Aniline


Aniline
Aniline
Identifiers
CAS number 62-53-3 YesY
ChemSpider 5889 YesY
UNII SIR7XX2F1K YesY
DrugBank DB06728
KEGG C00292 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:17296 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL538 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Image 2
Properties
Molecular formula C6H5NH2
Molar mass 93.13 g/mol
Appearance colorless liquid
Density 1.0217 g/mL, liquid
Melting point

-6.3 °C, 267 K, 21 °F

Boiling point

184.13 °C, 457 K, 363 °F

Solubility in water 3.6 g/100 mL at 20°C
Basicity (pKb) 9.3
Viscosity 3.71 cP (3.71 mPa·s at 25 °C
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
combustion
ΔcHo298
-3394 kJ/mol
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU classification Toxic (T)
Carc. Cat. 3
Muta. Cat. 3
Dangerous for
the environment (N)
R-phrases R23/24/25 R40 R41 R43 R48/23/24/25 R68 R50
S-phrases (S1/2) S26 S27 S36/37/39 S45 S46 S61 S63
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
2
3
0
Related compounds
Related aromatic amines 1-Naphthylamine
2-Naphthylamine
Related compounds Phenylhydrazine
Nitrosobenzene
Nitrobenzene
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. Consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amino group, aniline is the prototypical aromatic amine. Being a precursor to many industrial chemicals, its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane. Like most volatile amines, it possesses the somewhat unpleasant odour of rotten fish. It ignites readily, burning with a smoky flame characteristic of aromatic compounds. Aniline is colorless, but it slowly oxidizes and resinifies in air, giving a red-brown tint to aged samples.

Contents

Production

Aniline is mainly produced in industry in two steps from benzene. First, benzene is nitrated using a concentrated mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid at 50 to 60°C, which gives nitrobenzene. In the second step, the nitrobenzene is hydrogenated, typically at 200-300 °C in presence of various metal catalysts:

C6H5NO2 + 3 H2 → C6H5NH2 + 2 H2O

Originally, the reduction was effected with a mixture of ferrous chloride and iron metal via the Bechamp reduction.

As an alternative, aniline is also prepared from phenol and ammonia, the phenol being derived from the cumene process.[1]

In commerce, three brands of aniline are distinguished: aniline oil for blue, which is pure aniline; aniline oil for red, a mixture of equimolecular quantities of aniline and ortho- and para-toluidines; and aniline oil for safranine, which contains aniline and ortho-toluidine, and is obtained from the distillate (échappés) of the fuchsine fusion.[citation needed]

Related aniline derivatives

Many derivatives of aniline can be prepared in similar fashion from nitrated aromatic compounds. Nitration followed by reduction of toluene affords toluidines. Nitration of chlorobenzene and related derivatives and reduction of the nitration products gives aniline derivatives, e.g. 4-chloroaniline.

Reactions

The chemistry of aniline is extremely rich because the compound has been cheaply available for many years. Below are some classes of its reactions.

Oxidation

The oxidation of aniline has been heavily investigated, and can result in reactions localized at nitrogen or more commonly results in the formation of new C-N bonds. In alkaline solution, azobenzene results, whereas arsenic acid produces the violet-coloring matter violaniline. Chromic acid converts it into quinone, whereas chlorates, in the presence of certain metallic salts (especially of vanadium), give aniline black. Hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate give chloranil. Potassium permanganate in neutral solution oxidizes it to nitrobenzene, in alkaline solution to azobenzene, ammonia and oxalic acid, in acid solution to aniline black. Hypochlorous acid gives 4-aminophenol and para-amino diphenylamine. Oxidation with persulfate affords a variety of polyanilines compounds. These polymers exhibit rich redox and acid-base properties.

Electrophilic reactions at carbon

Like phenols, aniline derivatives are highly susceptible to electrophilic substitution reactions. Its high reactivity reflects that it is an enamine, which enhances the electron-donating ability of the ring. For example, reaction of aniline with sulfuric acid at 180 °C produces sulfanilic acid, H2NC6H4SO3H, which can be converted to sulfanilamide. Sulfanilamide is one of the sulfa drugs, which were widely used as antibacterials in the early 20th century. The largest scale industrial reaction of aniline involves its alkylation with formaldehyde:

2 C6H5NH2 + CH2O → CH2(C6H4NH2)2 + H2O

The resulting diamine is the precursor to 4,4'-MDI and related diisocyanates.

Reactions at nitrogen

Basicity

Aniline is a weak base. Aromatic amines such as aniline are, in general, much weaker bases than aliphatic amines because of the electron-withdrawing effect of the phenyl group. Aniline reacts with strong acids to form anilinium (or phenylammonium) ion (C6H5-NH3+).[2] The sulfate forms white plates. Although aniline is weakly basic, it precipitates zinc, aluminium, and ferric salts, and, on warming, expels ammonia from its salts. The weak basicity is due to a negative inductive effect as the lone pair on the nitrogen is partially delocalized into the pi system of the benzene ring.

Acylation

Aniline reacts with carboxylic acids[3] or more readily with acyl chlorides such as acetyl chloride to give amides. The amides formed from aniline are sometimes called anilides, for example CH3-CO-NH-C6H5 is acetanilide. Antifebrin (acetanilide), an anti-pyretic and analgesic, is obtained by the reaction of acetic acid and aniline.

N-Alkylation

N-methylation of aniline with methanol at elevated temperatures over acid catalsts gives N-methylaniline and dimethylaniline:

C6H5NH2 + 2 CH3OH → C6H4N(CH3)2 + H2O

Methyl and dimethylaniline are colourless liquids with b.p. of 193-195 °C and 192 °C, respectively. These derivatives are of importance in the colour industry. Aniline combines directly with alkyl iodides to form secondary and tertiary amines.

Carbon disulfide derivatives

Boiled with carbon disulfide, it gives sulfocarbanilide (diphenylthiourea) (CS(NHC6H5)2), which may be decomposed into phenyl isothiocyanate(C6H5CNS), and triphenyl guanidine (C6H5N=C(NHC6H5)2).

Diazotization

Aniline and its ring-substituted derivatives react with nitrous acid to form diazonium salts. Through these intermediates, aniline can be conveniently converted to -OH, -CN, or a halide via Sandmeyer reactions. This diazonium salt can also be reacted with NaNO2 and phenol which produces a dye which is benzeneazophenol, this process is called coupling.

Other reactions

It reacts with nitrobenzene to produce phenazine in the Wohl-Aue reaction. Hydrogenation gives cyclohexylamine.

Being a standard reagent in laboratories, aniline is used for many niche reactions. Its acetate is used in the Aniline acetate test for carbohydrates, identifying pentoses by conversion to furfural. It is used to stain neural RNA blue in the Nissl stain.[citation needed]

Uses

The largest application of aniline is for the preparation of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). The majority of aniline serves this market. Other uses include rubber processing chemicals (9%), herbicides (2%), and dyes and pigments (2%).[4] As additives to rubber, aniline derivatives such as phenylenediamine[disambiguation needed ] and diphenylamine, are antioxidants. Illustrative of the drugs prepared from aniline is paracetamol (acetaminophen, Tylenol). The principal use of aniline in the dye industry is as a precursor to indigo, the blue of blue jeans.[1]

Aniline is also used at a smaller scale in the production of the intrinsically conducting polymer polyaniline.

History

Aniline was first isolated from the destructive distillation of indigo in 1826 by Otto Unverdorben,[5] who named it crystalline. In 1834, Friedlieb Runge (Pogg. Ann., 1834, 31, p. 65; 32, p. 331) isolated from coal tar a substance that produced a beautiful blue colour on treatment with chloride of lime, which he named kyanol or cyanol. In 1841, C. J. Fritzsche showed that, by treating indigo with caustic potash, it yielded an oil, which he named aniline from the name of one of the indigo-yielding plants, Añil (Indigofera suffruticosa, syn. I. anil, ultimately from Sanskrit "nīla", dark-blue[6]). About the same time N. N. Zinin found that, on reducing nitrobenzene, a base was formed, which he named benzidam. August Wilhelm von Hofmann investigated these variously-prepared substances, and proved them to be identical (1855), and thenceforth they took their place as one body, under the name aniline or phenylamine.

The great commercial value of aniline was due to the readiness with which it yields, directly or indirectly, dyestuffs. The discovery of mauve in 1856 by William Henry Perkin was the first of a series of an enormous range of dyestuffs, such as fuchsine, safranine and induline. Its first industrial-scale use was in the manufacture of mauveine, a purple dye discovered in 1856 by Hofmann's student William Henry Perkin. At the time of mauveine's discovery, aniline was an expensive laboratory compound, but it was soon prepared "by the ton" using a process previously discovered by Antoine Béchamp.[7] The synthetic dye industry grew rapidly as new aniline-based dyes were discovered in the late 1850s and 1860s, an echo of the importance of the compound being found in the name of one of the world's largest chemical companies, BASF, originally the Badische Anilin- und Soda-Fabrik.

"Analin" was used as an analgesic drug in the 18th century. Its cardiac suppressing side-effects were countered with caffeine.[8] Gelsemium was preferred and administered until slight ptosis (drooping eyelids) appeared.

Toxicology

Aniline is toxic by inhalation of the vapour.[9] The IARC lists it in Group 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans) due to the limited and contradictory data available. The early manufacture of aniline resulted in increased incidents of bladder cancer, but these effects are now attributed to naphthylamines, not anilines.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c Thomas Kahl, Kai-Wilfrid Schröder, F. R. Lawrence, W. J. Marshall, Hartmut Höke, Rudolf Jäckh "Aniline" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2007; John Wiley & Sons: New York.doi:10.1002/14356007.a02_303
  2. ^ McMurry, John E. (1992), Organic Chemistry (3rd ed.), Belmont: Wadsworth, ISBN 0-534-16218-5 
  3. ^ Carl N. Webb (1941), "Benzanilide", Org. Synth., http://www.orgsyn.org/orgsyn/orgsyn/prepContent.asp?prep=cv1p0082 ; Coll. Vol. 1: 82 
  4. ^ "Aniline". The Chemical Market Reporter. http://www.the-innovation-group.com/ChemProfiles/Aniline.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  5. ^ Otto Unverdorben (1826). "Ueber das Verhalten der organischen Körper in höheren Temperaturen". Annalen der Physik 84 (11): 397–410. doi:10.1002/andp.18260841109. 
  6. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=aniline
  7. ^ Perkin, William Henry. 1861-06-08. "Proceedings of Chemical Societies: Chemical Society, Thursday, May 16, 1861." The Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science. Retrieved on 2007-09-24.
  8. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=jAdYAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA932&lpg=PA932&dq=beef+extract+analgesic&source=bl&ots=k5pOMentfU&sig=l7b8SwqhcMM35QPpPDVeq-llbxk&hl=en&ei=g7-oTpmREuyDsgKd-qzODw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=beef%20extract%20analgesic&f=false
  9. ^ Muir, GD (ed.) 1971, Hazards in the Chemical Laboratory, The Royal Institute of Chemistry, London.

External links

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • ANILINE — L’aniline est un composé organique renfermant une fonction amine primaire, c’est à dire un atome d’azote lié à un carbone et à deux hydrogènes; l’atome de carbone appartenant à un noyau benzénique, il s’agit d’une amine aromatique, la plus simple …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Aniline — An i*line, a. Made from, or of the nature of, aniline. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Aniline — An i*line (?; 277), n. [See {Anil}.] (Chem.) An organic base belonging to the phenylamines. It may be regarded as ammonia in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced by the radical phenyl. It is a colorless, oily liquid, originally obtained from …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • aniline — (n.) chemical base used in making colorful dyes, 1843, coined 1841 by German chemist Carl Julius Fritzsche (1808 1871) and adopted by Hofmann, ultimately from Port. anil the indigo shrub, from Arabic an nil the indigo, assimilated from al nil,… …   Etymology dictionary

  • aniline — ► NOUN ▪ an oily liquid found in coal tar, used in the manufacture of dyes, drugs, and plastics. ORIGIN from an Arabic word meaning indigo (from which it was originally obtained) …   English terms dictionary

  • aniline — [an′ə lin, an′əlēn΄, an′əlīn΄] n. [Ger anilin: see ANIL & INE3] a colorless, poisonous, oily liquid, C6H5NH2, a derivative of benzene used in making dyes, resins, rubber additives, fungicides, herbicides, etc., and in organic synthesis …   English World dictionary

  • Aniline — Cet article possède un paronyme, voir : Alanine. Aniline …   Wikipédia en Français

  • aniline — /an l in, uyn /, n. 1. Also called aniline oil, aminobenzine, phenylamine. Chem. a colorless, oily, slightly water soluble liquid, C6H5NH2, usually derived from nitrobenzene by reduction: used chiefly in the synthesis of dyes and drugs. adj. 2.… …   Universalium

  • Aniline — A chemical compound implicated, along with o toluidine, in the causation of bladder cancer. Aniline and o toluidine, both aromatic amines, are used in the manufacture of a variety of dyes, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and chemicals employed in… …   Medical dictionary

  • aniline — /ˈænələn / (say anuhluhn) noun 1. an aromatic amine, aminobenzene, C6H5NH2, used in the manufacture of plastics, resins, etc. –adjective 2. relating to or derived from aniline: aniline colours. {anil + ine2} …   Australian English dictionary


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