Volkswagen Jetta


Volkswagen Jetta

Infobox Automobile
name = Volkswagen Jetta


aka = Volkswagen Atlantic
Volkswagen Bora
Volkswagen City Jetta
Volkswagen Fox
Volkswagen Sagitar
Volkswagen Vento
manufacturer = Volkswagen
parent_company = Volkswagen Group (Volkswagen AG)
production = 1979–present
class = Subcompact (1980-84)
Compact (1984-present)
layout = FF layout
platform = Volkswagen Group A platform series

The Volkswagen Jetta is an automobile produced by German automaker Volkswagen since 1979. Depending upon the model year, country of origin, and country of sale, it is sometimes known as the Atlantic, Bora, City Jetta, Fox, GLI, Sagitar, or Vento. It is essentially the saloon / sedan version of the compact car / small family car Volkswagen Golf, and spans five generations. The Jetta name was derived from the Jet stream, following Volkswagen's long tradition of naming cars for various winds. [cite web | authorlink =http://media.vw.com | title =Jetta History | publisher =Volkswagen AG | date =2004-01-07 | url =http://media.vw.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=9382 | accessdate =2007-04-19]

The Jetta body style was developed due in part to the Volkswagen marketing group's observation that the North American market leaned more towards sedans as opposed to the Golf's hatchback configuration. [cite book
last =Vack
first =Peter
title =Illustrated Volkswagen Buyer's Guide
publisher =Motorbooks International
year =1993
location =Osceola, WI USA
pages =124
isbn =0-87938-724-6
] The new saloon variant was marketed as a more upscale car than its tailgated brethren, with nicer interior trim and a higher price. [Vack, p. 125] This proved to be a wise move on Volkswagen's part, as the Jetta became the best-selling European car in the United States and Canada. [cite press release
title =IN BRIEF: THE NEW JETTA
publisher =Volkswagen AG
date =2005-08-15
url =http://media.vw.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=9661
accessdate =2007-04-14
] Over the years, the car has been offered in two and four-door sedan and five-door station wagon variants. As of 2005, over 6.6 million cars have been sold worldwide, with over 2.2 million alone sold in the United States. Since the original version in 1980, the car has grown in size and power with each successive generation. [cite press release
title =ALL-NEW JETTA MAKES WORLDWIDE DEBUT AT L.A. AUTO SHOW
publisher =Volkswagen of America
date =2005-01-05
url =http://media.vw.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=9509
accessdate =2007-04-14
]

First generation

Infobox Automobile generation
name= Volkswagen Jetta [Werner Oswald: "Deutsche Autos 1945-1990", vol. 3. Motorbuch Verlag Stuttgart 2001. ISBN 3-613-02116-1, p. 72-87.] [Mike Covello: "Standard Catalog of Imported Cars 1946-2002". Krause Publications, Iola 2002. ISBN 0-87341-605-8, p. 826-829.]
aka=Volkswagen Atlantic
Volkswagen Fox


production=1979–1984 571,030 built [Werner Oswald: "Deutsche Autos 1945-1990", vol. 3. Motorbuch Verlag Stuttgart 2001. ISBN 3-613-02116-1, p. 86. Note: German production only. Total production ca. 700,000 cars.]
body_style=2-door coupé
4-door sedan
engine= Europe and RoW Otto I4
1.1L Auto PS|50
1.3L Auto PS|60
1.5L Auto PS|70
1.6L Auto PS|85
1.6L Auto PS|110
1.8L Auto PS|112
Diesel I4
1.6L Auto PS|54
1.6L Auto PS|70 Turbodiesel North America/Japan Otto I4
1.6L Convert|76|hp|kW|0|abbr=on (MY 1980) 1.7L Convert|74|hp|kW|0|abbr=on (MY 1981-1984) Diesel I4 1.6L Convert|52|hp|kW|0|abbr=on (MY 1982-1984) 1.6L Convert|68|hp|kW|0|abbr=on (MY 1983-1984)
transmission=5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
wheelbase=2400 mm (94.5 in)
length=4270 mm (168.0 in)
platform=Volkswagen Group A1 platform
width=1600 mm (63.0 in)
height=1300 mm (51.0 in)
assembly=Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Wolfsburg, Germany
Uitenhage, South Africa
related=Volkswagen Golf/Rabbit

The Jetta was introduced to the world at the 1979 Frankfurt Auto Show. [Citation
title =Volkswagen writes history
publisher =Volkswagen Kommunikation Briefach
year =1998
location =D-28436 Wolfsburg
] Production of the first generation began in September 1979 at the Wolfsburg plant. [cite book
last =Grieger
first =Manfred
title =Volkswagen Chronicle Volume 7
publisher =Volkswagen AG, Group Communications, Corporate History Department
year =2003
location =Wolfsburg, Germany
pages =107
isbn =3-935112-11-4
] In Mexico, the Mark 1 was known as the "Volkswagen Atlantic". The car was available as a two-door coupe and four-door sedan body styles, both of which shared a three box shape. Like the Golf, its angular styling was penned at ItalDesign, by Giorgetto Giugiaro. Styling differences could be found depending on the market. In most of the world, the car was available with composite headlights, while in the USA, it was only available with rectangular sealed beam lamps due to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 108. The suspension setup was identical to the Golf and consisted of a MacPherson strut setup in front and a Twist-beam rear suspension in the rear. It shared its 2.4 meter (94.5 in) wheelbase with its hatchback counterpart although overall length was up by 380 millimeters (15 in). The capacity of the luggage compartment was 377 liters (13.3 ft3), making the Jetta reasonably practical. [cite book
last =Robson
first =Graham
coauthors =Auto Editors of Consumer Guide
title =Volkswagen Chronicle
publisher =Publications International, Ltd.
year =1996
location =Lincolnwood, Illinois, USA
pages =160
isbn =0-7853-1599-3
] To distinguish the car from the Golf, interiors were made more upscale in all markets. [cite book
last =Flammang
first =James M.
title =VOLKSWAGEN Beetles, Buses & Beyond
publisher =Krause Publications
year =1996
location =Iola, Wisconsin, USA
pages =219
isbn =0-87341-419-5
] This included velour seating and color coordinated sill to sill carpeting.

Engine choices varied considerably depending on the local market. Most were based on 827 engines of the era. Choices in Spark-ignition engines ranged from a 1.1 L four-cylinder engine producing 37 kilowatts (50 PS) to a 1.8 L I4 which made 82 kilowatts (112 PS) and 150 newton metres (111 ft·lbf) of torque. Some cars were equipped with Carburetors, while others were fuel injected using K or KE Jetronic supplied by Robert Bosch GmbH. Diesel engine choices included a 1.6 L making 37 kilowatts (50 PS) and a turbocharged version of the same engine which produced 51 kilowatts (70 PS) and 130 newton metres (96 ft·lbf) of torque.

Volkswagen briefly considered producing the Jetta in a plant located in Sterling Heights, Michigan in the USA. [Robson, p.168] However, due to declining sales in North America, the decision was postponed and finally scrapped in 1982. [Grieger, p. 92] The site was subsequently sold to Chrysler in 1983 and is still in operation as of 2007. [cite web
authorlink =http://www.daimlerchrysler.com
title =Sterling Heights Assembly Plant
publisher =DaimlerChrysler
month =July | year =2006
url =http://www.daimlerchrysler.com/dccom/0-5-8793-1-36910-1-0-0-0-0-0-91-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0.html
accessdate =2007-04-21
] This generation was also produced in Bosnia under the joint venture Tvornica Automobila Sarajevo (TAS) for the Balkan area. [Citation
author-link =http://www.globalautoindex.com
title =Volkswagen
url =http://www.globalautoindex.com/maker.plt?no=1425
accessdate =2007-11-29
]

afety

Volkswagen was an early adopter of passive restraint systems. The first generation cars could be equipped with an "automatic" shoulder belt mounted to the door. The idea was to always have the belt buckled thereby doing away with the requirement that the driver and passenger remember to buckle up. Instead of a lap belt, the dashboard was designed with an integrated knee bar to prevent submarining underneath the shoulder belt.

In crash tests conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the Mark 1 received five out of five stars in a 56 km/h (35 mph) frontal crash test for both driver and passenger protection. [cite web
authorlink =http://www.safecarguide.com/
title =NHTSA crash-test Archive
publisher =National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
year =1981
url =http://www.safecarguide.com/exp/archive/archive.htm
accessdate =2007-06-12
]

Testing and review

The first generation was met with generally positive reviews. Testers found the car handled precisely, however the lack of power steering contributed to heavy steering when parking. [Citation
author-link =http://www.consumerreports.org
title =Consumer Reports
pages =290
year =1981
date=June 1981
] The brakes worked well for a car of the day, but some brake fade was evident. The ride was taut but firm in the typical style of German cars, with large bumps being well absorbed by the suspension but smaller undulations coming through. Reviews differed on noise levels, some found the car fairly quiet, while others thought the engine contributed to higher noise levels. [Citation
last =White
first =John R.
title =VW'S JETTA A NIFTY LITTLE PACKAGE
newspaper =Boston Globe
pages =1
year =1980
date =1980-06-15
] Critics found the seating comfortable, but noted that the rear seat lacked sufficient head room. Most major controls and displays such as the speedometer and climate controls were well liked, but some secondary switches were not well placed or intuitive. The aforementioned automatic seat belts in some markets that were attached to the door frame made it impossible to forget to buckle the belt, but it was difficult to enter the car with a package in hand. Writers liked that the luggage space was generous, especially for a car of its size. Additionally, numerous storage areas also gave practicality to the sedan. In one test, the car scored nearly as high as the more expensive Volkswagen Passat/Dasher and the Audi 80/4000. [CR, p.292]

The Volkswagen Atlantic was introduced in the Mexican market in February 1981. The sole competition for the Atlantic in the Mexican market was the Renault 18. The Mark I continued to be manufactured and marketed in South Africa after the introduction of the Mark II, badged as the "Fox". [cite web
last =
first =Adam
coauthors =Conrad Baudin
title =South Africa's Volkswagen Fox
url =http://www.lunaticfringe.org/vwfox/specs/Fox-SouthAfrica.html
accessdate =2007-06-15
]

econd generation

Infobox Automobile generation
name= Volkswagen Jetta [Werner Oswald: "Deutsche Autos 1945-1990", vol. 3. Motorbuch Verlag Stuttgart 2001. ISBN 3-613-02116-1, p. 72-87.] [Mike Covello: "Standard Catalog of Imported Cars 1946-2002". Krause Publications, Iola 2002. ISBN 0-87341-605-8, p. 826-829.]


production=1984–1992
1991-present (China) 1,708,390 built [Werner Oswald: "Deutsche Autos 1945-1990", vol. 3. Motorbuch Verlag Stuttgart 2001. ISBN 3-613-02116-1, p. 86-87.] [Eberhard Kittler:" Deutsche Autos seit 1990", vol. 5. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2001. ISBN 3-613-02128-5, p. 224. "Note: 1984-1989 German production only, 1990-1992 worldwide deliveries".]
body_style=2-door sedan (commonly referred to as a coupe)
4-door sedan
platform=Volkswagen Group A2 platform
wheelbase=2470 mm (97.3 in)
length=1985-88: 4346 mm (171.1 in)
1989-1992: 4385 mm (172.6 in)
width=1680 mm (66.1 in)
1985-88 Base Models: 1665 mm (65.5 in)
height=1410 mm (55.7 in)
engine=Otto I4
Europe and RoW 1.3L Auto PS|55
1.6L Auto PS|75
1.6L cat Auto PS|70 1.8L Auto PS|90
1.8L 4x4 Auto PS|98 1.8L Auto PS|112
1.8L cat Auto PS|107
1.8L 16V Auto PS|139
1.8L 16V cat Auto PS|129
2.0L 100 kW (134 hp)
Diesel I4
1.6L Auto PS|54
1.6L Auto PS|60 ECOdiesel
1.6L Auto PS|70 Turbodiesel
1.6L Auto PS|80 Turbodiesel
North America: 1.8L Convert|85|hp|kW|0|abbr=on (MY 1985-1987) 1.8L Convert|100|hp|kW|0|abbr=on (MY 1988-1990) 1.8L Convert|94|hp|kW|0|abbr=on (MY 1991-1993) 1.8L GLI Convert|102|hp|kW|0|abbr=on (MY 1987) 1.8 GLI Convert|105|hp|kW|0|abbr=on (MY 1988-1990) 1.8L 16V Convert|123|hp|kW|0|abbr=on (MY 1985-1990) 2.0L Convert|115|hp|kW|0|abbr=on (MY 1993) 2.0L 16V Convert|134|hp|kW|0|abbr=on (MY 1991-1992) 1.6L Diesel Convert|59|hp|kW|0|abbr=on (MY 1985-1992)
transmission=5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
assembly=Changchun, China
Chengdu, China
Lagos, Nigeria
Puebla, Mexico
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Uitenhage, South Africa
Westmoreland, USA
Wolfsburg, Germany
related=Volkswagen Golf
The Mark 2 series is the longest running Jetta so far. Introduced to Europe in 1984 and to North America in 1985, the second generation Jetta proved to be a sales success for Volkswagen. The car secured the title of best-selling European car in North America, and outsold the similar Golf by two-to-one in that market. [Robson, p. 182] Based on the all new second generation Golf platform, the car was larger, heavier, and could seat five people instead of four as in the Mark 1. Exterior dimensions increased in all directions. Overall length was up by 100 millimeters (3.9 in), the wheelbase grew 66 millimeters (2.6 in), and the width went up 53 millimeters (2.1 in). The suspension setup was basically unchanged from the first generation, although refined slightly. Aerodynamics improved considerably, with a drag coefficient of 0.36. [Citation
last =Smith
first =David C.
title =Golf, Jetta much improved and, with them, VWA's hopes
newspaper =Ward's Auto World
year =1984
date=December 1984
] With a 470 liter (16.6 ft3) luggage compartment, the trunk had grown nearly as large as some full sized American sedans. [Citation
author-link =http://www.consumerreports.org
title =Consumer Reports
pages =124
year =1986
date=February 1986
] Interior room was also increased 14%, which changed the EPA class from sub-compact to compact.

Cars built in Germany were assembled in a brand new (at the time) plant at Wolfsburg in Assembly Hall 54. The plant was heavily robotized in an effort to make build quality more consistent. [Robson, p. 186] New innovations on the second generation included an optional Trip computer (sometimes referred to as the MFA) as well as silicone dampened engine and transmission mounts to reduce Noise, Vibration, and Harshness levels. In 1988, a more advanced fully electronic fuel injection system became available. This arrangement is known as the Digifant Engine Management system.

Like the Mark 1, the second generation was offered as a two-door coupé or four-door sedan. External changes throughout the series' run were few: the front-quarter windows were eliminated in 1988 (along with a grille and door trim change), and larger body-colored bumpers and lower side skirts were added from 1990.

In 2007, Volkswagen of America held a contest to find the diesel powered VW with the highest distance traveled on the original engine. [cite press release
title =VOLKSWAGEN NOW ACCEPTING APPLICATIONS FOR OLDEST AND HIGHEST MILEAGE DIESEL VEHICLES
publisher =Volkswagen of America
date =2007-03-02
url =http://media.vw.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=10089
accessdate =2007-08-26
] The winning car was a 1986 Jetta Turbodiesel found in Blue Rock, Ohio, and had 562,000 miles (904,000 km). [cite press release
title =VOLKSWAGEN DIESEL HERITAGE SEARCH FINDS HIGHEST MILEAGE DIESEL IN OHIO
publisher =Volkswagen of America
date =2007-08-23
url =http://www.vw.com/vwbuzz/browse/en/us/detail/Volkswagen_Diesel_Heritage_Search_finds_highest_mileage_diesel_in_Ohio/163
accessdate =2007-08-26
] A local dealer verified the odometer reading. Notable on this particular car was that it also had the original muffler despite being located in an area subject to road salt in the winter.

afety

In a crash test conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the Jetta received three out of five stars for both driver and passenger protection in a 56 km/h (35 mph) frontal crash test. The Highway Loss Data Institute (part of the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety) found the injury and collision losses for the Jetta to be among the best of the small 4 door sedan category. [cite news
title =Injury and Collision Loss Experience by Make and Model
pages =3
publisher =Highway Loss Data Institute
date=September 1992
url =http://www.iihs.org/brochures/ictl/pdf/ictl_0992.pdf
accessdate =2007-04-14 |format=PDF
] It was topped only by the Golf. Earlier models had the dubious distinction of having an especially high rate of radio theft. [cite news
title =Advisory
pages =1
publisher =Insurance Institute for Highways Safety & Highway Loss Data Institute
date=February 1988
url =http://www.iihs.org/research/advisories/iihs_advisory_3.pdf
accessdate =2007-04-14 |format=PDF
] Apparently, the mounting of the radio made it especially easy to remove quickly. To correct the problem, VW introduced a theft protection system to all cars. When the power supply to the radio was removed, it automatically went into "safe" mode. When plugged back in, it would not work unless a secret code was entered. This made it essentially useless to thieves, although provided a hassle to customers who misplaced their code card.

Testing and review

The car received generally positive reviews, with critics praising the car's excellent handling, as well as a roomier interior compared to the last generation. [Citation
last =Smith
first =David C.
title =Golf, Jetta much improved and, with them, VWA's hopes
newspaper =Ward's Auto World
year =1984
date=December 1984
] Stiff shifting manual transmissions were a downside, and braking worked reasonably well although some brake fade was evident in the lower trim lines equipped with solid discs in front and drums in back. A number of reviews noted that the ride was stiff and busy, even though it did have good control typical of German cars. Despite additional sound insulation, road noise was evident especially on coarse pavement. [Consumer Reports, February 1986] In top sport trim (sometimes called the GLI or GTX), some reviewers noted the car was a less expensive alternative to a BMW or Audi. [Citation
last =Jedlicka
first =Dan
title =Practically speaking, Volkswagen Jetta GLI at the top of its class
newspaper =Chicago Sun - Times
pages =106
year =1986
date =1986-08-07
] The sport trim added larger wheels, a stiffer suspension, and closer ratios on the manual transmission.

Worldwide production

kits, local manufacturing has gradually taken over in the form of Semi-Knocked Down kits in 1992, and full local production in 1995. [cite web
authorlink =http://www.faw.com
title =International Cooperation
year =2006
url =http://www.faw.com/international/volkswagen2.jsp
accessdate =2007-04-14
]

The car has had two revisions since its inception in China, the first facelift borrowed spare grilles left around from the fourth generation Volkswagen Passat in 1997. Production started in August 1998 and its name was changed to the Jetta King. The second facelift was revealed in March 2004 (taking influences from Volkswagen's most expensive model, the Phaeton. On 29 July, 2007, it was announced that First Automotive Works expanded its production of the Mark 2 Jetta by building a new assembly plant in Chengdu, Sichuan Provence in Southwest China. [Citation
title =FAW Making Jetta in SW China
newspaper =SinoCast China Transportation Watch
year =2007
date =2007-07-29
url =http://www.tmcnet.com/usubmit/-faw-making-jetta-sw-china-/2007/07/29/2820529.htm
] The expansion is driven by the high demand for the car, a desire to expand in the western part of the country, as well as the long term goal of FAW to develop new derivatives from the car's platform independently of Volkswagen.

Third generation

Infobox Automobile generation
name= Volkswagen Vento
aka=Volkswagen Jetta III


production=1991–1998
body_style=4-door sedan
platform=Volkswagen Group A3 platform
wheelbase=2470 mm (97.4 in)
length=4400 mm (173.4 in)
width=1690 mm (66.7 in)
height=1430 mm (56.1 in)
transmission=5-speed manual
4-speed automatic
engine=Otto
1.6L Convert|55|kW|PS|0|abbr=on I4
1.6L Convert|74|kW|PS|0|abbr=on I4
1.8L Convert|55|kW|PS|0|abbr=on I4
1.8L Convert|66|kW|PS|0|abbr=on I4
2.0L Convert|85|kW|PS|0|abbr=on I4
2.8L Convert|128|kW|PS|0|abbr=on VR6 12V
Diesel
1.9L Convert|47|kW|PS|0|abbr=on I4
1.9L Convert|47|kW|PS|0|abbr=on I4 SDI
1.9L Convert|55|kW|PS|0|abbr=on I4 Turbo
1.9L Convert|66|kW|PS|0|abbr=on I4 TDI
1.9L Convert|81|kW|PS|0|abbr=on I4 TDI
assembly=Puebla, Mexico
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Uitenhage, South Africa
Wolfsburg, Germany
related=Audi A3
Volkswagen Golf

For the 3rd generation Jetta, the Jetta name was dropped, and it was officially named the Volkswagen Vento in Germany, and all other European countries. Again, following the precedent of naming cars for winds, the "" (as it was known in most of the world) debuted in 1992 while the JettaIII debuted in North America in 1993 after production delays and quality problems at the Volkswagen plant in Puebla, Mexico. [Robson, p. 208] The name Vento means wind in both Portuguese and Italian. Because of the success of the second generation in North America, VW decided to keep the Jetta nameplate. However, in Europe the car was given its new name to appeal to a younger market. [cite news
last =Plumb
first =Steven E.
title =VW Jetta replacement coming next fall
language =English
publisher =Ward's Auto World
date=March 1992
] Styling was penned by a design team led by Herbert Schafer, and again the car became more aerodynamic than the previous generation. Although visually similar to the Mark 2, there were many refinements underneath. Aerodynamics were improved, with the car now having a drag coefficient of 0.32. [Citation
last =Visnic
first =Bill
title =VW's new Golf, Jetta try for a comeback
newspaper =Ward's Auto World
year =1993
date=December 1993
] This included a new structure which now met worldwide crash standards. [Robson, p. 202] Suspensions were an evolutionary rather than revolutionary refinement of the setup on previous editions. In addition, the car became more environmentally friendly with the use of recycled plastics, CFC-free Air Conditioning systems, and paint that didn't contain heavy metals. [cite book
authorlink =http://www.vw.com
title =Volkswagen Jetta
publisher =Volkswagen of America
year =1993
location =Auburn Hills, Michigan, USA
pages =17
id =Form No. W63 163 6081
]

This generation of the car is widely credited for keeping VW from pulling out of the North American market. [Robson, p. 208] [Citation
last =Jedlicka
first =Dan
title =Golf and Jetta Drive Revival in VW Sales
newspaper =Chicago Sun - Times
pages =18
year =1994
date =1994-03-05
] At the time of its introduction in 1993, Volkswagen of America's sales hit a low not seen since the 1950s. The division sold only 43,902 cars in that year. Sales began slowly due to the aforementioned issues at the Puebla plant. [Citation
last =Anonymous
title =Can Herbie ride again?
newspaper =The Economist
pages =66
year =1994
date =1994-04-23
] However, sales rebounded dramatically in the following years, mostly based on the strength of the Jetta, which continued to be the best selling VW in the USA. [Robson, p. 210]

afety

When equipped with dual air bags, the Mark 3 received three out of five stars in a 56 km/h (35 mph) frontal crash test carried out by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. [cite web
authorlink =http://www.nhtsa.gov
title =1995 Volkswagen Jetta III 4-DR.
publisher =National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
year =1995
url =http://www.safercar.gov/NCAP/Cars/606.html
accessdate =2007-04-15
] In a 64 km/h (40 mph) frontal offset crash test conducted by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, the car received a score of "Marginal". [cite web
authorlink =http://www.iihs.org
title =Frontal offset test results
publisher =Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
year =1994
url =http://www.iihs.org/ratings/rating.aspx?id=83
accessdate =2007-04-15
]

Testing and review

Newly available on the third generation was Volkswagen's 1.9 L TDI (Turbo Direct Injection) 67 kilowatt (90 hp) diesel engine. Fuel economy was a strong point with ratings of 5.7 L/100 km (41 mpg [US] ) urban cycle and 4.8 L/100 km (49 mpg [US] ) extra urban. In top trim lines, the 2.8 L VR6 SOHC six-cylinder engine was available. In one car magazine's test, the 128 kilowatt (172 hp) power plant was able to accelerate the car from 0 to 97 km/h (60 mph) in 6.9 seconds. [Robson, p. 210]

Reviews were generally positive with testers praising the crisp handling and comfortable ride as well as a greater level of refinement compared with the previous generation. [Citation
last =Noble
first =Richard C.
title =Jetta III continues tradition with tighter body, crisper handling
newspaper =The Grand Rapids Press.
pages =C.07
year =1994
date =1994-05-04
] However, some reviews noted that the more sporty suspension tuning found in some trims made the car bouncy, especially on the expressway. [Citation
author-link =http://www.consumerreports.org
title =Consumer Reports
pages =669
year =1994
date=November 1994
] The manual transmission shifted crisply, however the automatic transmission reduced acceleration noticeably. Some critics complained that the controls had some quirks, including a cryptic windshield wiper control. If equipped, power window controls had the unusual arrangement of the front buttons located on the door, while the rear buttons were located on the center console. As with previous generations, the luggage compartment provided generous space. However, unlike previous cars, the rear seat was able to fold forward in order to expand luggage space further. In earlier build cars, the glove compartment was deleted if the car was equipped with dual air bags. There were also some complaints about the lack of cup holders in the earlier cars, as well as the lack of a safety interlock which would require the driver to press the clutch pedal prior to starting the car. [Citation
last =Truett
first =Richard
title =JETTA III GLS DELIVERS WITH SOLID PERFORMANCE
newspaper =Orlando Sentinel
pages =F.1
year =1994
date =1994-04-14
]

pecifications [Eberhard Kittler: "Deutsche Autos seit 1990", vol.5. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-613-02128-5, p. 279-283.]

Petrol engines

Diesel engines

Fourth generation

Infobox Automobile generation
name= Volkswagen Bora
aka=Volkswagen Jetta
Volkswagen City Jetta
Volkswagen Bora Classic Edition(China)


production=1998-2005 - Europe
1999.5-2005 - United States
1999–present - Canada, China, and Latin America
transmission=5-speed manual
6-speed manual
4-speed 01M automatic
5-speed automatic
body_style=4-door sedan
4-door station wagon
engine=Otto
1.4L 55 kW (75 hp) I4
1.6L 74 kW (100 hp) I4
1.6L 77 kW (105 hp) I4 16V
1.8L 110 kW (150 hp) I4 Turbo
1.8L 134 kW (180 hp) I4 Turbo
2.0L 85 kW (115 hp) I4
2.3L 110 kW (150 hp) VR5
2.3L 125 kW (170 hp) VR5
2.8L 130 kW (177 hp) VR6
2.8L 150 kW (204 hp) VR6
Diesel
1.9L 50 kW (68 hp) I4 SDI
1.9L 66 kW (90 hp) I4 TDI
1.9L 75 kW (100 hp) I4 TDI
1.9L 81 kW (110 hp) I4 TDI
1.9L 85 kW (115 hp) I4 TDI
1.9L 96 kW (130 hp) I4 TDI
1.9L 110 kW (150 hp) I4 TDI
wheelbase=Sedan: 2510 mm (98.9 in)
Station wagon: 2520 mm (99.0 in)
length=Sedan: 4380 mm (172.3 in)
Station wagon: 4410 mm (173.6 in)
width=1730 mm (68.3 in)
platform=Volkswagen Group A4 (PQ34) platform
height=Sedan: 1440 mm (56.7 in)
Station wagon: 1490 mm (58.5 in)
'08 City Jetta Sedan: Auto in|56.9|0
assembly=Changchun, China
Puebla, Mexico
Uitenhage, South Africa
Wolfsburg, Germany
related=Volkswagen Golf
Audi A3
SEAT Toledo
Skoda Octavia

Production of the fourth generation car began in July 1998. [Grieger, p. 168] Carrying on the wind nomenclature, the car was known as the Bora in much of the world. Bora is a winter wind which blows intermittently over the coast of the Adriatic Sea as well as in parts of Greece, Russia, Turkey and in the Sliven region of Bulgaria. In North America and South Africa, the Jetta moniker was again kept on due to the continued popularity of the car in that market.

The Mk4 debuted shortly after its larger sibling, the Passat, with which it shared many styling cues. The rounded shape and arched roofline served as the new Volkswagen styling trademark, abandoning traditional sharp creases for more curved corners. The car was also offered as a station wagon. New on this generation were some advanced options such as rain sensor controlled windshield wipers and automatic climate control.

Although slightly shorter overall than the Mark 3, the fourth generation saw the wheelbase extended slightly. Some powertrain options were carried over. Nevertheless, two new engines were offered, the 1.8 liter turbo 4-cylinder (often referred to as the 1.8T), and the VR5 (a 5-cylinder derivative of the VR6 engine). The suspension setup remained much as before. However, it was softened considerably in most models to give a comfortable ride, which was met with some criticism. [cite web
last =Simister
first =John
coauthors =Andy Morgan
title =VW Golf 2.0 FSI
work =evo Car Reviews
publisher =Dennis Publishing Limited
month =October | year =2003
url =http://www.evo.co.uk/carreviews/evocarreviews/41365/vw_golf_20_fsi.html
accessdate =2007-05-29
]

In 2004, a new line of "Pumpe-Düse" diesel engines were offered. This new design employed advanced unit injectors and additional electronics and emissions equipment to meet new air emissions standards in Europe and North America, and is considerably more complex than the older diesel engines previously offered. To accomplish the task of producing sufficient power while meeting emissions standards, the "PD" technology injects fuel into the combustion chamber at pressures up to an incredibly high 2,050 bar (30,000 psi). [cite press release
title =Volkswagen Diesel Technology
publisher =Volkswagen AG
date =2004-04-07
url =http://media.vw.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=9386
accessdate =2007-04-15
] The purpose of the high pressure is to promote fine atomisation of the fuel which supports more complete combustion. To reduce noise, the engine employs a "pilot injection" system which injects a small amount of fuel prior to the main injection. All of the new generation of diesel engines require a special motor oil that meets Volkswagen oil specification 505.01. Serious engine damage will result if oil not meeting this standard is used.

afety

Safety on the fourth generation cars was a high priority for Volkswagen. [Grieger, p. 150] The car was built using such advanced processes as highly mechanized presses, improved measuring techniques, and laser welding of the roof. In crash tests, the fourth generation car received very good marks. In the New Car Assessment Program tests conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the car received five out of five stars for both driver and passenger protection in a 56 km/h (35 mph) frontal impact. [cite web
authorlink =http://www.nhtsa.gov
title =NCAP ratings for tested vehicles
publisher =National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
year =2000
url =http://www.safercar.gov/NCAP/Cars/1490.html
accessdate =2007-04-15
] New side impact tests at 62 km/h (38.5 mph) awarded the car four out of five stars for both driver and rear seat passenger protection. In the more severe 64 km/h (40 mph) offset test conducted by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, the Mark 4 was awarded the highest score of "Good". [cite web
authorlink =http://www.iihs.org
title =Frontal Offset Test
publisher =Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
year =1999
url =http://www.iihs.org/ratings/rating.aspx?id=113
accessdate =2007-04-15
] Injury, Collision, and theft losses were low for a car of its class. [cite web
authorlink =http://www.iihs.org
title =Injury, Collision, & Theft Losses
publisher =Highway Loss Data Institute
month =September | year =2005
url =http://www.iihs.org/brochures/ictl/pdf/ictl_0905.pdf
accessdate =2007-04-15|format=PDF
]

Testing and review

Critics usually found the fourth generation to their liking. The car was praised for its sure-footed handling as well as a comfortable ride. [Citation
last =Brown
first =Warren
title =A Car to Touch the Soul
newspaper =The Washington Post
pages =C.25
year =1999
date =1999-01-10
] Other reviewers noted the car to be an attractive but somewhat expensive choice in the compact car segment. [Citation
author-link =http://www.consumerreports.org
title =Consumer Reports
pages =55
year =1999
date=May 1999
] However, some complaints were made that the back seat lacked adequate room for two adults. [Citation
last =Harper
first =Brian
title =Jetta TDI, the miser: Review
newspaper =National Post
pages =E.12
year =1999
date =1999-10-1
] Also, some found the cushion was too firm. The interior of the car was universally praised for the high level of fit, finish, and materials quality. Critics noted it was reminiscent of much more expensive cars. [Citation
last =Kenzie
first =Jim
title =Well-dressed Jetta wagon worth $37,000
newspaper =Toronto Star
pages =G.23
year =2004
date =2004-09-11
] New in this generation was VW's signature blue and red instrument lighting which became standard across the lineup in 1999. The placement of the climate controls low on the console was also met with some criticism. Flimsy cupholders were placed directly above the stereo, thus obscuring vision of the stereo LCD. However, this problem was rectified on later mark 4 models.

The earlier models have a few quality control issues, as a number of owners reported windows falling into the doors, electrical problems, and emissions system defects. [cite web
authorlink =http://www.consumeraffairs.com
title =Volkswagen Jetta Windows
date =2003-2007
url =http://www.consumeraffairs.com/automotive/vw_jetta_window.html
accessdate =2007-04-15
] [cite web
authorlink =http://www.consumeraffairs.com
title =VW Fined $1.1 Million for Clean Air Violations
date =2005-06-15
url =http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/2005/vw_epa.html
accessdate =2007-04-15
] The fourth generation takes approximately 52 hours per vehicle to assemble in the Puebla factory. [cite press release
title =Harbour Report
publisher =Harbour Consulting Inc.
date =2007-05-31
url =http://www.harbourinc.com/documents/2007PressRelease.pdf
accessdate =2007-06-14 |format=PDF
] In contrast, General Motors Spring Hill Assembly Plant takes only approximately 18 hours to build a Saturn Ion, a car similar in size to the Mark 4.

tation wagon

Volkswagen introduced a station wagon version of the fourth generation car in January 2001 at the Los Angeles Auto Show. [Citation
last =Williams III
first =G. Chambers
title =Definitely not your father's . . . . . . station wagon
newspaper =Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
pages =01.S
year =2001
date =2001-03-02
] This was the first time an "A" platform VW was available in North America with that body style. Although the sedan was built in a number of locations, all Jetta Wagon models were built in the Wolfsburg plant. [Citation
author-link =
title =Volkswagen of America Concentrates on Process Rolls out new, dealer-friendly distribution system.
pages =
year =2002
date =January 2002
url =http://www.glscs.com/archives/1.02.smith.htm?adcode=30
accessdate=2007-11-18
] In back, 963 liters (34 ft3) of space was available in the cargo compartment. When the rear seats were folded, the car could hold 1473 liters (52 ft3). Like the sedan, the station wagon received high marks from most reviewers. [Citation
author-link =http://www.consumerreports.org
title =Consumer Reports
pages =
year =2002
date=August 2002
] [Citation
last =Anonymous
title =JETTA WAGON: FUN, WITH SOME GLITCHES
newspaper =Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
pages =C.2
year =2003
date =2003-07-11
] They noted that the cargo area was large and useful. Additionally, the interior kept its top quality fit and finish, although the rear seat was still a bit small. In Europe, the station wagon was sometimes sold as part of the Golf line either in addition to or instead of the Bora. Other than different front bumpers, fenders, headlights, and hood, the cars were identical.

Ongoing production

As of 2008, the fourth generation car is still sold in addition to the newer Mark 5 due to higher pricing of the fifth generation in some countries such as Mexico, China, Canada and Argentina. Like its second generation predecessor, the Mark 4 continues to be marketed in China by Volkswagen's joint venture partner First Automotive Works-Volkswagen China.

In China, the car received a facelift in the summer of 2006, with a Passat Mark 5.5 lookalike face. A hatchback version (i.e. the Golf) is also produced, but is badged as the Bora HS. [cite web
authorlink =http://www.auto-power-girl.com
title =Volkswagen FAW Bora HS 1.6 Chinese Version
url =http://www.auto-power-girl.com/cars-2007/volkswagen-specifications/volkswagen_faw_bora_hs_1_6_chinese_version-1354
accessdate =2007-04-22
] The model available in Mexico, Canada and Argentina for 2008 was likewise facelifted with the same design found in China.

In October 2006, Volkswagen re-released the fourth generation car in Canada (for the 2007 model year) as the City Jetta. [Citation
last =Wilson
first =Greg
title =Preview: 2007 Volkswagen City Golf & City Jetta
newspaper =Canadian Driver
year =2006
date =2006-09-20
url =http://www.canadiandriver.com/testdrives/07citygolfjetta.htm
] The move was made to allow Volkswagen to be more competitive with the rest of the compact class as the fifth generation Jetta had moved upscale versus much of the competition. The only engine available is the 2.0L SOHC 86 kilowatt (115hp) gasoline four cylinder. The City Jetta is built alongside the fifth generation in the Puebla Assembly Plant.

The Chinese model will receive further modifications for 2009, and it will be marketed as the Bora Classic to make way for the Sagitar.

Fifth generation

Infobox Automobile generation
name= Volkswagen Jetta
aka=Volkswagen Bora
Volkswagen GLI
Volkswagen Sagitar
Volkswagen Vento


production=2005–present
body_style=4-door sedan
4-door station wagon
wheelbase=2580 mm (101.5 in)
length=4550 mm (179.3 in)
width=1760 mm (70.1 in)
platform=Volkswagen Group A5 (PQ35) platform
height=1460 mm (57.4 in)
engine=Otto
1.6L 75 kW (100 hp) I4
1.6L 85 kW (115 hp) FSI I4
1.4L 103 kW (140 hp) TSI I4
2.0L 110 kW (150 hp) FSI I4
2.5L 110 kW (150 hp) I5
2.5L 125 kW (170 hp) I5
1.4L 125 kW (170 hp) TSI I4
2.0L 147 kW (200 hp) I4 TFSI
Diesel
1.9L 77 kW (105 hp) I4 TDI
2.0L 103 kW (140 hp) I4 TDI
2.0L 125 kW (170 hp) I4 TDI
assembly=Changchun, China
Puebla, Mexico
Uitenhage, South Africa
Aurangabad, India
related=Volkswagen Golf/Rabbit
SEAT Toledo
Škoda Octavia
Audi A3
transmission=5-speed manual 04A
6-speed automatic 09G
6-speed manual 02Q
6-speed DSG 02E

The fifth generation debuted at the Los Angeles Auto Show on January 5, 2005. It was only the second Volkswagen product to make its world debut at a U.S. Auto show (the other being the New Beetle). [cite press release | title =ALL-NEW JETTA MAKES WORLDWIDE DEBUT AT L.A. AUTO SHOW | publisher =Volkswagen of America | date =2005-01-05 | url =http://media.vw.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=9509 | accessdate =2007-04-16 ] Additionally, the Mark 5 went on sale in the USA prior to any other country, reflecting the importance of the car in that market for VW. [cite news
last =McCormick
first =John
title =VW's Mexican revolution: Volkswagen bets on a new Jetta with a big investment in its Puebla, Mexico, plant
language =English
publisher =Automotive Industries
date=February 2005
] US$800 million was spent upgrading the factory in Puebla for its production. This included a US$290 million new engine production line for the 5 cylinder power plant, a US$50 million investment in the press shop, as well as a US$200 million purchase of 460 robots, which increased automation by 80%.

Although produced in the largest volumes in Mexico, final assembly of the car also takes place in China and South Africa for those respective markets. [Citation
last =Downer
first =Steven
title =Beetle's Future?
newspaper =AutoWeek
year =2007
date =2007-07-24
url =http://www.autoweek.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070727/FREE/70724011/1530/FREE
] Like initial production of the second generation in China, the Asian and African plants build the car from a complete knock-down (CKD) kit shipped from the factory in Puebla. Local assembly in Kaluga, Russia started in late 2007. [Citation
author-link =http://www.mnweekly.ru/
title =VW Unveils Russian Plant
newspaper =Moscow News
year =2007
date =2007-11-29
url =http://www.mnweekly.ru/business/20071129/55293314.html
] The plant will be producing Volkswagen Passat and Skoda Octavia cars during 2008. Production began in India in 2008. [Citation
last =Master
first =Ammar
title ="We are of the opinion we are right on time for the India party"
newspaper =liveMINT.com - WSJ
year =2008
date =2008-01-17
url =http://www.livemint.com/2008/01/17234343/8216We-are-of-the-opinion-w.html
] Currently, the Skoda factory in Aurangabad is used for final assembly. As with the previously mentioned assembly plants, CKD kits from Volkswagen de México will be used.

The fifth generation car has the widest variety of names of any generation. In most countries, it is referred to as the Jetta. Exceptions to this include "Bora" in Mexico and Colombia, "Vento" in Argentina and Chile, and "Sagitar" in China. [cite web | authorlink =http://www.vw.com/mx | title =Historia de Volkswagen de México | publisher =Volkswagen de Mexico S.A de C.V. | year =2005 | url =http://www.vw.com.mx/cwe/volkswagen/historia/0,,sC%253D56%2526yR%253D2005%2526idNode%253D22,00.html
accessdate =2007-04-18
] [cite web | authorlink =http://www.volkswagen.cl | title =Historia Volkswagen | publisher =Volkswagen Chile | year =2005 | url =http://www.volkswagen.cl/cl_homepage_indexpages/2000_hoy.html | accessdate =2007-04-18 ] [cite web | authorlink =http://www.volkswagen.com.cn | coauthors =First Automotive Works (FAW) | title =Volkswagen Sagitar brings latest technology to Chinese car market | publisher =Volkswagen China | date =2006-04-09 | url =http://www.volkswagen.com.cn/publish/en/news/2006_0409.htm | accessdate =2007-04-18 ] The Mark 5 is 170 millimeters (6.7 in) longer, 30 millimeters (1.2 in) wider, and has a 70 millimeter (2.8 in) longer wheelbase than the previous iteration. Interior room has increased from 2.46 cubic meters (87 ft3) to 2.58 cubic meters (91 ft3). In particular, rear legroom was increased by 65 millimeters (2.6 in) over the fourth generation. Luggage compartment volume is up to 453 liters (16 ft3). One major change is the introduction of the first multi-link independent rear suspension in a Jetta. The design of the rear suspension is nearly identical to the one found in the Ford Focus. [cite web
last =Askew
first =Mike
title =Volkswagen Golf 2.0 TDI
work =Auto Express
publisher =Dennis Publishing Limited
month =September | year =2003
url =http://www.autoexpress.co.uk/carreviews/firstdrives/40302/volkswagen_golf.html
accessdate =2007-05-29
] VW reportedly hired engineers from Ford who designed the suspension on the Focus. [cite web
last =Simister
first =John
coauthors =Andy Morgan
title =VW Golf 2.0 FSI
work =evo Car Reviews
publisher =Dennis Publishing Limited
month =October | year =2003
url =http://www.evo.co.uk/carreviews/evocarreviews/41365/vw_golf_20_fsi.html
accessdate =2007-05-29
]

Styling reflects a new direction for the Volkswagen brand, with a new chrome front grille which has spread to other models. [cite press release
title =VOLKSWAGEN RELEASES FIRST OFFICIAL PHOTOS OF ALL-NEW JETTA TO ARRIVE EARLY NEXT YEAR
publisher =Volkswagen of America
date =2004-11-18
url =http://media.vw.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=9490
accessdate =2007-04-23
] Some critics appreciated the new styling, whilst others dismissed it as too bland looking compared to the 4th generation. [cite news
last =Kelly
first =Kevin
title =Jetta Grows Up
language =English
publisher =Ward's Auto World
date =2005-02-01
] [cite news
last =Mar
first =Karl
title =2005.5 Volkswagen Jetta -- Victim of a Competitive Market
language =English
publisher =Edmunds Inc.
date =2006-03-28
url =http://blogs.edmunds.com/karl/.ee9035f
accessdate =2007-06-05
]

Features

The body of the fifth generation uses extensive high strength steel, and use of laser welding is up from 5% to 35% of body parts. [cite book
first =Volkswagen Academy
authorlink =http://www.vwthink.com/
title =The new Jetta Introduction
publisher =Volkswagen of America
year =2004
location =U.S.A.
pages =6
id =891403
] This results in double digit increases in both dynamic and torsional rigidity. Other body innovations include an impact-absorbing front bumper which yields slightly in the event of a collision with a pedestrian, reducing the chance of injury. A new door design allows just the outer panel to be removed and replaced if damaged, rather than the entire door. [Volkswagen Academy, 891403, p. 14] Safety was again enhanced with many active and passive features available or standard. These included Side Curtain Protection, rear side airbags, new generation Electronic Stability Program with Anti-Slip Regulation and Brake assist, as well as active head restraints. A DSG transmission, available dual-zone automatic climate control, and electro-mechanical steering are also new innovations.

The fifth generation car has a totally redesigned electrical system. [cite book
first =Volkswagen Academy
authorlink =http://www.vwthink.com/
title =The new Jetta Electrical System Design and Function
publisher =Volkswagen of America
year =2004
location =U.S.A.
pages =6
id =873403
] Control modules are used for everything from the radio to the Drivetrain, transmitting over Controller Area Network (CAN) buses. Transmission of signals is done digitally at 500 kilobits per second, which reduces the number of wires needed and thus reduces the chance for faults. Cars equipped with halogen headlamps have a VW logo integrated into the reflector. In most of the world, the taillights use LED bulbs. However, in North American specification cars, standard bulbs with a different design are used.

The engines that are available depend on the location. In Europe, a range of the new generation FSI engines are available. Additionally in that market, the car can be had with an engine known as the TSI. This engine combines turbo and supercharging to make a small but powerful engine with low fuel consumption. [cite press release
title =TWIN-TURBOCHARGED FSI ENGINES - CENTRAL ASPECTS
publisher =Volkswagen AG
date =2005-08-29
url =http://media.vw.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=9672
accessdate =2007-06-18
] The Jetta available in the Americas and the Middle East, is powered by a 2.5 liter 5-cylinder 20 Valve engine in most trims. This engine shares its head design with the V10 engine found in the Lamborghini Gallardo. [cite book
first =Volkswagen Academy
authorlink =http://www.vwthink.com/
title =The new Jetta Introduction
publisher =Volkswagen of America
year =2004
location =U.S.A.
pages =28
id =891403
]

In North America, the diesel TDI engine was not offered in 5 U.S. states when the Mark 5 Jetta was introduced, due to the tight emission standards promulgated by the California Air Resources Board. The four other states involved opted to adopt the more stringent California standards. Where it was available, it fell into the least-restrictive emission category. That category was removed in 2007, prompting the diesel Jetta to be unavailable in that market for about a year until the introduction of a new common rail diesel engine, which appeared in August 2008. [Citation
last =Keyes
first =Steve
title =THE WAIT IS OVER
newspaper =Volkswagen Group of America
year =2008
date =2008-08-18
url =http://media.vw.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=10368
] The introduction was delayed for approximately 6 months due to technical issues with the new emissions control system. [cite web|title=VW Jetta TDI Clean Diesel Delayed Until Fall 2008|url=http://www.vwtechnology.ca/2007/11/08/vw-jetta-tdi-clean-diesel-delayed-until-fall-2008/] The TDI Clean Diesel engine is rated 140 hp, and uses advanced features such as a diesel particulate filter to reduce NOx and particulate emissions in order to qualify as a Tier II Bin 5 vehicle (equivalent to California's LEV II rating), therefore allowing it to be sold in all 50 U.S. states. AdBlue (urea injection) will not be used initially, reducing maintenance requirements.

The Mark 5 has a number of quirks which may confuse owners who are unfamiliar with the car and have not read the owners manual. [cite web
authorlink =http://www.vwvortex.com
title =Please explain why you can't pull the wipers up
date =2006-02-25
url =http://forums.vwvortex.com/zerothread?id=2466925
accessdate =2007-04-25
] For example, to replace the windscreen wipers, the wiper lever must be pressed down within 10 seconds of turning off the car to activate the "Service/Winter Position" mode. Additionally, the wipers change their parked position slightly every few trips to reduce wear, sometimes causing unneeded concern on the part of the customer. [cite web
authorlink =http://www.vwvortex.com
title =My wipers move 1/4" when pulling key out
date =2006-04-17
url =http://forums.vwvortex.com/zerothread?id=2560855
accessdate =2007-04-25
] Upon a cold start, the engine is noisier than normal for approximately 30 seconds due to the operation of the Secondary Air Injection Pump, causing alarm in some instances. [cite web
title =Excessively Loud Startup
date =2007-07-27
authorlink =http://www.vwvortex.com
url =http://forums.vwvortex.com/zerothread?id=3361834
accessdate =2007-07-30
] [cite web
title =Jetta startup issue: very loud noise when starting
date =2006-06-01
authorlink =http://www.vwvortex.com
url =http://forums.vwvortex.com/zerothread?id=2639379
accessdate =2007-07-30
] This feature is designed to reduce emissions by adding fresh air (which contains more oxygen than the air that has been through the engine) into the exhaust stream. Some owners have been surprised that synthetic oil must always be used when changing the oil. [cite web
authorlink =http://www.vwvortex.com
title =synthetic oil
date =2006-07-08
url =http://forums.vwvortex.com/zerothread?id=2701818
accessdate =2007-04-25
] Volkswagen has developed a strict motor oil quality standard to prevent oil sludge problems, and oil meeting this standard must be used to ensure full warranty coverage. [Citation
author-link =http://www.vw.com
title =Engine oils with Volkswagen Oil Standard VW 502.00 approval available in North America
date =July 2004
year =2004
]

afety

The car received high ratings in crash tests from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. The car received a "Good" rating in both front offset and side impact tests. [cite web
authorlink =http://www.iihs.org
title =Frontal Offset Test
publisher =Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
year =2005
url =http://www.iihs.org/ratings/rating.aspx?id=231
accessdate =2007-04-24
] [cite web
authorlink =http://www.iihs.org
title =Side Impact Test
publisher =Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
year =2005
url =http://www.iihs.org/ratings/rating.aspx?id=276
accessdate =2007-04-24
] The Institute noted that the side impact protection performance was the best they had ever rated. [cite press release
title =New Jetta Scores Best Ever In Side Impact Test
publisher =Volkswagen of America
date =2005-04-24
url =http://www.vwvortex.com/artman/publish/volkswagen_news/printer_1302.shtml
accessdate =2007-04-24
] In 2006, the car received a "Top Safety Pick" award from the Institute. [cite web
authorlink =http://www.iihs.org
title =TOP SAFETY PICKs 2006
publisher =Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
year =2006
url =http://www.iihs.org/ratings/tsp_archive.html
accessdate =2007-04-24
] The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration gave the fifth generation car four out of five stars for both driver and passenger protection in a frontal impact, while the car received five out of five stars in a side impact crash test. [cite web
authorlink =http://www.nhtsa.gov
title =NCAP ratings for tested vehicles
publisher =National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
year =2007
url =http://www.safercar.gov/NCAP/Cars/3964.html
accessdate =2007-04-25
] To tout the safety of the car, a series of television commercials with the tag line "Safe happens" showed the car being involved in a collision whilst afterward the occupants are shown to have emerged unscathed.

Testing and review

The fifth generation has received generally positive reviews. Nevertheless, some critics have complained that the car lost some of its distinctive European character with the redesign. [Citation
last =Job
first =Ann
title =2005 JETTA IS SET TO BECOME FAMILY CAR
newspaper = The Augusta Chronicle
pages =E.01
year =2005
date =2005-04-29
] Most reviewers found the ride to be firm and well controlled, but not always as forgiving as the previous generation. Handling was a strong point, with quick and precise steering and minimal body roll. Fit and finish received excellent marks, with reviewers noting the car felt very upscale. [Citation
last =Phelan
first =Mark
title =All-new VW Jetta a solid sedan, but it lacks character
newspaper =Detroit Free Press
pages =1
year =2005
date =2005-05-06
] The front seats were firm but well liked, and the rear seat was roomy, in contrast to the cramped quarters in the fourth generation. Controls and displays were generally good. [Citation
author-link =http://www.consumerreports.org
title =Consumer Reports
pages =51
year =2006
date=February 2006
] Reviewers were particularly impressed with the "Sportline" models (known as the GLI in North America). Equipped with sport seats, a firmer suspension lowered by 15 millimeters, and low profile tires, critics praised the excellent handling that was an improvement over the already good performance on the standard model. [Citation
last =Robertshaw
first =Malcolm
title =Style is Jetta-propelled ; ROAD TEST Volkswagen Jetta Sport 2.0 TDi
newspaper =Coventry Evening Telegraph
pages =54
year =2006
date =2006-09-08
] Additionally, the 2.0 Turbo FSI engine also won commendation for its high power figures, smooth operation, and low fuel consumption. [Citation
last =Winter
first =Drew
title =Inner Strength
newspaper =Ward's Auto World
year =2005
date =2005-11-01
] Along with its hatchback brethren, the fifth generation ranks among the top cars on the market in independent reviews of resale value. [Citation
last = Weisbaum
first = Herb
title = How much has your car depreciated?
newspaper = MSNBC
year = 2008
date = 2008-01-02
url = http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22474603
]

Although improved over the fourth generation, the Mark 5 still takes over 42 hours to assemble at the factory in Mexico. [cite press release
title =Harbour Report
publisher =Harbour Consulting Inc.
date =2007-05-31
url =http://www.harbourinc.com/documents/2007PressRelease.pdf
accessdate =2007-06-14 |format=PDF
] Part of this disparity is blamed on the switch to the more complex independent rear suspension. Volkswagen has publicly stated its discontent over the excessive assembly time and pledged to streamline manufacturing in the next generation of A platform cars. [Citation
title =VW to launch new Golf in 2008
newspaper =Wheels 24 South Africa
year =2007
date =2007-05-04
url =http://www.wheels24.co.za/Wheels24/News/0,,1369-1372_2090366,00.html
] In the interim, Volkswagen de México is making a concerted effort to further increase productivity at the plant by consulting outside experts from Toyota and other Japanese companies. [Citation
last =Downer
first =Steven
title =Beetle's Future?
newspaper =AutoWeek
year =2007
date =2007-07-24
url =http://www.autoweek.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070727/FREE/70724011/1530/FREE
] By implementing many lean manufacturing principles and techniques, a goal has been set to increase productivity levels at the factory by 30% or more in the coming years.

portwagen

At the 2007 New York International Auto Show, Volkswagen unveiled a station wagon version dubbed the "Jetta Sportwagen". The Jetta wagon was not sold for the 2006, 2007 & 2008 model years. [cite press release
title =JETTA SPORTWAGEN MAKES U.S. DEBUT AT NEW YORK INTERNATIONAL AUTO SHOW
publisher =Volkswagen of America
date =2007-04-04
url =http://media.vw.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=10114
accessdate =2007-04-25
] The new wagon has 930 liters (32.8 ft3) of cargo space with the rear seats upright, or 1894 liters (66.9 ft3) with the seats folded. One unique option is a panoramic sunroof. The available roof is a full 1.18 square meters (12.7 ft2) in area, giving both front and rear seat passengers an expansive view of the sky. This car is to be sold as the Golf Variant in most markets outside the United States. In Mexico it is sold as Bora SportWagen, Jetta Variant in Brazil, Vento Variant in Argentina, Jetta Wagon in Canada.

Alternative fuel cars

In the early 1980s, VW released a limited production electric Jetta called the Jetta CitySTROMER. It featured a 24.8HP (18.5kW) drivetrain (later 37.5HP (28kW)), with a range of 190km (250 in the later version). [cite web
authorlink =http://electroauto.sweb.cz/
title =Elektromobil Volkswagen JETTA citySTROMer:
publisher =Đ DVOHAPER & Mobilcompany
year =2005
url =http://electroauto.sweb.cz/jetta_citystromer.html
language =Czech
accessdate =2007-04-25
]

In 2001, at the 18th International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition in Berlin, VW released two environmentally friendly cars: the Bora HyMotion and the Bora Electric.

The Bora HyMotion was a hydrogen powered Mark 4 with a 75 kW fuel cell that could accelerate from 0 to 97 km/h (60 mph) in 12.5 seconds. With a 49 liter tank of cryogenically stored hydrogen, it had a range of 350 km (220 mi). Top speed was 140 km/h (87 mph). [Citation
author-link =http://www.sae.org
title =Fuel cells start to look real
publisher =Society of Automotive Engineering
url =http://www.sae.org/automag/features/fuelcells/veh2.htm
]

The second concept vehicle was called the Bora Electric. It had a power rating that varied according to the operating conditions. The Bora Electric could accelerate from 0 to 100 km/h in 10 seconds with a range of 160 km. The energy needed to drive the vehicle is stored in a Lithium-ion battery. It was noted that its chance of success was limited in the marketplace given the high cost of the electric drive system. [cite book
last =Menzel
first =Ulrich
authorlink =http://www.mobility-and-sustainability.com
coauthors =
title =Volkswagen Environmental Report 2003/2004
publisher =Druckhaus Friedr. Schmücker GmbH, Löningen
month =December | year =2003
location =Wolfsburg, Germany
pages =54
url =http://www.mobility-and-sustainability.com/download/download.asp?lng=ENG&downloadFile=/_download/umweltbericht_2003_2004_english.pdf
id =415.1240.01.18 |format=PDF
]

In 2002, Volkswagen along with Paul Scherrer Institute released another hydrogen powered car called the Bora Hy.Power. The car was powered by hydrogen compressed to a pressure of 320 bar (4600 psi). It had ratings very similar to the HyMotion; with a 75 kW (100 hp) power source. A special feature of the car was a 60 kilowatt super capacitor which could boost power when needed and also recover energy when coasting. [Menzel, p. 56]

Volkswagen has considered producing a mild hybrid version of the fifth generation mainly for the North American market. [Citation
last =Meiners
first =Jens
title =VW may offer Jetta hybrid
newspaper =Automotive News
pages =1
year =2005
date =2005-05-30
] However, no official plans have been promulgated, and the company will continue its clean diesel push regardless of the decision regarding hybrid technology. [Citation
last =Copley
first =Brian
title =Volkswagen's Alternative-Fuel Strategy
newspaper =Driver Magazine
pages =18-19
year =2007
date =Spring/Summer 2007
]

Biofuels

Volkswagen approves fueling Jetta TDIs with up to 5% biodiesel (B5). [cite press release
title =VOLKSWAGEN’S FUEL-EFFICIENT TDI DIESELS PROVIDE RELIEF FROM SUMMER’S ESCALATING FUEL PRICES
publisher =Volkswagen of America
date =2006-05-09
url =http://media.vw.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=9893
accessdate =2007-04-25
] The diesel engine can sometimes be run with higher percentages of biodiesel, particularly during warm months. However, if the car experiences a fault, Volkswagen will deny warranty coverage if unapproved fuel is used. Fact|date=May 2008

Some owners have converted their diesel cars to run on Vegetable oil used as fuel. [cite news
last =Dizon
first =Kristin
title =It smells like popcorn -- and it's catching on
language =English
publisher =SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER REPORTER
date =2005-02-18
url =http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/212626_biodieselfans18.html
accessdate =2007-04-25
] This can be obtained from most fast food restaurants for a minimal fee (if any). However, there has been at least one report of catastrophic engine damage resulting from the use of waste vegetable oil. [Citation
title =WVO no more-My Tragic Greaser Story
date =2007-08-05
year =2007
url =http://forums.tdiclub.com/showthread.php?t=186108
accessdate =2007-09-06
] Running the car on biofuels of any type has the advantage of being at least partly carbon neutral.

VW also released a Bora TDI which was powered by SunFuel, a synthetic fuel developed in partnership with Royal Dutch Shell. [Menzel, p. 47] The company also displayed Bora TDI powered by SunDiesel that VW also developed with DaimlerChrysler along with Choren Industries. [cite press release
title =THE NEW VOLKSWAGEN ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2003/2004 – PARTNERS IN RESPONSIBILITY
publisher =Volkswagen AG
date =2003-12-11
url =http://media.vw.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=9230
accessdate =2007-04-28
]

References

External links

* [http://www.volkswagen.com/vwcms_publish/vwcms/master_public/virtualmaster/en2/models/jetta.html Volkswagen Jetta Worldwide Site]


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