- Pan-American Highway
The Pan-American Highway (see below for its name in other Western European languages) is a network of
roads nearly 48,000 kilometres (29,800 miles) in total length. Except for an 87 kilometre (54 mi) rainforest gap, called the Darién Gap, the road links the mainland nations of the Americasin a connected highway system. According to " Guinness World Records", the Pan-American Highway is the world's longest "motorable road".Fact|date=September 2008 However, because of the Darién Gap, it is not possible to cross between South America and Central America by traditional motor vehicle.
The Pan-American Highway system is mostly complete and extends from
Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, in North Americato the lower reaches of South America. Several highway termini are claimed to exist, including the cities of Puerto Monttand Quellónin Chileand Ushuaiain Argentina. No comprehensive route is officially defined in Canadaand the United States, though several highways there are called "Pan-American".
The Pan-American Highway passes through many diverse climates and ecological types, from dense jungles to cold mountain passes. Since the highway passes through many countries, it is far from uniform. Some stretches of the highway are passable only during the dry season, and in many regions driving is occasionally hazardous.
Famous sections of the Pan-American Highway include the
Alaska Highwayand the Inter-American Highway(the section between the United States and the Panama Canal). Both of these sections were built during World War II as a means of supply of remote areas without danger of attack by U-boats.Fact|date=September 2008
Jake Silverstein, writing in 2006, described the Pan-American Highway as "a system so vast, so incomplete, and so incomprehensible it is not so much a road as it is the idea of
Pan-Americanismitself…" cite journal | authorlink = Jake Silverstein | title = Highway Run | journal = Harper's | pages = 70-80 |date=July 2006] .
Pan-American Highway system overview
The Pan-American Highway travels through 15 countries:
Important spurs also lead into
Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguayand Venezuela.
tourismpurposes, the Pan-American Highway north of Central America is sometimes assumed to use the Alaska Highwayand then run down the west coast of Canada and the United States, running east from San Diego, Californiaand picking up the branch to Nogales, Arizona.Fact|date=February 2007
The notable stretch that keeps the highway from being completely connected is a section of land between the
Panama Canalin Panamaand the Colombian border called the Darién Gap, which is an 87 km (54 mile) stretch of rainforest. The gap has been crossed by adventurers on bicycle, motorbike, all-terrain vehicle, and foot, dealing with jungle, swamp, insects, and other hazards.
There are many people, groups, indigenous populations, and governments that are opposed to completing the Darién portion of the highway, with reasons as varied as the desire to protect the rain forest, containing the spread of tropical diseases, protecting the livelihood of indigenous peoples in the area, and preventing
foot and mouth diseasefrom entering North America.Fact|date=April 2008 Experience with the extension as far as Yavizaincluded severe deforestation within a decade alongside the highway route.
One option proposed, in a study by
Bio-Pacifico, is a short ferry link from Colombia to a new ferry port in Panama, with an extension of the existing Panama highway that would complete the highway without violating these environmental concerns. The ferry would cross the Gulf of Urabáfrom Turbo, Colombia, to a new Panamanian port (possibly Carreto) connected to a Caribbean coast extension of the highway. Efficient routing would probably dictate that the existing route to Yaviza be relegated to secondary road status.Fact|date=September 2008
Development and completion
The concept of a route from one tip of the Americas to the other was originally proposed at the
First Pan-American Conferencein 1889 as a railroad; however, nothing ever came of this proposal. The idea of the Pan-American Highway emerged at the Fifth International Conference of American Statesin 1923, where it was originally conceived as a single route. The first Pan-American highway conference convened October 5, 1925in Buenos Aires. Mexico was the first Latin American country to complete its portion of the highway, in 1950.
Northern section of the Pan-American Highway
No road in the U.S. or Canada has been officially designated as the Pan-American Highway, and thus the primary road officially starts at the
U.S.-Mexico border. The original route began at the border at Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas(opposite Laredo, Texas) and went south through Mexico City. Later branches were built to the border at Nogales, Sonora( Nogales, Arizona), Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua( El Paso, Texas), Piedras Negras, Coahuila( Eagle Pass, Texas), Reynosa, Tamaulipas( Pharr, Texas), and Matamoros, Tamaulipas( Brownsville, Texas).
On the other hand, several roads in the U.S. were locally named after the Pan-American Highway. When the section of
Interstate 35in San Antonio, Texaswas built, it was named the Pan Am Expressway, as an extension of the original route from Laredo.Fact|date=September 2008 Interstate 25in Albuquerque, New Mexicohas been named the Pan-American Freeway, as an extension of the route to El Paso.Fact|date=February 2008 U.S. Route 85, which goes north from El Paso, is designated the CanAm Highway, which continues into Canada in the province of Saskatchewan, before terminating at La Ronge. The CANAMEX Corridoris also similarly designated throughout the western United States, and continuing into the Canadian province of Alberta.
The original route to Laredo travels up
Mexican Federal Highway 85from Mexico City.Fact|date=September 2008 The various spurs follow:
*Nogales spur -
Mexican Federal Highway 15from Mexico City
*El Paso spur -
Mexican Federal Highway 45from Mexico City
*Eagle Pass spur - unknown, possibly
Mexican Federal Highway 57from Mexico City
*Pharr spur -
Mexican Federal Highway 40from Monterrey
*Brownsville spur -
Mexican Federal Highway 101from Ciudad Victoria
From Mexico City to the border with
Guatemala, the Highway follows Mexican Federal Highway 190. Through the Central American countries, it follows Central American Highway 1, ending at Yaviza, Panamaat the edge of the Darién Gap. The road had formerly ended at Cañita, Panama, 110 miles (178 km) north of its current end. United States government funding was particularly significant to complete a high-level bridge over the Panama Canal, during the years when the canal was administered by the United States.
outhern section of the Pan-American Highway
. Highway 11 continues all the way to the border with Ecuador.
Ecuador Highway 35runs the whole length of that country. Peru Highway 1carries the Pan-American Highway all the way through Peru to the border with Chile.
Chile, the highway follows Chile Highway 5south to a point north of Santiago, where the highway splits into two parts, one of which goes through Chilean territory to Quellónon Chiloé Island, after which it continues as the " Carretera Austral". The other part goes east along Chile Highway 60, which becomes Argentina National Route 7 at the Argentinian border and continues to Buenos Aires, the end of the main highway. [cite web | title = Pan-American Highway - MSN Encarta | url = http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761568725/Pan-American_Highway.html | accessdate = 2008-09-19] The highway network also continues south of Buenos Airesalong Argentina National Route 3 towards the city of Ushuaia and Cape Horn.
One branch, known as the
Simón Bolívar Highway, runs from Bogotá(Colombia) to Guiria(Venezuela). It begins by using Colombia Highway 71all the way to the border with Venezuela. From there it uses Venezuela Highway 1to Caracasand Venezuela Highway 9to its end at Guiria.
A continuation of the Pan-American Highway to the
Brazilian cities of São Pauloand Rio de Janeirouses a ferry from Buenos Airesto Colonia in Uruguayand Uruguay Highway 1to Montevideo. Uruguay Highway 9and Brazil Highway 471route to near Pelotas, from where Brazil Highway 116leads to Brazilian main cities.
Another branch, from Buenos Aires to
Asunciónin Paraguay, heads out of Buenos Aireson Argentina National Route 9. It switches to Argentina National Route 11 at Rosario, which crosses the border with Paraguay right at Asunción. Other branches probably exist across the center of South America.
The highway does not have official segments to
Belize, Guyana, Surinameand French Guiana, nor to the assorted islands in the Caribbean region. However, highways from Venezuela link to Brazilian Trans-Amazonian highwaythat provide a southwest entrance to Guyana, route to the coast, and follow a coastal route through Suriname to French Guiana. Belize was supposedly included in the route at one time, as they switched which side of the road they drive on. As British Honduras, they were the only Central American country to drive on the left side of the road.
*es icon Carretera Panamericana, Autopista Panamericana or Vía Panamericana
*pt icon Estrada Panamericana
*de icon Panamerikanische Straße
*nl icon Pan-Amerikaanse Snelweg
*fr icon Autoroute Panaméricaine
*it icon Autostrada Panamericana
In art and culture
The Pan-American highway is the subject of a 2006 conceptual art piece, "
The School of Panamerican Unrest", where Mexican-born artist Pablo Helguerais attempting to drive a portable schoolhouse for the length of the entire route.Fact|date=September 2008
The travel writer Tim Cahill wrote a book, "Road Fever", about his record-setting 24-day drive from
Ushuaiain the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego to Prudhoe Bayin the U.S. state of Alaskawith professional long-distance driver Garry Sowerby, much of their route following the Pan-American Highway. [cite book | last = Cahill | first = Tim | authorlink = Tim Cahill | title = Road Fever | publisher = Vintage | isbn = 978-0394758374 | date = 1992]
*Plan Federal Highway System, "
New York Times" May 15, 1932page XX7
*Reported from the Motor World, "New York Times"
January 26, 1936page XX6
*Hemisphere Road is Nearer Reality, "New York Times"
January 7, 1953page 58
*1997-98 AAA Caribbean, Central America and South America map
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
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