aventicum"). There are still many Roman remains around the town today. Between the 2nd and the 4th century the area was repeatedly invaded by Alemannic tribes, and in the 5th century the Burgundians occupied the area. The Merovingian Franks later replaced the Burgundians. Their occupancy did not last long either, and in 888 the area of the canton of Vaud was made part of the Carolingian Empire. In 1032 the Zähringens of Germany defeated the Burgundians. The Zähringens themselves were succeeded in 1218 by the counts of Savoy. It was only under the counts of Savoy that the area was given political unity, establishing what is today in greater part known as the canton of Vaud. A part stretching from Attalens to the River Sarine, in the north, was absorbed by the canton of Fribourg.

As the power of the Savoys declined at the beginning of the 15th century the land was occupied by troops from Bern. By 1536 the area was completely annexed. Reformation was started by co-workers of John Calvin like Pierre Viret, including a famous debate at the cathedral of Lausanne; but it was only decisively implemented when Bern put its full force behind it. The Bernese occupants were not popular amongst the population and the French Revolutionary troops were received with enthusiasm in 1798. The French troops were victorious and a "Lemanic Republic" was declared. This was soon turned into the canton of Léman, which in 1803 joined the Swiss confederation.

The current constitution dates from April 14 2003, replacing the one from 1885. In the 19th century the canton of Vaud was an outspoken opponent of the Catholic separatist movement ("Sonderbund").

Ian Fleming, when writing the fictional biography of James Bond (character)
James Bond
, mentioned that Bond's mother was "Monique Delacroix, a Swiss woman from the Canton de Vaud".

Culture

Vaud shares a lot with its fellow French-speaking Protestant cantons of Geneva and Neuchâtel. It has still a strong rural component, protected by high subsidies, even if most of the economy and population are now urbanised, around services (finance, telecommunications, tourism) and industry (packaging, tobacco, food-processing, watchmaking, pharmaceuticals &c). There are survivals of its own Franco-Provençal patois, around which an association was formed.

Quality of life is very high, but natality is very low. Life expectancy is high. Education shares the generally high Swiss standards.

Economy

The capital Lausanne is the major city in the canton. There are light industries concentrated around it. In 1998, 71.7% of the workers worked in the tertiary sector and 20.8% in the secondary.

The canton is the second largest producer of wine in Switzerland. Most of the wine produced in the canton is white wine, and most vineyards are located on the steep shores of Lake Geneva. There is agriculture in the areas away from Lake Geneva. Sugar beet is important around Orbe, tobacco in La Broye Valley and fruit is grown on the foot of the Jura mountains. Cattle breeding and pasture are common in the Alps and the Jura mountains. There is a salt mine at Bex. Tourism is important in many towns along the Lake Geneva. Major lakeside resorts include Lausanne, Montreux and Vevey.

Education

The Canton is home to several renowned universities and schools:

*Swiss Federal institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL)
*University of Lausanne (UNIL)
*International Institute for Management Development (IMD)
*École Cantonale d'Art de Lausanne, Lausanne Art School (ECAL)
*Institut Le Rosey
*Glion Institute of Higher Education, Glion Institute of higher Education
*The American Graduate School of Business
*Business School Lausanne (BSL)
*Château de Bossey

Districts

Demographics

The population is French-speaking and has been overwhelmingly Protestant (Calvinist) since the early years of the Reformation.

The major population centers of the canton are: Lausanne (approx. 275,000 inhabitants in 2000), Montreux-Vevey (70,000 inhabitants) and Yverdon-les-Bains. The region around Nyon is often considered part of the agglomeration of Geneva. All of these are on Lake Geneva, except for Yverdon, which is on Lake Neuchâtel.

Other cities and towns include: Morges, Renens, Rolle.

ee also

*Municipalities of the canton of Vaud
*Lausanne - Capital of the canton.
*French language
*Franco-Provençal language

External links

* [http://www.vd.ch Cantonal government] fr icon
* [http://www.lake-geneva-region.ch/ Vaud Tourist Office]
* [http://www.statistik.admin.ch/stat_ch/ber00/ekan_vd.htm Official Statistics]
* [http://www.vd.ch/observatoire-territoire Maps and Charts of Canton of Vaud]
* [http://www.communal.ch/communal/default.asp?lng=E List of Swiss municipalities]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Vaud — cant. de Suisse, entre les lacs Léman et de Neuchâtel; 3 219 km²; 599 790 hab. (Vaudois); ch. l. Lausanne; v. princ. Montreux, Vevey, Yverdon, Nyon. Centré sur Lausanne, le pays de Vaud s étend entre la rive N. du lac Léman et la pointe S. du lac …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Vaud — [vo]: frz. Form von ↑ Waadt. * * * Vaud   [vo], amtlicher Name des schweizerischen Kantons Waadt …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Vaud — (spr. Woh, Pays de V., Canton de V.), so v.w. Waadt …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Vaud — Vaud, Pays de (spr. peïh dĕ woh), franz. Name des schweiz. Kantons Waadt …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Vaud — [vo] (französische Form von Waadt) …   Die deutsche Rechtschreibung

  • Vaud — [vō] canton of W Switzerland: 1,240 sq mi (3,212 sq km); pop. 602,000; cap. Lausanne …   English World dictionary

  • Vaud — Canton de Vaud  Pour les articles homophones, voir Vaux et Vaulx. Canton de Vaud …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Vaud — /voh/, n. a canton in W Switzerland. 521,600; 1239 sq. mi. (3210 sq. km). Cap.: Lausanne. German, Waadt. * * * ▪ canton, Switzerland (French), German  Waadt,    canton, southwestern Switzerland, bordering France and the Jura Mountains to the west …   Universalium

  • Vaud TV — La Télé Création 2009 Langue Français Pays d origine  Suisse Statut …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Vaud — Der Name Vaud bezeichnet das pays de Vaud, das Waadtland in der Schweiz, siehe Kanton Waadt. eine politische Gemeinde im Distrikt Nyon des Kantons Waadt, siehe Le Vaud. VAUD steht für: Flughafen Udaipur in Indien (ICAO Code) …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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