Srinagar


Srinagar

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
native_name = Srinagar
other_name = श्रीनगर/سِرېنَگَر
nickname = Paradise on Earth
type = capital
skyline = Srinagar.jpg
skyline_caption = View of Srinagar and Dal Lake
latd = 34.09
longd = 74.79
state_name = Jammu and Kashmir
region = Kashmir
district = Srinagar
area_total = 105
area_magnitude = 9
altitude = 1730
climate = ETh
precip = 658
temp_summer = 22
temp_winter = 4
distance_1 = 876
direction_1 = NW
destination_1 = Delhi
distance_2 = 2275
direction_2 = NE
mode_2 = land
destination_2 = Mumbai
established_title = Settled
established_date = 3rd century BCE
population_as_of = 2001
population_total = 894940
population_total_cite = cite web
URL = http://www.censusindia.gov.in/
title = Population in the age group 0-6 and literates by sex—urban agglomeration/town
work = Census of India 2001
publisher = Government of India
date = 27 May 2002
accessdate = 2007-04-14
]
population_density = 8523
population_metro = 971357
population_metro_cite =
population_males = 481750
population_females = 413190
sex_ratio = 1.17
literacy = 59.18%
official_languages = Kashmiri, Urdu
leader_title_1 = Mayor
leader_name_1 = Ghulam Mustafa Bhat [cite news
url=http://www.tribuneindia.com/2006/20060331/j&k.htm#4
title=Bhat re-elected Mayor
work=The Tribune
publisher=The Tribune Trust
date=30 March 2006
accessdate=2007-04-14
]
area_telephone = 0194
postal_code = 190 001
unlocode = INSXR
vehicle_code_range = JK
website = www.srinagar.nic.in

Srinagar audio|Srinagar.ogg|pronunciation (Dogri: श्रीनगर; Urdu: سرینگر, Kashmiri: سِرېنَگَر श्रीनगर), is the capital of the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir that is administered by India. It is situated in Kashmir Valley and lies on the banks of the Jhelum River, a tributary of the Indus. The city is famous for its lakes and houseboats. It is also known for traditional Kashmiri handicrafts and dry fruits. It is also the headquarters of Srinagar district

Origin of name

Etymologically Srinagar is composed of two Sanskrit words, namely, "Sri" (meaning abundance and wealth) and "Nagar", which means a city. Thus, the word Srinagar signifies a place of wealth and abundance. Sri is also the name of a goddess Lakshmi of Hindus.

A legend, as incorporated in Nila’s Nilmatapurana, states that the Kashmir valley was a vast lake. A Hindu sage named Kashyapa drained out the water, and there emerged the beautiful valley of Kashmir.

History

The city was founded by the King Pravarasena II over 2,000 years ago, and the city of Srinagar has a long history, dating back at least to the 3rd century BC. The city was then a part of the Maurya Empire, one of the largest empires of the Indian subcontinent. Ashoka introduced Buddhism to the Kashmir valley, and the adjoining regions around the city became a centre of Buddhism. In the 1st century, the region was under the control of Kushans and several rulers of this dynasty strengthened the Buddhist tradition. Vikramaditya (of Ujjain) and his successors probably ruled the regions just before the city fell to the control of the Huns in the 6th century, and Mihirkula was the most dreaded ruler of the city and the valley.

The Hindu and the Buddhist rule of Srinagar lasted until the 14th century, when the Kashmir valley, including the city, came under the control of the several Muslim rulers, including the Mughals. It was also the capital during the reign of Yusuf Shah Chak, a ruler who was tricked by Akbar when he failed to conquer Kashmir by force. Yusuf Shah Chak remains buried in Bihar in India. Akbar established Mughal rule in Srinagar and Kashmir valley.

When the disintegration of the Mughal Empire set forth after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, infiltrations to the valley from the Pashtun tribes increased, and the Durrani Empire ruled the city for several decades. Raja Ranjit Singh in the year 1814 annexed a major part of the Kashmir Valley, including Srinagar, to his kingdom, and the city came under the influence of the Sikhs. In 1846, the Treaty of Lahore was signed between the Sikh rulers and the British in Lahore. The treaty, inter alia, provided British de-facto suzerainty over the Kashmir Valley, and installed Gulab Singh as an independent and sovereign ruler of the region. Srinagar became part of his kingdom, and remained until 1947 as one of the several princely states of undivided India.

After, India's independence, certain tribes, mostly Pashtun, actively supported by elements of the Pakistani forces, [Indo-Pakistani War of 1947] came to the valley to help the local overwhelming Muslim majority of srinagar and the whole of Kashmir to gain independence from the yoke of slavery of a Hindu Dogra Ruler. Srinagar was almost won by the local helped by the Pakistan Army. Unfortunately they did not manage to secure the Srinagar Airport. This gave India a chance to air lift the Indian Army along with all the heavy weapons and illegally caputed the city and its surroundings. In view of infiltration by armed forces and the possibility of his kingdom, including the city of Srinagar falling into civil war, Hari Singh signed a covenant in late 1947 with the Government of India, which ensured integration of his kingdom into the newly formed Republic of India, conditioned on the requirement of having a plebiscite after any conflict had ended. Various historians, notably British historian Alaister Lamb, dispute the claim that the Maharaja signed any agreement at all.

The Government of India, in view of its obligation enjoined upon it subsequent to this covenant, immediately air-lifted Indian troops to Srinagar, and the city was prevented by the Indian Army. In the meanwhile, the matter had been escalated to the United Nations, and a cease fire was imposed under its authority, resulting into certain parts of Hari Singh's kingdom going out of his hands, which now constitutes the Azad Kashmir state under Pakistani administration. The British Historian Alaister Lamb in his book claims that the troops were flown into Srinagar even before the alleged covenant was signed, his claims were proven false after the agreement was found legal.

The city of Srinagar has thereafter remained administered by India

Geography

*Location: coord|34|5|23|N|74|47|24|E|
*Highest temperature: convert|37|°C; lowest convert|-14|°C [http://www.http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/city_guides/results.shtml?tt=TT002220]

The city is located on both the sides of the Jhelum River, which is called "Vyath" in Kashmir. The river passes through the city and meanders through the valley, moving onward and deepening in the Wular Lake. The city is famous for its nine old bridges, connecting the two parts of the city.

Hokersar is a wetland situated near Srinagar—the capital of Indian Kashmir. Thousands of migratory birds come to Hokersar from Siberia and other regions in the winter season. Migratory birds from Siberia and Central Asia use wetlands in Kashmir as their transitory camps between September and October and again around spring. These wetlands play a vital role in sustaining a large population of wintering, staging and breeding birds.

Hokersar is convert|14|km north of Srinagar, and is a world class wetland spread over convert|13.75|km2 including lake and marshy area. It is the most accessible and well-known of Kashmir's wetlands which include Hygam, Shalibug and Mirgund. A record number of migratory birds have visited Hokersar in recent years. An estimated quarter of a million birds have already been spotted at Hokersar in the current season.

Birds found in Hokersar — Migratory ducks and geese which include Brahminy Duck, Tufted Duck, Gadwall, Garganey, Greylag Goose, Mallard, Common Merganser, Northern Pintail, Common Pochard, Ferruginous Pochard, Red-Crested Pochard, Ruddy Shelduck, Northern Shoveler, Common Teal, and Eurasian Wigeon.

Climate

climate chart
Srinagar
-2|7|48
-1|8|68
3|14|121
8|20|85
11|24|68
15|30|39
18|30|62
18|30|76
12|27|28
6|22|33
1|15|28
-2|8|54
source= [http://www.wunderground.com/NORMS/DisplayIntlNORMS.asp?CityCode=42027&Units=both Weather Underground]
float=right
clear=none

The climate of Srinagar may be generally described as warm temperateFact|date=March 2008. The city has warm summers from June through August, and winters from December-February. The city generally gets some snowfall from December to February but seldom accumulates for longer periods. The average temperatures are convert|24|°C in July (ranging between 18 to 29°C or 65 to 84°F) and convert|4|°C in January (between -2/7°C or 28/45°F (night/day), -2/0°C or 28/32°F and 7/11°C or 45/52°F some of local extremes).

Economy

Srinagar is the most pivotal centre of the economy of the Kashmir Valley, and it has remained a tourist destination for centuries. The valley has attracted rulers from the plains of India for a long time, and they traveled to the valley and the city to avoid the hot summers of the Indo-Gangetic plains. The city remained on the itinerary of the Mughal ruling elite, and several Mughal emperors and their consorts had visited the city, and several Mughal gardens in and around the city indicate their close association with Srinagar.

With the colonization of India by the Europeans, particularly the British, the ruling elite as well as the rich Indians used to visit the city and the nearby locations during summers to avoid heat of the plains; and during winters to enjoy the snowfall.

The hinterland of Srinagar is the most populous part of the Kashmir valley, and crops like wheat and rice are cultivated for local consumption. Orchards produce a number of fruits, particularly apples. Another significant segment of the economy include handicrafts, weaving of woolen shawls and dress materials, and woodcarving. Srinagar and the surrounding areas serve as collecting points from where fruits and handicraft products are taken to several parts of the Indian subcontinent.

Tourism

Tourism is the most significant segment of the city's economy. The city of Srinagar is a gateway to some of the most scenic and beautiful places of the Indian subcontinent. The beautiful and world famous hill station and skiing resort Gulmarg is just 50 km from the city. For decades, tourism has been contributing massively to the economy of the city, but it has been adversely affected on account of insurgent activities by certain elements.

Srinagar is well known for its lakes. Dal Lake with its houseboats is famous all over the world. Srinagar is a small and beautiful city with a wonderful climate in the summer. Nagin Lake is another famous lake in the city.

Just outside the city are found the beautiful Shalimar Gardens created by Jehangir, the Mughal emperor, in 1619.

Houseboats were introduced accidentally to Kashmir: members of the Indian Civil Service serving in the plains who vacationed in Kashmir were not permitted to build permanent homes because of the then Maharaja's suspicion of a British presence in Srinagar. They thus chose to live in houseboats. The first such, named "Victory", was designed by Mr. M.T. Kenhard in 1888. There are now about five hundred on the Lake.

Srinagar has several gardens which are part of the several such gardens laid by the Mughal emperors across the Indian subcontinent, and which are known as Mughal gardens. The Mughal Gardens located in Srinagar and its close vicinity include Chasma Shahi (the royal fountains); Pari Mahal (the palace of the fairies); Nishat Bagh (the garden of spring); Shalimar Bagh; and the Nashim Bagh. The Tulip Gardens have been recently opened to public by Smt Sonia Gandhi. The gardens has rows of Tulips of different colurs and shades.

Government and politics

The city is run by the Srinagar Municipal Committee (SMC). The Srinagar district along with the adjoining Budgam district forms the Srinagar Parliamentary seat.Current leaders of the city include:
*Ghulam Nabi Azad, Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir
*Farooq Abdullah, Former Chief Minister and Patron Member of National Conference
*Syed Ali Shah Geelani, Chairman and Patron of All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC) (G)
*Yasin Malik, Chairman, Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF)
*Mufti Mohammad Sayeed, Former Chief Minister, Union Home Minister and Patron of Peoples Democratic Party
*Mehbooba Mufti, President Peoples Democratic Party
*Omar Abdullah, President of National Conference (NC)
*Sadiq Ali, Senior Shia leader, and former MLA.
*Mirwaiz Omar Farooq, Chairman Awami Action Committee and APHC(M)

tray Dog Controversy

Srinagar's city government attracted brief international attention in March 2008 when it announced a mass poisoning program aimed at eliminating the city's population of stray dogs. [ [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23500493/ MSNBC: Indian authorities to poison 100,000 stray dogs] ] Officials estimate that 100,000 stray dogs roam the streets of the city, which has a human population of just under 900,000. In a survey conducted by an NGO, it was found that some residents welcomed this program, saying the city was overrun by dogs, while critics contended that more humane methods could have been used to deal with the animals.

Demographics

As of 2001, Srinagar city had a population of 894,940. [GR|India] The population density in the city is convert|556|PD/km2 while the overall population density is convert|99|PD/km2|abbr=on. The languages spoken are mainly Kashmiri,Urdu,Hindi and English.

Culture

Like the state of Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar too has a distinctive blend of cultural heritage. Holy places in and around the city depict the historical cultural and religious diversity of the city as well as the Kashmir valley.

Places of worship

Holy places of the city include:

* Hazratbal Shrine
* Jama Masjid, Srinagar, one of the oldest mosques in Kashmir
* Khanqah Moulla The mosque founded by the sufi saint Hazrat Shah-i-Hamadan
* Kheer bhawani
* Dasgeer Sahib Khanyar,Shrine of Saint Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jeelani(R.A)
* BulBul Saheb Shrine Of another Saint Sheikh Abdul Rahman (R.A)
* Hari Parbat hill hosts shrine of Sufi Saint Sheikh Hamza Makdoom(R.A)
* Zestha
* Shankaracharya Temple,on Sulaiman Hill is possibly the oldest shrine in Kashmir
* Chari Sharief
* Baba Reshi, Tangmarg
* Rozabal Mosque Claimed as the buriel tomb of Jesus Christ.

Performing arts

Performing arts of the city include:

*Bhand Pather, a form of traditional folk theatre art form of play and dance, is performed by a group of about ten to fifteen artists. They depict in a satirical style social evils. Performance is accompanied by light music.
*Chakri is a major and popular form of Kashmiri folk music.
*Another form of Kashmiri genre of music called Sufiana music is also practiced in the city. It was introduced in the valley in the 15th century from Iran. Over centuries, it has assimilated a number of Indian Ragas, and has established itself as a classical music of the region. The instruments used in the music include Santoor, Sitar, Kashmiri Saz, Tabla, and Wasool.
*Hafiz Nagma, a form of dance, is performed to the accompaniment of Sufiana music. The dancer is a female while males play different instruments used in Sufiana music.

Education

* Government Medical College, Srinagar
* National Institute of Technology, Srinagar
* University of Kashmir, Srinagar
* Sheri Kashmir University of Agrigcultural Science and Technology (SKUAST)
* Islamia College Of Science & Commerce
* SSM College of Engineering Parishaspora Pattan
* Government Women's Polytechnic, Bemina
* Sikkim Manipal University - LC 1009, Parraypora New Airport Road
* D.A.V Institute Magarmal Bagh/Jawahar Nagar
* Govt. Boys Polytechnic, Rajbagh
* New Era Public School
* Indian Army School
* Mallinson School
* Minto Circle School/Raj Bagh
* CMS Tyndale Biscoe School (Est.1880)
* Presentation Convent
* Greenland School
* Amar Singh College (Est.1942)
* Sri Pratap School (Est.1898)
* Sri Pratap College (Est.1905)
* Government Women's College - M.A Road/Nawa Kadal
* Burn Hall School
* Jhelum Valley medical college
* Wood Lands House School
* Iqbal Memorial Institute
* Oak Hill School
* Modern High School
* D.A.V Higher secondary School jawahar nagar.
* S.M.D. High School - Munawar-abad, Khayam Road, Srinagar
* Lal Ded Memorial School - Badiyar-e-Balla, Ganpatyar, Habba Kadal, Srinagar.
* Gandhi Memorial Collage, Srinagar.
* Dream Land Edu. Inst. Ganderbal
* R.P School Boys and girls Malabag Naseembagh
* Tiny Harts School, Tengpora

Media

Four FM frequencies are available in the city. However, only two bids were received by the government. Adlabs is the only FM radio operator in Srinagar (its bid was Rs. 61 lakh). The second bidder South Asia FM did not qualify because its bid was less than 25 per cent of the highest bidder, the minimum amount to be eligible for bidding. [ [http://sify.com/finance/fullstory.php?id=14120281 FM radio: Govt to garner Rs 84 cr] ]

ports

s are popular among tourists. Dal Lake has potential for canoeing and water skiing. Water trekking is local name for three to four day trip along the Jhelum River to various lakes in a shikara with camping gear. Dachigam National Park (convert|22|km|mi|abbr=on|disp=s) and Pahalgam (convert|95|km|mi|abbr=on|disp=s) are popular destinations for hikers, trekkers and fishers. The city is home to the Sher-i-Kashmir Stadium, a stadium where international cricket matches have been played.

Sports like football and cricket are popular among schoolchildren.

References

External links

*commons|Category:Srinagar|Srinagar
*wikitravel
* [http://www.vkashmir.com/ Srinagar - on Vkashmir]
* [http://srinagar.nic.in/ Srinagar district administration]
* [http://kashmirnewz.com/ Online news and content provider from Srinagar]
* [http://jammukashmir.nic.in/ Official website of Jammu and Kashmir]
* [http://www.koausa.org/Nature/srinagar.html Images of Srinagar]
* [http://jammu-kashmir.tripod.com/index.html Kashmir Srinagar]
* [http://www.asiaexplorers.com/india/kashmir/srinagar.htm Srinagar travel information in AsiaExplorers]
* [http://www.kashmiruniversity.net]


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