Republic of BelarusРэспубліка Беларусь (Belarusian)
Республика Беларусь (Russian)
Flag National emblem Anthem: Дзяржаўны гімн Рэспублікі Беларусь (Belarusian)
Dziaržaŭny himn Respubliki Biełaruś (transliteration)
State Anthem of the Republic of Belarus
Location of Belarus (green)
in Europe (dark grey) — [Legend]
(and largest city)
Official language(s) Belarusian
Ethnic groups (2009) 83.7% Belarusians,
1.7% Ukrainians, 4.2% others and unspecified
Demonym Belarusian Government Presidential republic - President Alexander Lukashenko - Prime Minister Mikhail Myasnikovich Independence from the Soviet Union - Declared 27 July 1990 - Established 25 August 1991 - Completed 25 December 1991 Area - Total 207,595 km2 (85th)
80,155 sq mi
- Water (%) negligible (2.830 km2)1 Population - 2009 census 9,503,807 (86th) - Density 45.8/km2 (142nd)
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate - Total $131.201 billion - Per capita $13,909 GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate - Total $54.713 billion - Per capita $5,800 Gini (2005) 27.9 (low) HDI (2010) 0.732 (high) (61st) Currency Belarusian ruble (
Time zone Eastern European Time (UTC+3) Drives on the right ISO 3166 code BY Internet TLD .by Calling code 375 1 "FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture". FAO. http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries/belarus/index.stm. Retrieved 4 April 2008.
Belarus (i// bel-ə-rooss; Belarusian: Беларусь, [bʲɛlaˈrusʲ] Russian: Беларусь, Белоруссия, [Belarus', Belorussiya]), officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered clockwise by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital is Minsk; other major cities include Brest, Grodno (Hrodna), Gomel (Homiel), Mogilev (Mahilyow) and Vitebsk (Vitsebsk). Over forty percent of its 207,600 square kilometres (80,200 sq mi) is forested, and its strongest economic sectors are agriculture and manufacturing.
Until the 20th century, the lands of modern day Belarus belonged to several countries, including the Principality of Polotsk, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Russian Empire. As a result of the Russian Revolution, Belarus became a founding constituent republic of the Soviet Union and was renamed as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. The borders of Belarus took their modern shape in 1939 when lands that were part of the Second Polish Republic were incorporated into after the Soviet invasion of Poland. The nation and its territory were devastated in World War II, during which Belarus lost about a third of its population and more than half of its economic resources. The republic was redeveloped in the post-war years. In 1945 the Belorussian SSR became a founding member of the UN, along with the Soviet Union and the Ukrainian SSR.
The parliament of the republic declared the sovereignty of Belarus on 27 July 1990, and during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Belarus declared independence on 25 August 1991. Alexander Lukashenko has been the country's president since 1994. Under his lead and despite objections from Western governments, Soviet-era policies, such as state ownership of the economy have been continued. According to some organizations and countries, elections have been unfair, and political opponents have been violently suppressed. In 2000, Belarus and Russia signed a treaty for greater cooperation, with some hints of forming a Union State.
Most of Belarus's population of 9.49 million reside in the urban areas surrounding Minsk and other oblast (regional) capitals. More than 80% of the population are native Belarusians, with sizable minorities of Russians, Poles and Ukrainians. Since a referendum in 1995, the country has had two official languages: Belarusian and Russian. The Constitution of Belarus does not declare an official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Russian Orthodox Christianity. The second most popular, Roman Catholicism, has a much smaller following by comparison, but both Orthodox and Catholic Christmas and Easter are officially celebrated as national holidays. Belarus also has the highest Human Development Index among members of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The name "Belarus" corresponds literally with the term "White Ruthenia" (White Rus'). There are several claims to where the origin of the name "White Rus'" came from. An ethno-religious theory suggests that the name used to describe the part of old Ruthenian lands within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that was mostly populated by the early Christianized Slavs, as opposed to Black Ruthenia, which to a greater extent was inhabited by predominantly pagan Balts. Another possible origin for the name is for the white clothing that was worn by the local Slavic population. Yet another theory suggests that the old Ruthenian lands (Polatsk, Vitsiebsk and Mahilyow) which were not conquered by the Tatars were referred to as "white". Other sources claim that before 1267, the land not conquered by the Mongols was considered "White Rus'". In 2008, historian Ales Bely defended his PhD thesis in the Lithuanian Institute of History, Vilnius entitled Localization of the Choronym of White Rus in the European Written and Map Sources of the 13th to mid-18th Centuries which showed that the term White Rus was originally largely referred to the lands of the Novgorod Republic conquered by the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1478, and translated to the territory of what is now Eastern Belarus together with Westward expansion of Muscovy during the Livonian War in the 17th century.
As the names "Ruthenia" and "Rus'" have very often been confused with their modern derivative "Russia", White Ruthenia has often been referred to as "White Russia". This misinterpretation has been supported by the Moscovite regents after the fall of Kievan Rus'. The Moskovite dukes, starting with Ivan IV, considered themselves to be the rightful successors of the Ruthenian grand duke dynasty, and their use of the name "Russia" as referring to all former Ruthenian (east slavic) lands became a political weapon and a casus belli for claiming the west Ruthenian territories from Lithuania and Poland. The name first appeared in German and Latin medieval literature. In chronicles written by Jan of Czarnków, he spoke of the Lithuanian grand duke Jogaila and his mother being imprisoned in 1381 at "Albae Russiae, Poloczk dicto". The Latin term "Alba Russia" was again used by Pope Pius VI when establishing a Jesuit Society in 1783. His official Papal bull exclaimed "Approbo Societatem Jesu in Alba Russia degentem, approbo, approbo." Historically, the country was referred to in English as "White Ruthenia". The first known use of "White Russia" to refer to Belarus was in the late-16th century by Englishman Sir Jerome Horsey, who was known for his close contacts with the Russian Royal Court. During the 17th century, Russian tsars used "White Rus"" when describing the lands captured from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Belarus was formally named "Belorussia" (Russian: Белоруссия; the latter part similar, but spelled and stressed differently from Россия, "Russia") in the days of the Russian Empire, and the Russian tsar was usually styled "Tsar of All the Russias", as "Russia" or the "Russian Empire" was formed by all the Russias – the Great, Little, and White. At the time, "Byelorussia" was the only Russian language name of the country; under the Russian Empire, Belarus was generally seen as a part of the Russian nation and the Belarusian language was viewed as a dialect of Russian. After the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, the term White Russia caused some confusion because it was also the name of the military force that opposed the "red" Bolsheviks. During the period of the Belorussian SSR, the term "Byelorussia" was embraced as part of a national consciousness. In the Polish-held Western Belarus, "Byelorussia" became commonly used in the regions of Białystok and Grodno during the interwar period.
The term "Belorussia" (its names in other languages such as English being based on the Russian form) was only used officially until 1991, when the Supreme Soviet of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic decreed by law that the new independent republic should be called "Belarus" (Беларусь) in Russian and in all other language transcriptions of its name. The change was made to reflect adequately the Belarusian language form of the name. The use of Byelorussian SSR and any abbreviations of that name was allowed from 1991 until 1993. Conservative forces in the newly independent Belarus did not support the name change and opposed its inclusion in the 1991 draft of the Constitution of Belarus.
Accordingly, the name "Belorussia" was replaced by "Belarus" in English and to some extent in Russian (although the traditional name still persists in that language as well); likewise, the adjective "Belorussian" or "Byelorussian" was replaced by "Belarusian" in English (though Russian has not developed a new adjective). "Belarusian" is closer to the original Russian term of "bielaruski." Belarusian intelligentsia in the Stalin era attempted to change the name from "Belorussia" to a form of "Krivia" because of the supposed connection with Russia. Some nationalists also object to the name for the same reason. However, several popular newspapers published locally still retain the old name of the country in Russian in their names, for example Komsomolskaya Pravda v Byelorussii, which is the localized publication of a popular Russian tabloid. Also, those who wish for Belarus to be reunited with Russia continue to use "Belorussia". Officially, the full name of the country is "Republic of Belarus" (Рэспубліка Беларусь, Республика Беларусь, Respublika Belarus" listen (help·info)).
Prior to First World War
Both Homo erectus and Neanderthal remains have been found in the region. Later Neolithic modern man that moved into the area established from 5000–2000 BCE Bandkerimik cultures, which predominated. Remains for the Dnieper-Donets culture were also found in Belarus and parts of Ukraine. Cimmerians and other pastoralists roamed through the area by 1000 BCE. By 500 BCE, Slavs had taken up residence there, with Scythian pressure on the outskirts of their territories. Various Asiatic "barbarian" invasions passed around the region, including Huns and Avars c. 400–600 CE, but did not dislodge the Slavic presence.
The region that is now Belarus was first settled by Slavic tribes in the 6th century. They gradually came into contact with the Varangians, bands of Scandinavian warriors and traders. Though defeated and briefly exiled by the local population, the Varangians were later asked to return and helped to form a polity—commonly referred to as the Kievan Rus'—in exchange for tribute. The Kievan Rus' state began in about 862 around the city of Kiev or alternatively around the present-day city of Novgorod.
Upon the death of Kievan Rus' ruler, Yaroslav I the Wise, the state split into independent principalities. These Ruthenian principalities were badly affected by a Mongol invasion in the 13th century, and many were later incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Of the principalities held by the Duchy, nine were settled by ancestors of the Belarusian people. During this time the Duchy was involved in several military campaigns, including fighting on the side of Poland against the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410; the joint victory allowed the Duchy to control the northwestern border lands of Eastern Europe.
On 2 February 1386, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland were joined in a personal union through a marriage of their rulers. This union set in motion the developments that eventually resulted in the formation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, created in 1569. The Russians, led by Ivan III of Moscow, began military conquests in 1486 in an attempt to reunite the Kievan Rus' lands, specifically the territories of modern day Belarus and Ukraine.
The union between Poland and Lithuania ended in 1795 with the partitioning of Poland by Imperial Russia, Prussia, and Austria. During this time the territories of modern day Belarus were acquired by the Russian Empire under the reign of Catherine II and held until their occupation by German Empire during World War I.
Since initial independence
During the negotiations of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Belarus first declared independence on 25 March 1918, forming the Belarusian People's Republic. The Belarusian People's Republic was created while under German occupation, and it was one of the first attempts to "Westernize" Belarus. Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia was proclaimed. Immediately after formation, the Polish–Soviet War was started, and Belarus was torn between resurgent Poland and Soviet Russia. Part of Belarus under Russian rule became the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1919. Soon that part was merged into the Lithuanian–Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. The contested lands were split between Poland and the Soviet Union after the war ended in 1921, and the Belorussian SSR became a founding member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922. The western part of modern Belarus remained part of Poland.
A set of agricultural reforms, culminating in the Belarusian phase of Soviet collectivization, began in the 1920s. A process of rapid industrialization was undertaken during the 1930s, following the model of Soviet five-year plans.
In 1939, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union invaded and occupied Poland, marking the beginning of World War II. Much of northeastern Poland, which had been part of the country since the Peace of Riga two decades earlier, was annexed to the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, and now constitutes West Belarus. The Soviet-controlled Belarusian People Council officially took control of the territories, which had a predominantly ethnic Belarusian population, on 28 October 1939, in Białystok.
Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. The Brest Fortress, which had been annexed in 1939, received one of the fiercest of the war's opening blows, with its notable defense in 1941 coming to be remembered as an act of heroism in countering the German aggression. Statistically, BSSR was the hardest hit Soviet republic in the war and remained in Nazi hands until 1944. During that time, Germany destroyed 209 out of 290 cities in the republic, 85% of the republic's industry, and more than one million buildings. Casualties were estimated to be between two and three million (about a quarter to one-third of the total population), while the Jewish population of Belarus was devastated during the Holocaust and never recovered. The population of Belarus did not regain its pre-war level until 1971.
After the war ended, Belarus was officially among the 51 founding countries of the United Nations Charter in 1945; along with Ukraine it was given an additional vote at the UN alongside that of the Soviet Union. Intense post-war reconstruction was initiated promptly. During this time, the Belorussian SSR became a major center of manufacturing in the western region of the USSR, increasing jobs and bringing an influx of ethnic Russians into the republic. The borders of Belorussian SSR and Poland were redrawn to a point known as the Curzon Line.
Joseph Stalin implemented a policy of Sovietization to isolate the Belorussian SSR from Western influences. This policy involved sending Russians from various parts of the Soviet Union and placing them in key positions in the Belorussian SSR government. The official use of the Belarusian language and other cultural aspects were limited by Moscow. After Stalin died in 1953, successor Nikita Khrushchev continued this program, stating, "The sooner we all start speaking Russian, the faster we shall build communism."
In June 1988 at the rural site of Kurapaty near Minsk, archaeologist Zyanon Paznyak, the leader of Christian Conservative Party of the BPF, discovered mass graves of victims executed in 1937–1941. Some nationalists contend that this discovery is proof that the Soviet government was trying to erase the Belarusian people, causing Belarusian nationalists to seek independence.
Two years later, in March 1990, elections for seats in the Supreme Soviet of the Belorussian SSR took place. Though the pro-independence Belarusian Popular Front took only 10% of the seats, the populace was content with the selection of the delegates. Belarus declared itself sovereign on 27 July 1990 by issuing the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic. With the support of the Communist Party, the country's name was changed to the Republic of Belarus on 25 August 1991. Stanislav Shushkevich, the chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Belarus, met with Boris Yeltsin of Russia and Leonid Kravchuk of Ukraine on 8 December 1991 in Belavezhskaya Pushcha to formally declare the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
A national constitution was adopted in March 1994 in which the functions of prime minister were given to the president of Belarus. Two-round elections for the presidency (24 June 1994 and 10 July 1994) resulted in the politically unknown Alexander Lukashenko winning more than 45% of the vote in the first round and 80% in the second round, beating Vyacheslav Kebich who received 14% of the votes. Lukashenko was re-elected in 2001, in 2006 and in 2010.
Belarus lies between latitudes 51° and 57° N, and longitudes 23° and 33° E. It is landlocked, relatively flat, and contains large tracts of marshy land. According to a 2005 estimate by the United Nations, 40% of Belarus is covered by forests. Many streams and 11,000 lakes are found in Belarus. Three major rivers run through the country: the Neman, the Pripyat, and the Dnieper. The Neman flows westward towards the Baltic sea and the Pripyat flows eastward to the Dnieper; the Dnieper flows southward towards the Black Sea.
The highest point is Dzyarzhynskaya Hara (Dzyarzhynsk Hill) at 345 metres (1,132 ft), and the lowest point is on the Neman River at 90 metres (295 ft). The average elevation of Belarus is 525 feet (160 m) above sea level. The climate features cold winters, with average January temperatures at −6 °C (21.2 °F), and cool and moist summers with an average temperature of 18 °C (64.4 °F). Belarus has an average annual rainfall of 550 to 700 mm (21.7 to 27.6 in). The country is in the transitional zone between continental climates and maritime climates.
Natural resources include peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas, granite, dolomite (limestone), marl, chalk, sand, gravel, and clay. About 70% of the radiation from neighboring Ukraine's 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster entered Belarusian territory, and as of 2005 about a fifth of Belarusian land (principally farmland and forests in the southeastern provinces) continues to be affected by radiation fallout. The United Nations and other agencies have aimed to reduce the level of radiation in affected areas, especially through the use of caesium binders and rapeseed cultivation, which are meant to decrease soil levels of caesium-137.
Belarus is bordered by Latvia on the north, Lithuania to the northwest, Poland to the west, Russia to the north and east and Ukraine to the south. Treaties in 1995 and 1996 demarcated Belarus's borders with Latvia and Lithuania, but Belarus failed to ratify a 1997 treaty establishing the Belarus-Ukraine border. Belarus and Lithuania ratified final border demarcation documents in February 2007.
Belarus is a presidential republic, governed by a president and the National Assembly. The term for the president is five years, but because of a 1996 referendum, the election that was supposed to occur in 1999 was pushed back to 2001. Under the 1994 constitution, the president could only serve for two terms as president, but a change in the constitution eliminated term limits. The National Assembly is a bicameral parliament comprising the 110-member House of Representatives (the lower house) and the 64-member Council of the Republic (the upper house).
The House of Representatives has the power to appoint the prime minister, make constitutional amendments, call for a vote of confidence on the prime minister, and make suggestions on foreign and domestic policy. The Council of the Republic has the power to select various government officials, conduct an impeachment trial of the president, and accept or reject the bills passed by the House of Representatives. Each chamber has the ability to veto any law passed by local officials if it is contrary to the constitution.
Since 1994, Alexander Lukashenko has been the president of Belarus. The government includes a Council of Ministers, headed by the prime minister and five deputy prime ministers. The members of this council need not be members of the legislature and are appointed by the president. The judiciary comprises the Supreme Court and specialized courts such as the Constitutional Court, which deals with specific issues related to constitutional and business law. The judges of national courts are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Council of the Republic. For criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the Supreme Court. The Belarusian Constitution forbids the use of special extrajudicial courts.
As of 2007, 98 of the 110 members of the House of Representatives are not affiliated with any political party, and of the remaining 12 members, 8 belong to the Communist Party of Belarus, 3 to the Agrarian Party of Belarus, and 1 to the Liberal Democratic Party of Belarus. Most of the non-partisans represent a wide scope of social organizations such as workers' collectives, public associations and civil society organizations, similar to the composition of the Soviet legislature.
Neither the pro-Lukashenko parties, such as the Belarusian Socialist Sporting Party and the Republican Party of Labour and Justice, nor the People's Coalition 5 Plus opposition parties, such as the Belarusian People's Front and the United Civil Party of Belarus, won any seats in the 2004 elections. Groups such as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) declared the election "un-free" because of the opposition parties' poor results and media bias in favor of the government.
In the country's 2006 presidential election, Lukashenko was opposed by Alaksandar Milinkievič, a candidate representing a coalition of opposition parties, and by Alaksandar Kazulin of the Social Democrats. Kazulin was detained and beaten by police during protests surrounding the All Belarusian People's Assembly. Lukashenko won the election with 80% of the vote; the Russian Federation and the CIS called the vote open and fair while the OSCE and other organizations called the election unfair.
After the December completion of the 2010 presidential election, Lukashenko was elected to a fourth straight term with nearly 80 percent of the vote in elections. The runner-up, opposition leader Andrei Sannikov, received less than 3%, and the results were criticized as fraudulent by independent observers. When opposition protesters took to the streets in Minsk, scores were beaten and arrested by state militia, including most of the rival candidates allowed to run. Many of the candidates, including Sannikov, were sentenced to over four year prison terms or house arrest. Six months later, activists using social networking sites initiated a fresh round of protests, mostly by wordless, hand-clapping rallies in Minsk and cities around the country, amid an unprecedented economic crisis.
Lukashenko has described himself as having an "authoritarian ruling style." Western countries have described Belarus under Lukashenko as a dictatorship; the government has accused the same Western powers of trying to oust Lukashenko. The Council of Europe has barred Belarus from membership since 1997 for undemocratic voting and election irregularities in the November 1996 constitutional referendum and parliament by-elections. The Belarusian government is also criticized for human rights violations and its actions against non-governmental organizations, independent journalists, national minorities, and opposition politicians.
The constitution was changed by Lukashenko in 2004 to lift the two-term limit for the presidency. Previously in 1996, Lukashenko called for a controversial vote to extend the presidential term from five years to seven years, and the voters passed it. In testimony to the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, former United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice labeled Belarus among the six nations of the "outposts of tyranny". In response, the Belarusian government called the assessment "quite far from reality".
Belarus and Russia have been close trading partners and diplomatic allies since the breakup of the Soviet Union. Belarus is dependent on Russia for imports of raw materials and for its export market. The union of Russia and Belarus, a supranational confederation, was established in a 1996–99 series of treaties that called for monetary union, equal rights, single citizenship, and a common foreign and defense policy. However, the future of the union has been placed in doubt because of Belarus's repeated delays of monetary union, the lack of a referendum date for the draft constitution, and a dispute about petroleum trade.
On 11 December 2007, reports emerged that a framework for the new state was discussed between both countries. On 27 May 2008, Belarusian President Lukashenko said that he had named Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin the "prime minister" of the Russia-Belarus alliance. The meaning of the move was not immediately clear; however, there was speculation that Putin might become president of a unified state of Russia and Belarus after stepping down as Russian president in May 2008, although this has not happened.
Belarus was a founding member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS); however, recently other CIS members have questioned the effectiveness of the organization. Belarus has trade agreements with several European Union member states (despite other member states' travel ban on Lukashenko and top officials), including its neighbors Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. The travel bans from the European Union have been lifted in the past for not only letting Lukashenko attend diplomatic meetings but also as a way to engage both the government and opposition groups in dialogue.
Bilateral relations with the United States are strained because the U.S. Department of State supports various anti-Lukashenko non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and because the Belarusian government has made it harder for U.S.-based organizations to operate within the country. The 2004 U.S. Belarus Democracy Act continued this trend, authorizing funding for what the U.S. considers to be pro-democracy Belarusian NGOs and forbidding loans to the Belarusian government except for humanitarian purposes. Despite this, the two nations cooperate on intellectual property protection, prevention of human trafficking and technology crime, and disaster relief.
Belarus has increased cooperation with China, strengthened by the visit of President Lukashenko to China in October 2005. Belarus has strong ties with Syria, which President Lukashenko considers a key partner in the Middle East. In addition to the CIS, Belarus has membership in the Eurasian Economic Community and the Collective Security Treaty Organisation. Belarus has been a member of the international Non-Aligned Movement since 1998 and a member of the UN since its founding in 1945. Belarus is also a member of the Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). As an OSCE participating State, Belarus's international commitments are subject to monitoring under the mandate of the U.S. Helsinki Commission.
The Armed Forces of Belarus have three branches: the Army, the Air Force, and the Ministry of Defense joint staff. Colonel-General Leonid Maltsev heads the Ministry of Defense, and Alexander Lukashenko (as president) serves as Commander-in-Chief. The Armed Forces were formed in 1992 using parts of the former Soviet Armed Forces on the new republic's territory. The transformation of the ex-Soviet forces into the Armed Forces of Belarus, which was completed in 1997, reduced the number of its soldiers by 30,000 and restructured its leadership and military formations.
Most of Belarus's service members are conscripts, who serve for 12 months if they have higher education or 18 months if they do not. However, demographic decreases in the Belarusians of conscription age have increased the importance of contract soldiers, who numbered 12,000 as of 2001. In 2005, about 1.4% of Belarus's gross domestic product was devoted to military expenditures. Belarus has not expressed a desire to join NATO but has participated in the Individual Partnership Program since 1997, and Belarus provides refueling and airspace support for the ISAF mission in Afghanistan. Belarus first began to cooperate with NATO upon signing documents to participate in their Partnership for Peace Program in 1995. However, Belarus cannot join NATO because it is a member of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation. Difficulties between NATO and Belarus reached a peak in the period following the March 2006 Presidential election in Belarus.
Belarus is divided into six regions (Belarusian: вобласць, Russian: область), which are named after the cities that serve as their administrative centers. Each region has a provincial legislative authority, called a region council (Belarusian: абласны Савет Дэпутатаў, Russian: областной Совет Депутатов), which is elected by its residents, and a provincial executive authority called region administration (Belarusian: абласны выканаўчы камітэт, Russian: областной исполнительный комитет), whose chairman is appointed by the president. Regions are further subdivided into raions, commonly translated as districts or regions (Belarusian: раён, Russian: район).
Each raion has its own legislative authority or raion council (Belarusian: раённы Савет Дэпутатаў, Russian: районный Совет Депутатов) elected by its residents, and an executive authority or raion administration appointed by higher executive powers. As of 2002, there are six regions, 118 raions, 102 towns and 108 urbanized settlements. The city of Minsk is split into nine districts and is given a special status since the city serves as the national capital. Minsk City is run by an executive committee and granted a charter of self-rule by the national government.
Regions (with administrative centers):
- Brest Voblast (Brest)
- Homiel Voblast (Gomel)
- Hrodna Voblast (Grodno)
- Mahilou Voblast (Mogilev)
- Minsk Voblast (Minsk)
- Vitsebsk Voblast (Vitebsk)
Special administrative district:
Most of the Belarusian economy remains state-controlled and has been described as "Soviet-style." Thus, 51.2% of Belarusians are employed by state-controlled companies, 47.4% are employed by private Belarusian companies (of which 5.7% are partially foreign-owned), and 1.4% are employed by foreign companies. The country relies on imports such as oil from Russia. Important agricultural products include potatoes and cattle byproducts, including meat. As of 1994, the biggest exports from Belarus were heavy machinery (especially tractors), agricultural products, and energy products.
Historically important branches of industry include textiles and wood processing. As of the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, Belarus was one of the world's most industrially developed states by percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) as well as the richest CIS state. Economically, Belarus involved itself in the CIS, Eurasian Economic Community, and Union with Russia.
During the 1990s, however, industrial production plunged because of decreases in imported inputs, investment, and demand for exports from traditional trading partners. It took until 1996 for the gross domestic product to rise; this coincided with the government putting more emphasis on using the GDP for social welfare and state subsidies. The GDP for 2006 was US$83.1 billion in purchasing power parity (PPP) dollars (estimate), or about $8,100 per capita. In 2005, the gross domestic product increased by about 9.9%, with the inflation rate averaging about 9.5%.
As of 2006, Belarus's largest trading partner is Russia, accounting for nearly half of total trade, and the European Union is Belarus's next largest trading partner, with nearly a third of foreign trade. Because of its failure to protect labor rights, however, Belarus lost its EU Generalized System of Preferences status on 21 June 2007, which raised tariff rates to their prior most favoured nation levels. Belarus applied to become a member of the World Trade Organization in 1993.
The labor force consists of more than four million people, among whom women hold slightly more jobs than men. In 2005, nearly a quarter of the population was employed by industrial factories. Employment is also high in agriculture, manufacturing sales, trading goods, and education. The unemployment rate, according to Belarusian government statistics, was about 1.5% in 2005. The number of unemployed persons totaled 679,000, of whom about two-thirds are women. The rate of unemployment has been decreasing since 2003, and the overall rate of employment is the highest since statistics were first compiled in 1995.
The currency of Belarus is the Belarusian ruble (BYR). The currency was introduced in May 1992, replacing the Soviet ruble. The ruble was reintroduced with new values in 2000 and has been in use ever since. As part of the Union of Russia and Belarus, both states have discussed using a single currency along the same lines as the Euro. This led to a proposal that the Belarusian Ruble be discontinued in favor of the Russian ruble (RUB), starting as early as 1 January 2008. As of August 2007, the National Bank of Belarus no longer pegged the Belarusian Ruble to the Russian Ruble. The banking system of Belarus is composed of 30 state-owned banks and one privatized bank. On 23 May 2011, the Belarusian Ruble was devalued by 56% against the U.S. dollar. On the black market, the devaluation has dropped even lower. Panic spread across the country as citizens rushed to exchange their rubles for dollars, euros, durable goods and canned goods. On 1 June 2011, Belarus requested an economic rescue package from the International Monetary Fund.
According to 2009 census, the population is 9,503,807. Ethnic Belarusians constitute 83.7% of Belarus' total population. The next largest ethnic groups are: Russians (8.3%), Poles (3.1%), and Ukrainians (1.7%). Belarus' two official languages are Russian and Belarusian; Russian is the main language, used by 72% of the population, while Belarusian, the second official language, is only used by 11.9%. Minorities also speak Polish, Ukrainian and Eastern Yiddish.
Belarus has a population density of about 50 people per square kilometer (127 per sq mi); 70% of its total population is concentrated in urban areas. Minsk, the nation's capital and largest city, is home to 1,836,808 residents. Gomel, with 481,000 people, is the second largest city and serves as the capital of the Homel Voblast. Other large cities are Mogilev (365,100), Vitebsk (342,400), Hrodna (314,800) and Brest (298,300).
Like many other European countries, Belarus has a negative population growth rate and a negative natural growth rate. In 2007, Belarus's population declined by 0.41% and its fertility rate was 1.22, well below the replacement rate. Its net migration rate is +0.38 per 1,000, indicating that Belarus experiences slightly more immigration than emigration. As of 2007, 69.7% of Belarus's population is aged 14 to 64; 16% is under 14, and 14.6% is 65 or older. Its population is also aging: while the current median age is 37, it is estimated that Belarusians' median age group will be between 55 and 65 in 2050. There are about 0.88 males per female in Belarus. The average life expectancy is 68.7 years (63.0 years for males and 74.9 years for females). Over 99% of Belarusians are literate.
Orthodoxy makes up about 80% of the population. Catholicism is spread mostly in the western regions, and there are also different denominations of Protestantism (especially during the time of union with Protestant Sweden). Other minorities practice Judaism and other religions. Many Belarusians converted to the Russian Orthodox Church after Belarus was annexed by Russia after the partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. As a consequence, the Russian Orthodox church now has more members than other denominations.
Belarus's Roman Catholic minority, which makes up about 10% of the country's population and is concentrated in the western part of the country, especially around Hrodna, is made up of a mixture of Belarusians and the country's Polish and Lithuanian minorities. In a statement to the media regarding Belarusian-Vatican ties, President Lukashenko stated that Orthodox and Catholic believers are the "two main confessors in our country." About 1% belong to the Belarusian Greek Catholic Church.
Belarus was a major center of the European Jewish population, with 10% being Jewish, but the population of Jews has been reduced by war, starvation, deportation, and emigration so that today it is a very small minority of about 1% or less. The Lipka Tatars numbering over 15,000 are Muslims. According to Article 16 of the Constitution, Belarus has no official religion. While the freedom of worship is granted in the same article, religious organizations that are deemed harmful to the government or social order of the country can be prohibited.
Belarusian literature began with 11th to 13th century religious writing; the 12th century poetry of Cyril of Turaw is representative. By the 16th century, Polotsk resident Francysk Skaryna translated the Bible into Belarusian. It was published in Prague and Vilnius between 1517 and 1525, making it the first book printed in Belarus or anywhere in Eastern Europe. The modern period of Belarusian literature began in the late 19th century; one important writer was Yanka Kupala. Many Belarusian writers of the time, such as Uładzimir Žyłka, Kazimir Svayak, Yakub Kolas, Źmitrok Biadula and Maksim Haretski, wrote for a Belarusian language paper called Nasha Niva, published in Vilnius.
After Belarus was incorporated into the Soviet Union, the Soviet government took control of the Republic's cultural affairs. The free development of literature occurred only in Polish-held territory until Soviet occupation in 1939. Several poets and authors went into exile after the Nazi occupation of Belarus, not to return until the 1960s. The last major revival of Belarusian literature occurred in the 1960s with novels published by Vasil Bykaŭ and Uladzimir Karatkievich.
In the 19th century, Polish composer Stanisław Moniuszko composed operas and chamber music pieces while living in Minsk. During his stay, he worked with Belarusian poet Vintsent Dunin-Martsinkyevich and created the opera Sielanka (Peasant Woman). At the end of the 19th century, major Belarusian cities formed their own opera and ballet companies. The ballet Nightingale by M. Kroshner was composed during the Soviet era and became the first Belarusian ballet showcased at the National Academic Bolshoi Ballet Theatre in Minsk.
After the Second World War, music focused on the hardships of the Belarusian people or on those who took up arms in defense of the homeland. During this period, A. Bogatyryov, creator of the opera In Polesye Virgin Forest, served as the "tutor" of Belarusian composers. The National Academic Theatre of Ballet, in Minsk, was awarded the Benois de la Dance Prize in 1996 as the top ballet company in the world. Rock music has risen in popularity in recent years, though the Belarusian government has attempted to limit the amount of foreign music aired on the radio in favour of traditional Belarusian music. Since 2004, Belarus has been sending artists to the Eurovision Song Contest.
The Belarusian government sponsors annual cultural festivals such as the Slavianski Bazaar in Vitebsk, which showcases Belarusian performers, artists, writers, musicians, and actors. Several state holidays, such as Independence Day and Victory Day, draw big crowds and often include displays such as fireworks and military parades, especially in Vitebsk and Minsk. The government's Ministry of Culture finances events promoting Belarusian arts and culture both inside and outside the country.
The traditional Belarusian dress originates from the Kievan Rus' period. Because of the cool climate, clothes, usually composed of flax or wool, were designed to keep the body warm. They are decorated with ornate patterns influenced by the neighboring cultures: Poles, Lithuanians, Latvians, Russians, and other European nations. Each region of Belarus has developed specific design patterns. An ornamental pattern used on some early dresses is currently used to decorate the hoist of the Belarusian national flag, adopted in a disputed referendum in 1995.
Belarusian cuisine consists mainly of vegetables, meat (especially pork), and breads. Foods are usually either slowly cooked or stewed. A typical Belarusian eats a light breakfast and two hearty meals, with dinner being the largest meal of the day. Wheat and rye breads are consumed in Belarus, but rye is more plentiful because conditions are too harsh for growing wheat. To show hospitality, a host traditionally presents an offering of bread and salt when greeting a guest or visitor. Popular drinks in Belarus include Russian wheat vodka and kvass, a drink made from fermented malted brown bread or rye flour. Kvass may also be combined with sliced vegetables to create a cold soup called okroshka.
In 2008, there were 3.718 million phone landlines used in comparison to 8.639 million cellular phones in Belarus. Most of the phone lines are operated by Beltelcom, a state owned company. About two-thirds of all of the phone services are run on digital systems, and the mobile-cellular teledensity is about 90 phones per 100 persons. There are approximately 113,000 internet hosts in Belarus in 2009 to meet the needs of approximately 3.107 million Internet users.
The largest media holding group in Belarus is the state-owned National State Teleradiocompany. It operates several television and radio stations that broadcast content domestically and internationally, either through traditional signals or the Internet. The Television Broadcasting Network is one of the major independent television stations in Belarus, mostly showing regional programming also a bootlegged version of The Big Bang Theory called The Theorists. Several newspapers, printed either in Belarusian or Russian, provide general information or special interest content, such as business, politics or sports. In 1998, there were fewer than 100 radio stations in Belarus: 28 AM, 37 FM and 11 shortwave stations.
All media companies are regulated by the Law On Press and Other Mass Media, passed on 13 January 1995. This grants the freedom of press; however, Article 5 states that slander cannot be made against the president of Belarus or other officials outlined in the national constitution. The Belarusian Government has since been criticized for acting against media outlets. Newspapers such as Nasha Niva and the Belaruskaya Delovaya Gazeta have been targeted for closure by the authorities after they published reports critical of President Lukashenko or other government officials. The OSCE and Freedom House have commented regarding the loss of press freedom in Belarus. In 2009, Freedom House gave Belarus a score of 6.75 (not free) when it came to dealing with press freedom. Another issue for the Belarusian press is the unresolved disappearance of several journalists.
- Outline of Belarus
- Index of Belarus-related articles
- ^ Constitution of the Republic of Belarus Section 1, Article 17
- ^ a b c d e f 2009 census
- ^ a b c d "Belarus". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=64&pr.y=5&sy=2008&ey=2011&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=913&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- ^ "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2172.html. Retrieved 1 September 2009.
- ^ "Human Development Report 2010". United Nations. 2010. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2010_EN_Table1.pdf. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
- ^ kiev time
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- ^ "Belarus: Window of Opportunity (see Table 15, page 66)" (PDF). United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/nationalreports/europethecis/belarus/belarus_2005_en.pdf.
- ^ a b Abdelal, Rawi (2001). National purpose in the world economy: post-Soviet states in comparative perspective. Cornell University Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=o85YDMTeMrUC&dq=reunification+of+western+belarus&hl=ru&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- ^ a b Taylor & Francis Group (2004). Europa World Year, Book1. Europa publications. http://books.google.com/books?id=wGA4o-UhAfgC&pg=PA713&dq=reunification+of+western+belarus&hl=ru#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- ^ a b Клоков В. Я. Великий освободительный поход Красной Армии. (Освобождение Западной Украины и Западной Белоруссии).-Воронеж, 1940.
- ^ a b Минаев В. Западная Белоруссия и Западная Украина под гнетом панской Польши.—М., 1939.
- ^ a b Трайнин И.Национальное и социальное освобождение Западной Украины и Западной Белоруссии.—М., 1939.—80 с.
- ^ a b c Гiсторыя Беларусi. Том пяты.—Мiнск, 2006.—с. 449–474
- ^ a b c Axell, Albert (2002). Russia's Heroes, 1941–45. Carroll & Graf Publishers. p. 247. ISBN 0-7867-1011-X.
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- ^ "About Belarus – Population". United Nations Office in Belarus. 2003. http://un.by/en/aboutbelarus/population/. Retrieved 7 October 2007.
- ^ a b c Zaprudnik 1993, p. 2
- ^ Аб паходжанні назваў Белая і Чорная Русь (Eng. "About the Origins of the Names of White and Black Ruthenia"), Язэп Юхо (Joseph Juho), 1956.
- ^ Minahan 1998, p. 35
- ^ О защите диссертации Алесем Белым на тему "Локализация хоронима Белая Русь по европейским письменным и картографическим источникам XІІI—середины XVIIІ вв."
- ^ Snyder, Timothy (2004). The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999. Yale University Press. p.24. ISBN 978-0-300-10586-5.
- ^ Vauchez 2001, p. 163
- ^ de Courson 1879, p. 281
- ^ Bely, Alies" (2000). The chronicle of the White Russia: an essay on the history of one geographical name. Minsk, Belarus: Encyclopedix. ISBN 985-6599-12-1.
- ^ Plokhy 2001, p. 327
- ^ Szporluk 2000, p. 113
- ^ Richmond 1995, p. 260
- ^ Ioffe, Grigory (25 February 2008). Understanding Belarus and How Western Foreign Policy Misses the Mark. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 41. ISBN 0-7425-5558-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=00B6wxgftH8C&pg=PA150&dq=west+belarus&hl=en&ei=h4faS6XHC8P48AbDxbSrAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CD0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=west%20belarus&f=false.
- ^ a b "Law of the Republic of Belarus – About the name of the Republic of Belarus" (in Russian). Pravo – Law of the Republic of Belarus. 19 September 1991. http://pravo.kulichki.com/zak/year1991/doc47159.htm. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
- ^ Ryder 1998, p. 183
- ^ a b Zaprudnik 1993, pp. 4–5
- ^ Treadgold 1999, p. 230
- ^ "Swedish government urged to change Belarus" official name". European Radio for Belarus. 13 July 2009. http://www.belradio.fm/en/909/news/35335/. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- ^ a b Levy 2009, p. 95
- ^ "Belarus – Government". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 13 December 2007. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bo.html. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
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- ^ Historical Atlas, Ancient and Classical World, by John Haywood, 1998
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- ^ a b Treuttel; Various (1841). The Foreign Quarterly Review. New York, New York: Jemia Mason. p. 38.
- ^ Plokhy, Serhii (2006). The Origins of the Slavic Nations. Cambridge University Press. pp. 94–95. ISBN 0-521-86403-8.
- ^ Robinson, Charles Henry (1917). The Conversion of Europe. Longmans, Green. pp. 491–492.
- ^ Zaprudnik 1993, p. 27
- ^ Lerski, George Jan; Aleksander Gieysztor (1996). Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966–1945. Greenwood Press. pp. 181–182. ISBN 0-313-26007-9.
- ^ Edited by Michael Jones; Albert Rigaudière, Jeremy Catto, S. C. Rowell and others (2005). The New Cambridge Medieval History (Vol.6). Cambridge University Press. p. 710. ISBN 0-521-36290-3.
- ^ Nowak, Andrzej (1 January 1997). "The Russo-Polish Historical Confrontation". Sarmatian Review XVII. Rice University. http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~sarmatia/197/Nowak.html. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
- ^ Scheuch, E. K.; David Sciulli (2000). Societies, Corporations and the Nation State. BRILL. p. 187. ISBN 90-04-11664-8.
- ^ Birgerson, Susanne Michele (2002). After the Breakup of a Multi-Ethnic Empire. Praeger/Greenwood. p. 101. ISBN 0-275-96965-7.
- ^ Olson, James Stuart; Lee Brigance Pappas, Nicholas C. J. Pappas (1994). Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires. Greenwood Press. p. 95. ISBN 0-313-27497-5.
- ^ a b (Birgerson 2002:105–106)
- ^ Ioffe, Grigory (25 February 2008). Understanding Belarus and How Western Foreign Policy Misses the Mark. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 57. ISBN 0-7425-5558-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=00B6wxgftH8C&pg=PA150&dq=west+belarus&hl=en&ei=h4faS6XHC8P48AbDxbSrAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CD0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=west%20belarus&f=false.
- ^ Marples, David (1999). Belarus: A Denationalized Nation. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 90-5702-343-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=EMCYfOSaLSgC&pg=PA8&dq=Belarusian+People%27s+Republic&lr=&cd=3#v=onepage&q=Belarusian%20People%27s%20Republic&f=false.
- ^ Sorge, Arndt (2005). The global and the local: understanding the dialectics of business systems. Oxford University Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=FCBVPqAWuUsC&pg=PA19&dq=occupation+of+Western+Belarus&lr=&hl=ru#v=onepage&q=occupation%20of%20Western%20Belarus&f=false. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- ^ a b Minahan, James (1998). Miniature empires: a historical dictionary of the newly independent states. Greenwood Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=RSxt-JB-PDkC&pg=PA37&dq=occupation+of+Western+Belarus&lr=&hl=ru#v=onepage&q=occupation%20of%20Western%20Belarus&f=false. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- ^ a b c d Fedor, Helen (1995). "Belarus – Stalin and Russification". Belarus: A Country Study. Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/belarus/11.htm. Retrieved 26 March 2006.
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- ^ (Olson 1994:95)
- ^ a b Fedor, Helen (1995). "Belarus- Perestroika". Belarus: A Country Study. Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/belarus/12.htm. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
- ^ (Birgerson 2002:99)
- ^ a b c d Fedor, Helen (1995). "Belarus – Prelude to Independence". Belarus: A Country Study. Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/belarus/39.htm. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
- ^ "World Factbook: Belarus" (TXT). Central Intelligence Agency. 20 October 1994. http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact94/wf950026.txt. Retrieved 21 December 2007.
- ^ a b c d e "Belarus – Geography". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2007. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bo.html. Retrieved 7 November 2007.
- ^ "Belarus: Window of Opportunity (see Table 15, page 66)" (PDF). United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/nationalreports/europethecis/belarus/belarus_2005_en.pdf. Retrieved 22 September 2008.
- ^ Bell, Imogen (2002). Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia 2003. Taylor & Francis. p. 132. ISBN 1-85743-137-5.
- ^ (Zaprudnik, xix)
- ^ a b Fedor, Helen (1995). "Belarus – Climate". Belarus: A Country Study. Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/belarus/15.htm. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
- ^ Rainsford, Sarah (26 April 2005). "Belarus cursed by Chernobyl". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4485003.stm. Retrieved 26 March 2006.
- ^ "The United Nations and Chernobyl – The Republic of Belarus". United Nations. 2004. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080506084709/http://chernobyl.undp.org/english/belarus.html. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
- ^ Smith, Marilyn. "Ecological reservation in Belarus fosters new approaches to soil remediation". International Atomic Energy Agency. http://tc.iaea.org/tcweb/news_archive/Chernobyl/ecoreserve/default.asp. Retrieved 19 December 2007.
- ^ "State Border – Delimitation History". State Border Committee of the Republic of Belarus. 2006. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080603064946/http://www.gkpv.gov.by/en/state_border_en/delim_history. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
- ^ "Lithuania's Cooperation with Belarus". Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.urm.lt/index.php?-1507529950. Retrieved 19 December 2007.
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- ^ "Deputy Prime Ministers of the Republic of Belarus". Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus. 2010. http://www.government.by/en/eng_sostav1.html. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- ^ "SOVIET LOCAL GOVERNMENT". RUSSIA TODAY SOCIETY.
- ^ "OSCE Report on the October 2004 parliamentary elections" (PDF). Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. December 2004. http://www.osce.org/item/3961.html. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
- ^ "Belarus in the aftermath of the Presidential election of 19 March 2006" (PDF). Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. 11 April 2006. http://assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?link=/Documents/WorkingDocs/Doc06/EDOC10890.pdf. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
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- ^ Belarus opposition leader Andrei Sannikov jailed, BBC News Online (May 14, 2011)
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- ^ "China's Xi promises Belarus $1 billion in loans". Guardian.co.uk. 24 March 2010.
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- ^ Routledge, IISS Military Balance 2007, pp.158–159
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- ^ "Nato and Belarus – partnership, past tensions and future possibilities". Laurie Walker, NATO–Belarus Desk Officer, Political Affairs and Security Policy Division, NATO Headquarters. 21 November 2010. http://forsecurity.org/nato-and-belarus-partnership-past-tensions-and-future-possibilities. Retrieved 25 November 2010.
- ^ a b "Section I: Principles of the Constitutional System". Constitution of Belarus. Press Service of the President of the Republic of Belarus. 2004. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071217035739/http://www.president.gov.by/en/press19329.html. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
- ^ "Section V: Local government and self-government". Constitution of Belarus. Press Service of the President of the Republic of Belarus. 2004. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071217035739/http://www.president.gov.by/en/press19329.html. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
- ^ Carvalho, Fernando Duarte; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (2004). Defence Related SME's: Analysis and Description of Current Conditions. IOS Press. p. 32. ISBN 1-58603-408-1.
- ^ "About Minsk". Minsk City Executive Committee. 16 December 2009. http://www.minsk.gov.by/en/tempage/minsk/. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- ^ "About Minsk". Minsk City Executive Committee. http://www.minsk.gov.by/cgi-bin/gor_ind.pl?&lang=eng. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
- ^ "Belarus shuns Moscow amid loan row". Al Jazeera English. 29 May 2009. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/europe/2009/05/2009529121949669957.html. Retrieved 30 May 2009. "Belarus' Soviet-style economy has been propped up in part by cheap Russian gas and oil and Lukashenko has called for his country to reunite with Russia."
- ^ Ministry of Statistics and Analysis of the Republic of Belarus (2006). "Labour". http://belstat.gov.by/homep/en/indicators/labor.php. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
- ^ Dr. Kaare Dahl Martinsen (2002). "The Russian-Belarusian Union and the Near Abroad" (PDF). Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies. NATO. http://www.nato.int/acad/fellow/99-01/martinsen.pdf. Retrieved 7 November 2007.
- ^ "Russia may cut oil supplies to ally Belarus – Putin". Reuters. 25 October 2006. http://asia.news.yahoo.com/061025/3/2ruj9.html. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
- ^ a b c "The World Factbook – Belarus – Economy". Central Intelligence Agency. 2006. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bo.html. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
- ^ Library of Congress (1994). "Belarus – Exports". Country Studies. http://countrystudies.us/belarus/36.htm. Retrieved 4 November 2007.
- ^ "Economic and Investment Review" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus. 2007. http://www.mfa.gov.by/docs/eio/2007eng.pdf. Retrieved 22 December 2007.
- ^ World Bank. "Belarus: Prices, Markets, and Enterprise Reform," pp. 1. World Bank, 1997. ISBN 0-8213-3976-1
- ^ "Belarus – Industry". Country Studies. Library of Congress. 1995. http://countrystudies.us/belarus/30.htm. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
- ^ a b World Bank (2006). "Belarus – Country Brief 2003". http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/eca/eca.nsf/2656afe00bc5f02185256d5d005dae97/8ec2dc1ef03aed3e85256d5d0067dc90?OpenDocument. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
- ^ Council of Ministers Foreign trade in goods and services in Belarus up by 11.5% in January–October. Published 2006. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
- ^ a b European Union The EU's Relationship With Belarus – Trade (PDF). Published November 2006. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
- ^ World Trade Organization Accessions – Belarus. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
- ^ a b c d e Ministry of Statistics and Analysis Labor Statistics in Belarus. Published 2005. Retrieved 18 March 2007.
- ^ National Bank of the Republic of Belarus History of the Belarusian Ruble. Retrieved 18 March 2007.
- ^ Pravda.ru Belarus abandons pegging its currency to Russian ruble. Published 23 August 2007. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
- ^ "Heritage Foundation's Index of Economic Freedom – Belarus". http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/country.cfm?id=Belarus. Retrieved 18 March 2007.
- ^ YURAS KARMANAU, Associated Press (23 May 2011). "Belarus devaluation spreads panic". seattlepi.com. http://www.seattlepi.com/news/article/Belarus-devaluation-spreads-panic-1395054.php. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- ^ With economy in tatters, Belarus appeals to IMF for rescue loan of up to $8 billion, Washington Post, 1 June 2011. Accessed 2 June 2011
- ^ Belarus Appeals To IMF For $8bln Rescue Loan. National Public Radio, 2 June 2011. Accessed 2 June 2011
- ^ "Languages across Europe." BBC Education at bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
- ^ "Tres de cada cuatro bielorrusos emplean en su vida cotidiana el ruso (Three of every four Belarusians use Russian in their daily lives)" (in Spanish). http://www.informador.com.mx/cultura/2009/139096/6/tres-de-cada-cuatro-bielorrusos-emplean-en-su-vida-cotidiana-el-ruso.htm. Retrieved 25 October 2009. "According to results announced today from an investigation by The Center for Information and Analysis of the Presidency of Belarus ... [f]or 72% of the population, Russian in the primary language used in everyday life ... According to the study, only 11.9% of inhabitants primarily speaks Belarusian, while the rest uses a mix of Russian and Belarusian. 29.4%... speaks, reads, and writes in Belorusian, while 52.5% only speaks and reads it ... [O]ne in ten does not understand Belorusian [at all]. (quote translated)"
- ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: Ethnologue.com.
- ^ World Gazette Largest Cities of Belarus (2007). Published in 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2007.
- ^ a b c d "CIA World Factbook (2007) – Belarus – People". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bo.html. Retrieved 7 November 2007.
- ^ "Population Pyramids—Belarus (2050)" (JPEG). U.S. Census Bureau. 2006. http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/populationPyramid.php?BO/2050. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- ^ The literacy rate is defined as the percentage of people aged 15 and older who can read and write.
- ^ Nationmaster.com
- ^ a b Library of Congress Country Studies Belarus – Religion. Retrieved 9 July 2007.
- ^ http://news.belta.by/en/news/president?id=363517
- ^ Minsk Jewish Campus Jewish Belarus. Retrieved 9 July 2007.
- ^ Webportal of the President of the Republic of Belarus Section One of the Constitution. Published 1994, amended in 1996. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
- ^ "Old Belarusian Poetry". Virtual Guide to Belarus. 1994. http://www.belarusguide.com/culture1/literature/Old_Poetry.html. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
- ^ a b c "Belarus." Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica.com
- ^ Zou, Crystal (11 December 2003). "Ballets for Christmas". Shanghai Star. http://app1.chinadaily.com.cn/star/2003/1211/wh28-1.html. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
- ^ a b Virtual Guide to Belarus – Classical Music of Belarus. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
- ^ National State Teleradiocompany Page on the 2004 Belarusian entry to the Eurovision Song Contest. Published 2004. Retrieved 18 March 2007.
- ^ "Belarusian National Culture". Embassy of the Republic of Belarus in the United States of America. Archived from the original on 10 February 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060210203549/http://www.belarusembassy.org/belarus/culture.htm. Retrieved 26 March 2006.
- ^ Virtual Guide to Belarus Belarusian traditional clothing. Retrieved on 21 March 2007.
- ^ Flags of the World Belarus – Ornament. Published 26 November 2006. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
- ^ Canadian Citizenship and Immigration – Cultures Profile Project – Eating the Belarusian Way. Published in 1998. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
- ^ University of Nebraska-Lincoln – Institute of Agriculture and National Resources. Situation and Outlook – People and Their Diets. Published in April 2000. Retrieved 21 March 2007.
- ^ "Belarus – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/by. Retrieved 26 March 2006.
- ^ a b "Belarus". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 21 April 2010. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bo.html. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- ^ National State Teleradiocompany About us. Retrieved 5 October 2007.
- ^ EW.com
- ^ a b Law of the Republic of Belarus Law On Press and Other Mass Media. Retrieved 5 October 2007.
- ^ Eurozine Independent Belarusian newspaper "Nasha Niva" to close. Published 19 April 2006.
- ^ "Media Freedom in Belarus". 2003 Policy Archive. United States Department of State. 30 May 2003. http://belarusian.minsk.usembassy.gov/policy20030530.html. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- ^ "Nations in Transit 2009 – Belarus" (PDF). Freedom House. 2009. http://www.freedomhouse.org/uploads/nit/2009/Belarus-final.pdf. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- de Courson, Barbara Frances Mary (1879). The Jesuits: their foundation and history, Volume 1. Benziger Brothers. http://books.google.com/books?id=s0MQAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA281&dq=Alba+Russia&hl=en&ei=UCrPS769LJXCNqDtkQk&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CFEQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=Alba%20Russia&f=false.
- Levy, Patricia; Michael Spilling (2009–03). Belarus. New York: Benchmark Books. ISBN 0-7614-3411-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=KTwkKhg1BbsC&pg=PA95&dq=Belarusian+name&lr=&client=firefox-a&cd=2#v=onepage&q=Belarusian%20name&f=false.
- Minahan, James (31 October 1998). Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States. Greenwood. ISBN 0-313-30610-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=RSxt-JB-PDkC&pg=PA35&dq=White+Rus&hl=en&ei=lCfPS72aLMK78gaN0bFc&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CFAQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=White%20Rus&f=false.
- Plokhy, Serhii (2001). The Cossacks and Religion in Early Modern Ukraine. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-924739-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=NCzzxNisc1MC&pg=PA327&dq=white+rus+commonwealth&hl=en&ei=LOrPS8v4E5Gu9gTY_fWeCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CFAQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=white%20rus%20commonwealth&f=false.
- Richmond, Yale (1995). From Da to Yes: Understanding the East Europeans. Intercultural Press. ISBN 1-877864-30-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=2Y8GNIp42ysC&pg=PA260&dq=Byelorussia+name&hl=en&ei=NTPPS4viKMGC8gb_i7Ft&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEwQ6AEwBTgK#v=onepage&q=Byelorussia%20name&f=false.
- Ryder, Andrew (1998). Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, Volume 4. Routledge. ISBN 1-85743-058-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=qmN95fFocsMC&pg=PA183&dq=Belarus+name+law+1991&hl=en&ei=0rjPS-HfHcT6lwf86pSgCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Belarus%20name%20law%201991&f=false.
- Szporluk, Roman (2000). Russia, Ukraine, and the Breakup of the Soviet Union. Hoover Institution Press. ISBN 0-8179-9542-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=oLWeUoWEAGgC&pg=PA113&dq=Belorussia&lr=&cd=34#v=onepage&q=Belorussia&f=false.
- Treadgold, Donald; Herbert J. Ellison (25 November 1999). Twentieth Century Russia. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3672-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=Xs8sYy1vIS0C&pg=PA230&dq=belorussia+nationalists+name&lr=&as_brr=3&client=firefox-a&cd=13#v=onepage&q=&f=false.
- Vauchez, André; Richard Barrie Dobson, Michael Lapidge (1 April 2001). Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. Routledge. ISBN 1-57958-282-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=qtgotOF0MKQC&pg=PA163&dq=White+Ruthenia&hl=en&ei=4SjPS97dGIecMrDzgR8&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CGQQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=White%20Ruthenia&f=false.
- Zaprudnik, Jan (16 August 1993). Belarus: At A Crossroads In History. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-1794-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=qtnTh3-2Ki8C&pg=PA1&dq=Belarusia+name&lr=&as_brr=3&client=firefox-a&cd=3#v=onepage&q=&f=false.
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