Teen Titans


Teen Titans
Teen Titans
TeenTitans50.jpg
Promotional cover art for Teen Titans vol. 3, #50, by Alé Garza.
Shown are Blue Beetle, Ravager, Wonder Girl, Robin, Kid Devil, Miss Martian, and Supergirl.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
First appearance The Brave and the Bold #54 (July 1964)
Created by Bob Haney
Bruno Premiani
In-story information
Base(s) Titans Tower:
New York City (1980–1991, 1999–2002)
San Francisco (2003–Present)
Other:
Solar Tower, Metropolis (1997–1998), USS Argus, Earth orbit (1994–1995), Titans Liberty Island Base, New Jersey (1991–1994), Gabriel's Horn, Farmingdale, Long Island (1976), Titans' Lair, Gotham City (1966–1976)
Member(s)
Teen Titans
Kid Flash
Red Robin
Superboy
Wonder Girl
Skitter
Bunker
Solstice
Roster
See:List of Teen Titans members

The Teen Titans, also known as the New Teen Titans, New Titans, or simply the Titans, is a fictional superhero team appearing in comic books published by DC Comics, often in eponymous monthly series. As the group's name suggests, its membership is usually composed of teenaged superheroes.

The first incarnation of the team unofficially debuted in The Brave and the Bold #54 (1964) as a "junior Justice League" featuring Robin (Dick Grayson), Kid Flash (Wally West), and Aqualad, the sidekicks of Leaguers Batman, the Flash, and Aquaman, respectively. The group then made its first appearance under the name "Teen Titans" in The Brave and the Bold #60, joined by Wonder Girl (Donna Troy), the younger sister of Wonder Woman.[1] Green Arrow's sidekick, Speedy (Roy Harper), later took Aqualad's place in the lineup.

While only a modest success with its original incarnation, the series became a hit with its 1980s revival,[2][3] under the stewardship of writer Marv Wolfman and artist George Pérez. In 1980, the two relaunched the team as The New Teen Titans, aging the characters to young adulthood. Original members Robin, Wonder Girl, and Kid Flash were joined by new characters Cyborg, Starfire, and Raven, as well as the former Doom Patrol member Beast Boy, now using the name Changeling. The New Titans had several encounters with the original Titans of Greek mythology, particularly Hyperion. The series was retitled Tales of the Teen Titans with issue #41 (April 1984), and Pérez left in 1985 to headline the DC Comics 50th Anniversary miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths. It was again renamed to simply The New Titans in December 1988 (issue #50), and was ultimately canceled in February 1996 after 130 issues.

The series was relaunched as Teen Titans in October 1996, with a roster of all-new members under the mentorship of the Atom (Ray Palmer), who had been de-aged to his teenage years; the series ended in September 1998 after 24 issues. A three-issue limited series called JLA/The Titans: The Technis Imperative (December 1998-February 1999) led to the March 1999 debut of The Titans, a series featuring select Titans from all of the group's incarnations that ran for 50 issues until April 2003. A new regular series titled Teen Titans began in September 2003, featuring Cyborg, Starfire, Beast Boy, and Raven of the 1980s group joined by new teenaged versions of Robin (Tim Drake), Wonder Girl (Cassie Sandsmark), and Kid Flash (Bart Allen), as well as the Superman clone Superboy (Kon-El). By 2006 the team consisted of only the younger members and some new additions; a concurrent series called Titans debuted in April 2008 featuring some of the "classic" Titans from the original and 1980s rosters, with Dick Grayson, Donna Troy, Wally West, Garth, and Roy Harper using their "adult" codenames Nightwing, Troia, Flash, Tempest, and Arsenal, respectively.

A Teen Titans animated television series ran on Cartoon Network from July 2003 to January 2006. Based on the 1980s version of the team, but diverging from that continuity in some ways, the series spawned two related comic book titles, Teen Titans Go! and Tiny Titans.

Contents

Publication history

Teen Titans
Showcase-59-1965-TeenTitans.jpg
The original Teen Titans (Wonder Girl, Aqualad, Robin, Kid Flash). Cover of Showcase #59 (Dec. 1965). Art by Nick Cardy.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Schedule Monthly
Format Ongoing
Publication date (vol. 1)
Jan. 1966 – Feb. 1978 [4]
(vol. 2)
Oct. 1996 – Sept. 1998
(vol. 3)
Sept. 2003 – Sept. 2011
(vol. 4)
Sept. 2011 – Present
Number of issues (vol. 1): 53
(vol. 2): 24
(vol. 3): 100
(vol. 4): 1 (as of September 2011)
Creative team
Writer(s) (vol. 1)
Bob Haney
(vol. 2)
Dan Jurgens
(vol. 3)
Geoff Johns
(vol. 4)
Scott Lobdell
Penciller(s) (vol. 1)
Nick Cardy, Gil Kane, Art Saaf
(vol. 2)
Dan Jurgens
(vol. 3)
Mike McKone, Al Barrionuevo, Eddy Barrows
(vol. 4)
Brett Booth
Creator(s) (vol. 1):
Bob Haney
Nick Cardy
(vol. 2):
Dan Jurgens
(vol. 3):
Geoff Johns
Mike McKone
(vol. 4):
Scott Lobdell
Brett Booth

Original incarnation

Robin (Dick Grayson), Kid Flash (Wally West), and Aqualad — the sidekicks of Justice League members Batman, the Flash, and Aquaman — teamed up in The Brave and the Bold #54 (July 1964) to defeat a weather-controlling villain known as Mr. Twister. They subsequently appeared under the name "Teen Titans" in The Brave and the Bold #60 in July 1965, joined by Wonder Woman's younger sister Wonder Girl (Donna Troy) in her first appearance.[1][5] After next being featured in Showcase #59 (December 1965), the Teen Titans were spun off into their own series with Teen Titans #1, cover-dated February 1966.

The series' original premise revolved around the Teen Titans helping teenagers, answering calls from around the world. Green Arrow's sidekick Speedy (Roy Harper) makes guest appearances [6][7] before officially joining the team in Teen Titans #19 (1969).[8] Aqualad takes a leave of absence from the group in the same issue[8] but makes several later guest appearances,[9][10] sometimes with girlfriend Aquagirl.[11] Psychic Lilith Clay[12] and Mal Duncan (who possess no superpowers) also join the group.[13] Beast Boy of the Doom Patrol makes a guest appearance seeking membership but was rejected for being too young at the time;[14] existing heroes Hawk and Dove, a duo of teenaged superpowered brothers, appear in issue #21;[15] and time-displaced caveman Gnarrk aids the team in two issues.[16][17]

The theme of teenagers learning to take on adult roles and responsibilities was common throughout the series. The series explored (though not too deeply) then current events such as inner-city racial tension and various protests against the Vietnam War. One storyline beginning in issue #25 (February 1970) saw the Titans deal with the accidental death of a peace activist, leading them to reconsider their methods. As a result, the Teen Titans briefly abandoned their identities to work as ordinary, powerless civilians, but the change was quickly abandoned. Along the way, Aqualad was removed from the series and the character of Mr. Jupiter, who was Lilith's mentor and employer, was introduced and financially backed the Titans for a brief period. Ultimately the book was quietly canceled with #43 (February 1973).

1970s revival

Teen Titans #50, with the majority of the Titans of that era.

A few years after its cancellation, the series resumed with issue #44 (November 1976), but struggled to find focus. The few stories from the brief revival included the introduction of the African-American superheroine Bumblebee, the introduction of the “Titans West” team, consisting of a number of other teen heroes including Bat-Girl (Betty Kane) and Golden Eagle, and the introduction of Joker's Daughter in Teen Titans #48. The revival was short-lived, and the series was canceled as of #53 (February 1978), that also told the story of how the Teen Titans were founded. Tellingly, in the last issue the heroes realized that, now in their early 20s, they had simply outgrown the "Teen" Titans. In the last panel, without speaking, they go their separate ways.

The title was used again in 1999 for the Teen Titans Annual #1, 1967 issue (ISBN 1-56389-486-6), a one-shot special that reprinted selected Silver Age stories in the 1960s-style 80-Page Giant format, as a companion piece to the original comic book series, had an Annual issue been published at that time.

New Teen Titans (1980–1996)

DC Comics Presents #26 introduced a team of new Titans, anchored by founding members Robin, Wonder Girl, and Kid Flash, soon followed by The New Teen Titans #1 (November 1980). The series re-introduced the Doom Patrol's Beast Boy as Changeling and introduced the machine man Cyborg, the alien Starfire, and the dark empath Raven.[18] Raven, an expert manipulator, forms the group to fight her demonic father Trigon the Terrible, and the team remains together thereafter as a group of young adult heroes.

The team's adversaries included Deathstroke the Terminator, a mercenary who takes a contract to kill the Titans in order to fulfill a job his son had been unable to complete. This led to perhaps the most notable Titans storyline of the era (1984's "The Judas Contract," in Tales of the Teen Titans #42-44 and Teen Titans Annual #3[19]) in which a psychopathic girl named Terra, with the destructive power to manipulate earth and all earth-related materials, infiltrates the Titans in order to destroy them. "The Judas Contract" won the Comics Buyer's Guide Fan Award for "Favorite Comic Book Story" of 1984,[19] and was later reprinted as a standalone trade paperback in 1988[20] and 1991.[21] This story also featured Dick Grayson (Robin) adopting the identity of Nightwing,[22] Wally West giving up on his Kid Flash persona and quitting the Titans (which eventually led to him becoming the third Flash), and the introduction of a new member in Jericho, the other son of Deathstroke.

Other notable New Teen Titans stories included "The Terror of Trigon" (1984–1985),[23] featuring Raven's demon father attempting to take over Earth, and Raven's own struggle to remain good despite Trigon's evil demonic blood inside her; "A Day in the Lives..." (1981),[24] presenting a day in the team members' personal lives; "Who is Donna Troy?" (1984),[25] depicting Robin investigating Wonder Girl's origins; and "We Are Gathered Here Today..." (1985),[26] telling the story of Wonder Girl's wedding, a rare superhero wedding in that a fight does not break out. Tales of the New Teen Titans, a four-part limited series by Wolfman and Perez, was published in 1982, detailing the back-stories of Cyborg, Raven, Changeling, and Starfire.

New Teen Titans and the Uncanny X-Men

The brainchild of writer Marv Wolfman and artist George Pérez, New Teen Titans was widely thought of as DC's answer to the increasingly popular Uncanny X-Men from Marvel Comics, as both series featured all-new members and depicted young heroes from disparate backgrounds whose internal conflicts were as integral to the series as was their combat against villains. The two teams met in the 1982 crossover one-shot entitled "Apokolips... Now", which teamed Darkseid, Deathstroke, and Dark Phoenix against both teams.

New Teen Titans (vol. 2)

The New Teen Titans series experienced some title and numbering confusion in 1984 when the title was relaunched with a new #1 issue as part of a new initiative at DC informally referred to as "hardcover/softcover." The New Teen Titans, along with Legion of Super-Heroes and Batman and the Outsiders, were the first and only titles included in this program, where the same stories would be published twice, first in a more expensive edition with higher-quality printing and paper distributed exclusively to comic book specialty stores, then republished a year later in the original low-budget format and distributed to newsstands. The New Teen Titans title was renamed Tales of the Teen Titans (not to be confused with the earlier limited series), while a new concurrently published series named The New Teen Titans (vol. 2) launched with a new #1. After both titles ran new stories for one year, the former book began reprinting the latter's stories for the newsstand, continuing until the "hardcover/softcover" idea was abandoned after Tales of the Teen Titans #91.

Issue #1 of New Teen Titans (vol. 2) created controversy when Dick Grayson and Starfire were depicted in bed together, although it had been established for some time that they were a couple. Pérez left the series after New Teen Titans (vol. 2) #5.[27] José Luis García-López followed Pérez as the title's artist, and Eduardo Barreto contributed a lengthy run after Garcia Lopez. Paul Levitz scripted and wrote several issues of the unpopular and lengthy Brother Blood saga when Wolfman briefly took a break from the book. Pérez temporarily returned as co-plotter/penciller with issue #50, with the series name being amended to The New Titans, without the "Teen" prefix, as the characters were no longer teenagers.

Issue #50 told a new origin story for Wonder Girl, her link to Wonder Woman having been severed due to retcons created in the aftermath of Crisis on Infinite Earths. Pérez remained as penciller with the book through to issue #55, 57 and 60, while only providing layouts for issues #58-59, and 61, with artist Tom Grummett finishing pencils and Bob McLeod as inker. Perez remained as inker for the cover art to issues #62-67. He would return for the series final issue with #130 (Feb. 1996) providing cover art.

The series introduced a number of new characters and put older characters through radical changes during the next seven years. Members during this time included Phantasm,[28] Pantha,[29] Red Star,[30] Impulse,[31] Damage,[31] Green Lantern (Kyle Rayner),[32] Supergirl,[33] Rose Wilson,[34] Minion,[35] and Baby Wildebeest. As a result, the group that appeared in the final issue, #130 (February 1996), had little resemblance to the one that anchored DC's line-up in the early 1980s.

New Teen Titans
NewTeenTitansVol1-001.png
Cover to The New Teen Titans #1 (Nov. 1980). Art by George Pérez and Dick Giordano.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Schedule Monthly
Format Ongoing
Publication date The New Teen Titans:
Nov. 1980 – March 1984
Tales of the Teen Titans:
April 1984 – Oct. 1985
The New Teen Titans vol. 2:
Aug. 1984 – Nov. 1988
The New Titans:
Dec. 1988 – Feb. 1996
Number of issues The New Teen Titans:
1-40
Tales of the Teen Titans:
41-91
The New Teen Titans vol. 2:
1-49
The New Titans:
50-130
Creative team
Writer(s) Marv Wolfman
Penciller(s) George Pérez
Eduardo Barreto
Tom Grummett
Inker(s) Romeo Tanghal
Creator(s) Marv Wolfman
George Pérez

Teen Titans Spotlight On

With the Teen Titans properties rivaling Marvel's X-Men for popularity, another new title was launched in August 1986, this time to focus less on the team itself than on individual Titans, hence "Spotlight".[36] The series aimed to "put the spotlight on individual members of the Teen Titans, one at a time, and let each story dictate how many issues it should run,"[36][37] most storylines running just a single issue, after the series launched with a two-part focus on Starfire and a four-issue highlighting of Jericho.[38] The series ran for 21 issues, the last issue departing slightly from its aim to highlight individuals, culminating in a "Spotlight" on the 1960s Teen Titans team as a whole (April 1988), although there had previously been an issue focusing on another team, the Brotherhood of Evil.[39]

Team Titans

The Team Titans were one of 100 groups sent back through time to prevent the birth of Lord Chaos, the son of Donna Troy and Terry Long. Their mission was to kill the pregnant Donna Troy before she could give birth. Mirage, Killowat, Redwing, Terra, Dagon, Prestor Jon, and Battalion made up the team.

Teen Titans (vol. 2, 1996–1998)

Cover of Teen Titans (vol. 2) #5, featuring the 1996–98 team. Art by Dan Jurgens & George Pérez

A new Teen Titans series written and penciled by Dan Jurgens began later that year with a new #1 (October 1996), with former New Teen Titans co-creator George Pérez as inker (Pérez would ink the first 15 issues of the series). Atom, who had become a teenager following the events of Zero Hour, leads the brand-new team, with Arsenal becoming a mentor about halfway through the twenty four-issue run, which ended in September 1998.

In an attempt to boost sales, a contest was held in the letter pages to determine who would join the team. Robin (Tim Drake), won the vote, but editors on the Batman titles banned Robin from appearing in the Teen Titans, forcing Jurgens to use Captain Marvel Jr. instead.[citation needed] The inclusion of Captain Marvel Jr. failed to boost sales of the title, which was then canceled.

The Titans (1999–2002)

The team was revived in a three-issue limited series, JLA/Titans: The Technis Imperative, featuring nearly every character who had been a Titan and showcased the return of Cyborg. This limited series led into The Titans written by Devin Grayson, starting with Titans Secret Files #1 (March 1999).

This incarnation of the team consisted of a mix of former original Titans, including Nightwing, Troia, Arsenal, Tempest, and the Flash (Wally West), from the original team; Starfire, Cyborg, and Changeling, from the New Teen Titans; Damage from the New Titans (the 1994 series); and Argent from the Teen Titans (the 1996 series). There was one new member, Jesse Quick. This version of the team lasted until issue #50 (2002). The West Coast branch of the team, Titans L.A., appeared once, in the pages of Titans Secret Files #2.

Between the end of Teen Titans and the beginning of The Titans, the next generation of young heroes: Superboy, Robin, Impulse, Wonder Girl, Secret, and Arrowette, formed their own team in Young Justice, a series similar to the original Teen Titans. Both series were concluded with the three-issue limited series Titans/Young Justice: Graduation Day, which led into new Teen Titans and Outsiders ongoing series.

Teen Titans (vol. 3, 2003–2011)

Cover to Teen Titans vol. 3, #1 (July 2003). Art by Mike McKone.

Writer Geoff Johns' Teen Titans series began in 2003, featuring a mix of previous and new members, most of whom had been part of Young Justice. Johns wrote the book for the first forty-five issues before turning it over to Adam Beechen, who wrote the book for a four-issue run from #46 to #49 after Johns' departure. Sean McKeever became the series' next writer and wrote from issue #50 through #71.[40][41] Following McKeever, Bryan Q. Miller wrote issues #72-74. Felicia Henderson took up the helm with issue #75.

The series’ original lineup parallels the lineup of Marv Wolfman's New Teen Titans series: veteran members Cyborg, Starfire, and Beast Boy return, joined by younger heroes Robin, Superboy, Wonder Girl, and Kid Flash. Johns had also wanted to use the character Static, (who was then just coming off of the popular animated series Static Shock) as part of the starting roster, but was not permitted to do so due to legal issues.[42] Raven re-joins the team in issue #12, and the new Speedy joins the team in Green Arrow #46, first appearing in the Titans book in issue #21. Starfire left the Teen Titans for the Outsiders. During the “Insiders” crossover with The Outsiders (issues #24–25), Superboy comes under Lex Luthor's control and attacks the team, afterwards taking a leave of absence that ends during Infinite Crisis. The new series sees the team’s relocation from the east to the west coast, its headquarters located in San Francisco instead of the traditional New York City location. The new Titans Tower also has a memorial hall with statues of the fallen Titans.

One Year Later: The new Teen Titans

In the one year jump after Infinite Crisis, Robin has returned to the Teen Titans, while Wonder Girl has quit and has been fighting the Brotherhood of Evil. Starfire is missing in action after her journey into space. Raven's whereabouts are unknown, and Beast Boy has left the Titans to join the new Doom Patrol, along with former Titans Bumblebee and Herald, now called Vox. Speedy is said to be currently on an island with Connor Hawke. Kid Flash has aged into adulthood and become the fourth Flash. Cyborg has been damaged and inactive since his return from space, but 16-year-old genius fraternal twins Wendy and Marvin, have repaired him and given him new abilities. New members include Kid Devil and Ravager.

During the lost year, at least 24[43] new members joined the team, all of them short-term. Without proper leadership or the feeling of family the Titans normally provides, none of the new members could get along and work together.

Robin, Kid Devil, and Ravager reform the Teen Titans along with Wonder Girl, Cyborg, Raven, new member Miss Martian, and a resurrected Jericho.[44] Robin tells Wonder Girl that he believes Raven could bring Superboy back to life, as she did with Jericho.[45] Raven, reveals that she can not because Conner's soul has moved on.[46] A memorial to Superboy has been erected outside Titans Tower. Unknown to the other Titans, Robin has secretly been attempting to re-clone Superboy, with nearly 100 failed attempts. This was until Wonder Girl found the lab, where she and Robin shared an unexpected kiss brought on by their mutual pain.

The Titans face a group calling themselves "Titans East," led by Deathstroke and intent on defeating the Titans. Deathstroke's team includes Risk, Sun Girl, Batgirl, Kid Crusader, Match, Inertia, Duela Dent, and Enigma.[47] Deathstroke has been manipulating his Titans East, blackmailing Risk, drugging Batgirl, and giving Inertia "Velocity 9", a drug which allows him to regain his super-speed without adverse effects. Robin cures Batgirl, and she, along with Duela Dent, who defects, allows the Teen Titans to gain the upper hand, and defeat Deathstroke's team.

Discussing the story arc, Geoff Johns referred to Titans East as juvenile delinquents who will be causing trouble, and described Risk as the first white trash superhero.[citation needed]

Soon after, events related to the Countdown story arc affect the Titans. Two members, Duela Dent and Bart Allen are killed in separate events. At the same time, the team reorganizes. Cyborg leaves the team for his own pursuits, Supergirl joins the team, and Blue Beetle is invited to Titans Tower to train whenever he wants.

The Titans Tomorrow return, allied with Lex Luthor, and intent on altering the present to fit their future. During the fight, Miss Martian's future counterpart reveals the rationale behind the Sinestro Corps and their war to subjugate the universe. The vision spurs Miss Martian to act, and she frees Robin, who again confronts his future self, who has become Batman. Cassie intervenes, and changes the future by kissing Robin, causing the future versions to fade out. The Titans then join the fight against the Sinestro Corps.

After their encounter with their future selves, Supergirl quits after Wonder Girl confesses their friendship is based on her sense of missing Conner. Cassie and Tim begin a brief relationship, while Kid Devil pines for Rose. Miss Martian finds that her future self has implanted a piece of her demented psyche within M'Gann's mind. Kid Devil is left in Titans Tower alone and throws a massive party for local Titans fans, which leads to him being captured by Dreadbolt.

A week later, while Robin and Wonder Girl discuss Kid Devil's absence, Ravager and the twins are attacked inside the tower by Persuader and Copperhead, who are being directed by the Clock King. Disruptor is sent to capture Miss Martian. Clock King describes his group as Terror Titans, and intends to sell his captives to the "Dark Side Club"[48] to fight in arena combat. Though Ravager rescues the twins, she explodes the Tower in an effort to force her opponents to reveal Kid Devil's location. M'gann frees Kid Devil from Clock King's psychological conditioning. Robin, Wonder Girl, and Blue Beetle arrive, and help defeat the Terror Titans, freeing their teammates. Following the Terror Titans attack, Kid Devil sets out to capture Shockwave and is, to his dismay, helped by Blue Beetle. Although they don't get along and argue the whole time they eventually work out their problems and stop Shockwave, with the help of Kid Devil's new teleportation powers. After the battle Eddie takes the code name Red Devil, along with a new costume, assuring his teammates that the change is not in relation to his future counterpart. During some down time Marvin and Wendy find themselves tired of being the Titans "maids" and think about leaving when they find a dog on Titans' Island. The dog is quickly named Wonderdog. Miss Martian suddenly tells her teammates she has some issues to work out and leaves the team assuring them she'd be back. While searching the tower for Wonderdog, Wendy stumbles upon Marvin's dead body at the feet of a transformed Wonderdog. She tries to run and call for help but is mauled by the beast. Wonderdog then flees to his awaiting master, the son of Ares, King Lycus. Wendy survives the attack, but is left severely injured and apparently in a coma.[49] Her father, the Calculator, has since vowed revenge against the team.

In the aftermath of the Batman R.I.P storyline, Robin decides to leave the group for an undetermined period of time and leaves the task of assembling and leading a new roster to Wonder Girl. Misfit applies to join the team while Traci 13 is being considered as a possible new member. After the Titans fight off the returned Brother Blood alongside Kid Eternity, Traci 13 and Misfit both leave. Furthermore, Red Devil loses his powers after Blood absorbs them from him. However, Miss Martian returns with several teen heroes liberated from the Dark Side Club. After proposing membership to several of the heroes, the new team is formed: Wonder Girl, Blue Beetle, and the now powerless Red Devil are joined by Kid Eternity and Static; Aquagirl and Miss Martian rejoin the team; and Bombshell decides to formally join.[50][51] In Teen Titans #74, Red Devil/Eddie is killed and Kid Eternity is kidnapped by the Calculator. In Teen Titans #75, Beast Boy returns to the team, and Raven returns as well in #76. Superboy and Kid Flash are recruited by Cyborg and return to the team in #81.

During the events of the Blackest Night crossover, a number of dead Titans are resurrected as members of the Black Lantern Corps. With Static, Miss Martian, Blue Beetle, Raven, Bombshell, and Aquagirl gone due to being given the day off by Beast Boy, an emergency team consisting of Donna Troy, Cyborg, Wonder Girl, Starfire, Beast Boy, Kid Flash, and the new Hawk and Dove, is formed to defend Titans Tower. In the ensuing battle, Hawk is killed after her predecessor Hank Hall tears her heart out.

Starting in the May 2010 issue of Teen Titans, a new back-up feature called The Coven began running in the book. The backup stars Black Alice, Zachary Zatara, and Traci 13.[52]

In issue 83 Blue Beetle leaves the team to visit his mother, and is drafted into the new Justice League International during the events of Justice League: Generation Lost. Though initially an unwilling member of the team, Blue Beetle eventually tells Booster Gold that he intends to stay on as a member of the JLI.[53] In Batgirl #12, Kid Eternity is revealed to have been beaten to death by the Calculator.

Writer J. T. Krul will be taking over the book with issue #88, and penciller Nicola Scott will be taking over as the book's artist. The teaser for issue 88 shows a revised Teen Titans line-up consisting of Superboy, Wonder Girl, Raven, Beast Boy, Kid Flash, and Ravager. The Titans undergo this roster change in issue #87, the final issue before Krul's run. Following a mission to an alternate dimension to rescue Raven, the team is torn asunder. Bombshell and Aquagirl are missing in action, Miss Martian is left in a coma, and Static is left powerless. Following a farewell dinner, Static leaves with Cyborg to go to Cadmus Labs in order to find a way to restore his powers, and Miss Martian is taken with them for medical examination. The issue ends with an announcement for a new Static ongoing series, which will supposedly launch in 2011, as well as a teaser for the new roster debuting in the next issue.

Damian Wayne, Tim Drake's successor and the current Robin, was announced as a new member of the team shortly before Krul's run on the title began.[54] Robin officially joined the team in issue #89. It was also announced that following his apparent departure from the team, Static would be receiving his own series.[55] A piece of promotional art from Krul's first issue showed Jackson Hyde, the new Aqualad, arriving at Titans Tower. However due to the cancellation of the title, Aqualad never officially appeared in the series.[56] In January 2011, the new Titan Solstice made her debut appearance in the January 2011 Wonder Girl one-shot. She was brought over into the main Teen Titans title following the crossover with the Red Robin series.[57] During the Red Robin crossover, Tim asks the Titans for help in tracking down the Calculator after he tries to kill his friend Tam Fox, which leads to Tim eventually rejoining the team (albeit as Red Robin rather than Robin). Followng this, Damian quits the team.[58]

The book concluded with a three part storyline spanning from issues 98 to 100, which saw Superboy-Prime returning to destroy the team. A large group of former Titans arrived to assist their comrades, and the series ultimately ended with Prime being trapped in the Source Wall, seemingly for eternity. The remainder of the issue consisted of pieces of artwork showcasing the various Teen Titans who appeared in that incarnation of the title, contributed by various DC artists.

Titans (vol. 2, 2008–2011)

Titans (vol. 2)
Titans2008 01.jpg
Cover for Titans #1 (2008). Art by Ethan Van Sciver.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
Schedule Monthly
Format Ongoing
Publication date April 2008 – August 2011
Number of issues 38
Creative team
Writer(s) Judd Winick
Sean McKeever
J. T. Krul
Eric Wallace
Penciller(s) Ian Churchill
Joe Benitez
Julian Lopez
Howard Porter
Fabrizio Fiorentino
Inker(s) Norm Rapmund
Creator(s) Judd Winick
Ian Churchill

A second ongoing Teen Titans series, titled Titans,[59] launched in April 2008 and written by Judd Winick. Issue one was drawn by Ian Churchill and Norm Rapmund, issue 2 by Joe Benitez and Victor Llamas. The opening storyline follows the events of the Teen Titans East Special one-shot that was released in November 2007, revealing all of the members of Cyborg's team survived the attack, except Power Boy, dead after being impaled. The team's new line up consists of former New Teen Titans Nightwing, Flash, Donna Troy, Beast Boy, Raven, Cyborg, Red Arrow, and Starfire.[60]

In the first story arc of the series, Trigon makes a series of attacks on every member, former or current, of the Teen Titans, and Trigon has "another child" that, unlike Raven, will assist him in his attack. After reclaiming Titans Island and establishing a headquarters on the East River, Cyborg set out to create an East Coast Titans team. However, during a training session the team was brutally massacred by an unseen evil force. Though Cyborg survived the attack, Titans members past and present were attacked by demonic entities across the globe. Raven, sensing Trigon's presence once again, called upon her former Titans allies to defeat her fiendish father.

After rescuing several Titans and questioning Trigon himself, the Titans learned that Trigon himself was not behind the attacks but rather has three children to prepare his second invasion for him. After investigating potential carriers of his children, the Titans realize the bestial assaults were actually orchestrated by Raven's three grown half brothers—Jacob, Jared, and Jesse. Working together as a team, the Titans thwarted the Sons of Trigon and prevented Trigon's invasion plan. Following this adventure, Raven chose her adopted family over her biological family, Red Arrow decided to join his former teammates (although both he and Flash retain their JLA membership), and the Titans were together as a team once again.

Following this, the team has settled themselves down at Titans Tower (supposedly the New York base), where they attempt to recover from recent events. While Dick and Kory attempt to make a decision on where their current relationship will lead, Raven and Beast Boy go out together on a "not-a-date". During this, Raven reveals that since she faced her brothers, she has begun to feel as if she is losing control and slipping back under the thrall of her father's powers. Although Beast Boy rejects the idea, he is unexpectedly blind-sided as Raven gives in to her darker side, under the influence of her half-brother's coaxing. Using her teleporting powers, she and the Sons of Trigon vanish, leaving a distraught Beast Boy behind to warn the others. Using a gem stone that carries Raven's pure essence within it, the Titans manage to free Raven of her father's evil, although there will always be the possibility of it happening again. As a result, Raven leaves each Titan with an amulet that can be used to cleanse any evil influence from her body.

Following this, Jericho, still inhabiting the body of Superboy's clone, Match, arrives, frantically asking for help due to the fact he cannot separate himself from Match's body. The current story features Jericho who has turned renegade again. Shortly after a struggle with Jericho, who it is revealed is under control of the numerous people that he has taken command of over the years, Nightwing resigns from the Titans, due to his new responsibilities in Gotham.

Brightest Day: Titans - Villains for Hire

Promotional image for Titans: Villains for Hire Special, featuring the team. Art by Fabrizio Fiorentino.

At Comic-Con, there was an announcement saying that Cyborg, Donna Troy, and Starfire will leave the team to pursue the JLA. Red Arrow, with his daughter Lian, has already relocated and is no longer involved with the Titans, but there will be a spotlight on him in issue #23 after what happened to him in Justice League: Cry for Justice #5. After a series of spotlight issues[61][62] Final Crisis Aftermath: INK writer-artist creative team Eric Wallace and Fabrizio Fiorentino will take over the Titans book. The series will see Deathstroke take over the team along with Tattooed Man and Titans character Cheshire.[63]

A solicit for this new team's first issue also shows a young redhead woman who apparently has the ability to manipulate fire.[64] This character has since been named as Carla Monetti, Cinder. Osiris, a former member of the Teen Titans during the One Year Later gap, and who had been brought back to life after the events of Blackest Night, was also introduced as a member. In addition, the final issue of the limited series, Justice League: The Rise of Arsenal ended with an advertisement stating that Arsenal's storyline would continue in Titans: Villains for Hire, and he was later announced as a member of the team on DC's website.[65]

The team made its debut in the one-shot, Titans: Villains for Hire, where they are hired to assassinate Ryan Choi in his home in Ivy Town. The issue quickly became the subject of controversy due to the violent death of Choi, with allegations of racial insensitivity being leveled at DC over the decision to kill off a relatively high profile Asian character.[66]

Following the one-shot, the team's inaugural storyline involved them being hired to assassinate Lex Luthor following the events of War of the Supermen. This is ultimately revealed to be a ruse set up by Luthor and Deathstroke in order to draw out the real assassin, a shape-shifter named Facade, who had apparently killed and impersonated a woman on Luthor's security detail.

Following several adventures, the Titans are confronted by Ray Palmer and the Justice League for their hand in Ryan's murder. The Titans are nearly defeated, but manage to escape thanks to an intervention from the newly-resurrected Isis.[67] Following the battle with the League, Titans concluded with a two-part storyline which saw the return of Slade's son, Jericho. The series ended with Arsenal battling Slade for control of the team and the Titans ultimately disbanding and choosing to go their separate ways (and Arsenal taking Jericho under his wing), leaving Slade alone once again.[68]

New 52 Reboot (Teen Titans vol. 4, 2011-Present)

Cover for Teen Titans, vol. 4, #1 (September 2011). Art by Brett Booth and Norm Rapmund.

DC Comics rebooted Teen Titans with issue #1 in September 2011 with a roster of Red Robin, Kid Flash, Superboy, Wonder Girl, and three new characters, one of who was initially named Bugg. Now called 'Skitter'. [69] Additionally, former Titans Static and Blue Beetle will each be given their own titles.[70][71] The reboot was launched by writer Scott Lobdell with former Justice League of America artist Brett Booth providing interiors.

Lobdell has stated a desire to create a more diverse Titans roster, drawing parallels to the non-white teenagers he created during his run on the Generation X title at Marvel Comics. In keeping with that goal, three of the seven Titans are people of color.[72] One of the new Titans is Bunker, a Mexican teenager named Miguel Barragan who can create force fields. Miguel is also gay, making him the first homosexual member of the Teen Titans since Hero Cruz, who was a member of the short-lived Titans L.A. team for one issue.[73] The other two Titans were revealed to be Skitter, an African American girl with insect-themed powers, and Solstice, an Indian heroine created by JT Krul near the end of his run on the prior series.

In Issue #1, an organization called N.O.W.H.E.R.E. seeks to control the young metahumans of Earth. The comic opens with Kid Flash showboating and trying to stop a fire, but ends up making the house explode. Tim Drake, now Red Robin, seeks out the metahuman thief known as Wonder Girl who is attacked by N.O.W.H.E.R.E. Wonder Girl reveals her metahuman powers to Red Robin as they fight N.O.W.H.E.R.E forces. She dislikes the label 'Wonder Girl', and prefers to be called by her real name, Cassie. Meanwhile, Superboy is in a N.O.W.H.E.R.E. test facility scheduled to be released.

In Issue #2, Red Robin is bunking at Wonder Girl's home. He isn't sure why the enemy hasn't yet been able to track her down. Red Robin investigates a girl about her metahuman sister, Skitter. The girl has already given information to N.O.W.H.E.R.E. agents. Red Robin locates Skitter, and fights N.O.W.H.E.R.E. metahuman mercenaries in Los Angeles sewers. Skitter, a metahuman insectoid, subdues the mercenaries, and tries to kill Red Robin. Wonder Girl secretly followed Red Robin into the sewers, and saves him. Red Robin has to find a way to get Skitter out, but Wonder Girl refuses to help. She tells Red Robin they are even, and to lose her number.

Meanwhile, Superboy is convinced that he will earn his freedom by bringing in Wonder Girl. And so he studies her battle footage. Kid Flash is locked in a N.O.W..H.E.R.E. cell. He is talking to a kid in another cell named, Danny. When Kid Flash escapes, he notices that there is nobody in Danny's cell. But he sees a girl in another cell named, Solstice.


Members

Red Robin - Tim Drake

Kid Flash - Bart Allen

Wonder Girl - Cassandra Sandsmark

Skitter - Celine ?

Superboy

Collected editions

Silver Age Teen Titans

Trade paperbacks published by DC Comics collecting the most well-known adventures of this era:

Title Material collected Pages ISBN
Showcase Presents Teen Titans, Vol. 1 The Brave and the Bold #54, #60
Showcase #59
Teen Titans #1–18
528 1-4012-0788-X
Showcase Presents Teen Titans, Vol. 2 Teen Titans #19–36
The Brave and the Bold #83, #94
World's Finest Comics #205
512 1-4012-1252-2
The Silver Age Teen Titans Archives, Vol. 1 The Brave and the Bold #54, #60
Showcase #59
Teen Titans #1–5
203 1-4012-0071-0
Giant Teen Titans Annual #1 (1967 issue, published 1999) Showcase #59
Teen Titans #4
The Flash #164
Wonder Woman #144
80 1-5638-9486-6

New Teen Titans

Hardbacks and trade paperbacks published by DC Comics collecting the most well-known adventures of this era:

Title Material collected Pages ISBN
DC Archives: The New Teen Titans, Vol. 1 DC Comics Presents #26
The New Teen Titans #1–8
230 1-5638-9485-8
DC Archives: The New Teen Titans, Vol. 2 The New Teen Titans #9–16
Best of DC (Blue Ribbon Digest) #18
240 1-5638-9951-5
DC Archives: The New Teen Titans, Vol. 3 The New Teen Titans #17–20
Tales of the New Teen Titans #1–4
228 1-4012-1144-5
DC Archives: The New Teen Titans, Vol. 4 The New Teen Titans #21–27, Annual #1 224 1-4012-1959-4
The New Teen Titans Omnibus, Vol. 1 DC Comics Presents #26
The New Teen Titans #1–20
Best of DC (Blue Ribbon Digest) #18
Tales of the New Teen Titans #1–4
684 140123108X
The New Teen Titans Omnibus, Vol. 2 The New Teen Titans #21–40,
Tales of the Teen Titans #41–44,
Annual #1-3
736 1-4012-1959-4
Terra Incognito The New Teen Titans #28–34, select pages from #26, Annual #2 224 1-4012-0972-6
The Judas Contract The New Teen Titans #39–40
Tales of the Teen Titans #41–44, Annual #3
192 0-9302-8934-X
The Terror of Trigon The New Teen Titans vol. 2, #1–5 134 1-5638-9944-2
Who is Donna Troy? The New Teen Titans #38
Tales of the Teen Titans #50
The New Titans #50-54, select pages from #55
"Who Was Donna Troy?" back-up story from Teen Titans/Outsiders Secret Files 2003
224 1-4012-0724-3

The Titans

As yet, only the beginning and end of this era have been collected in trade paperback form:

Title Material collected Pages ISBN
JLA/Titans: The Technis Imperative JLA/Titans #1–3
Titans Secret Files #1
144 1-5638-9563-3
Titans/Young Justice: Graduation Day Titans/Young Justice: Graduation Day #1–3
(see also The Death and Return of Donna Troy below)
55 1-4012-0176-8

Teen Titans (2003–present)

Note: Issues #27-28, penciled by artist Rob Liefeld and written by Gail Simone, are not collected in any of the trade paperbacks. The two issues, along with Outsiders vol. 3, #27-28, were designed as last minute fill-in issues, after DC Comics decided to publish The Return of Donna Troy (originally intended to run in the pages of the aforementioned issues) as a stand-alone miniseries.[citation needed] Teen Titans vol. 3, #27-28, were finally reprinted in DC Comics Presents: Brightest Day #3 (Feb. 2011), also including Legends of the DC Universe #26-27 (tying in with characters spotlighted in Brightest Day). Issues #48-49, which tie in with the "Amazons Attack" Wonder Woman story, are likewise not collected in a trade paperback.

Titans (2003–2011)

Vol. # Title Material collected Pages ISBN
1 A Kid's Game Teen Titans vol. 3, #1–7
Teen Titans/Outsiders Secret Files 2003
192 978-1401203085
2 Family Lost Teen Titans vol. 3, #8–12, #½ 136 978-1401202385
3 Beast Boys and Girls Beast Boy #1–4 (1999 limited series)
Teen Titans vol. 3, #13–15
168 978-1401204594
4 The Future is Now Teen Titans/Legion Special
Teen Titans vol. 3, #16–23
224 978-1401204754
Teen Titans/Outsiders: The Insiders Teen Titans vol. 3, #24–26
Outsiders vol. 3, #24–25, #28
144 978-1401209261
Teen Titans/Outsiders: The Death and Return of Donna Troy Titans/Young Justice: Graduation Day #1–3
Teen Titans/Outsiders Secret Files 2003
DC Special: The Return of Donna Troy #1–4
176 1-4012-0931-9
5 Life and Death Teen Titans vol. 3, #29–33, Annual #1
Robin #146–147
Infinite Crisis #5–6
208 978-1401209780
6 Titans Around the World Teen Titans vol. 3, #34–41 192 978-1401212179
7 Titans East Teen Titans vol. 3, #42–47 144 978-1401214470
8 Titans of Tomorrow Teen Titans vol. 3, #50–54 144 978-1401218072
9 On the Clock Teen Titans vol. 3, #55–61 160 978-1401219710
10 Changing of the Guard Teen Titans vol. 3, #62–69 192 978-1401223090
11 Deathtrap Teen Titans vol. 3, #70, Annual 2009
Titans vol. 2, #12–13
Vigilante vol. 3, #5–6
192 978-1401225094
12 Child's Play Teen Titans vol. 3, #71–78 208 978-1401226411
13 Hunt for Raven Teen Titans vol. 3, #79–87 208 978-1401230388
Vol. # Title Material collected Pages ISBN
1 Old Friends Titans East Special
Titans vol. 2, #1–6
200 1-4012-1991-8
2 Lockdown Titans vol. 2, #7–11 128 1-4012-2476-8
3 Fractured Titans vol. 2, #14, #16–22 192 1-4012-2776-7
4 Villains for Hire Titans: Villains for Hire Special
Titans vol. 2, #24–27
160 1-4012-3048-2

In other media

Animation

The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure (1967–1968)

The Filmation adaptation of the Teen Titans.

The team's first animated appearance was in Teen Titans segments of the 1967 Filmation series The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure, featuring Speedy, Kid Flash, Wonder Girl, and Aqualad. They are voiced by Pat Harrington, Jr., Tommy Cook, Julie Bennett, and Jerry Dexter.

New Teen Titans (1983)

In 1983, Hanna-Barbera created an animated version of The New Teen Titans which was ultimately not picked up by ABC.

Anti-drug commercial (1984)

Wonder Girl, Starfire, Raven, Cyborg, Beast Boy, Kid Flash, and Protector (temporarily replacing Robin) appeared on a 1984 Keebler anti-drug commercial.[74]

Teen Titans (2003–2006)

The Teen Titans from the 2003–2006 animated series.

A Teen Titans animated series ran on Cartoon Network from July 19, 2003, to January 16, 2006. Drawn in an anime-style based art form, the show featured a 1980s-era lineup of Robin, Starfire, Beast Boy, Raven, and Cyborg as teenagers, voiced respectively by Scott Menville, Hynden Walch, Greg Cipes, Tara Strong, and Khary Payton. Though the series adapted some Wolfman/Pérez storylines like "The Judas Contract" and "The Terror of Trigon" and featured versions of many other Titans comic book characters like Aqualad, Speedy, Deathstroke (named Slade due to censor issues), Bumblebee, and Terra, it followed its own continuity and introduced new characters. In addition to stand-alone episodes, each season featured a main story arc. Season 1 focused on Robin's search for Slade; in the finale you finally see Slade's mask and outfit out of the darkness. In season 2, based on "The Judas Contract", they met a girl named Terra. In the end she saves the city and turns to stone after being Slade's second apprentice. Terra returns in season 5. Season 3 features Cyborg's numerous conflicts with Brother Blood and the Hive. Season 4, an adaptation of "The Terror of Trigon", concludes with what is supposed to be the end of the world, but is stopped by Raven. In season 5, the Teen Titans come against the "Brotherhood of Evil", composed of almost all the Teen Titans' past enemies. After the fifth and final season, the movie Teen Titans: Trouble in Tokyo premiered on Kids' WB! on September 16, 2006.

The series spawned a related comic book, Teen Titans Go!, and three video games.

Teen Titans: The Judas Contract

At Comic-Con 2006, a Judas Contract animated movie was announced. Marv Wolfman and George Pérez, creators of The New Teen Titans, were assigned to work on the direct-to-DVD movie. However, the film has been cancelled due to a lack of a "broad fanbase appeal", which would have put it ahead of other projects.[75]

Justice League: The New Frontier (2008)

The Titans appear in a brief background cameo during the closing JFK speech in the 2008 animated film Justice League: The New Frontier.

Young Justice (2010–)

In November 2010, the Young Justice animated television series was launched, featuring teenaged superhero sidekicks who are members of a fictional covert operation team called Young Justice under the authority of the Justice League. Despite its title, the show is not an adaptation of the Young Justice series of comics, but rather, an adaptation of the entire DC Universe with a focus on young superheroes.[76][77] The television series is based on a concept of a cross between Teen Titans and Young Justice (not an adaptation of solely one or the other),[76] drawing influences from 1960s Teen Titans run and the 1990s Young Justice run, in addition to the recent Teen Titans and Young Justice comics.[77] The line-up reflects the variety of sources on which the show is based: Superboy, Dick Grayson as Robin, Wally West as Kid Flash, Miss Martian, Artemis, and Kaldur'ahm as Aqualad.

DC Nation (2012)

During the premier of Green Lantern: The Animated Series on Cartoon Network, it was revealed in 2012 there will be a new block of animation with the Green Lantern and Young Justice shows alongside animated shorts. One of these shorts previewed was some Chibi-version of the Teen Titans using the art style and voice actors of Teen Titans.

Live action

Warner Bros. is also in development on a live-action Teen Titans movie in which Robin is the only character so far. Akiva Goldsman and Mark Verheiden are writing it.[78] As of 2011, no further information concerning the progress of the movie were released.

Cultural references

In a skit in the Robot Chicken episode "They Took My Thumbs", the original Titans line-up (Robin, Wonder Girl, Speedy, Kid Flash, and Aqualad) join their mentors on the Justice League's satellite headquarters for "Bring Your Sidekick to Work Day." Various hijinks ensue, and at the end, the kids are teleported back to Earth, only to end up immolated in a lava pit on another planet. The older heroes blame Martian Manhunter, who they suspected of being jealous of them for having sidekicks, but he blames his "invisible sidekick, Martian Boyhunter" for the sabotage. As they all jump on Martian Manunter, back at the teleportation console "Martian Boyhunter" materializes, snickering to himself at the mischief he created. In an earlier episode, "Vegetable Funfest", the animated series Titans (Robin, Starfire, Cyborg, Beast Boy, and Raven) are out-matched by a giant monster, and they allow two new "heroes" to join their ranks... Beavis and Butt-head.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Wonder Girl refers to Wonder Woman's mother, Queen Hippolyta, as "Mother" in her first two appearances, The Brave and the Bold #60 and Showcase #59.
  2. ^ MacDonald, Heidi D. (October 1982). "DC's Titanic Success". The Comics Journal (76): 46–51. 
  3. ^ Levitz, Paul (2010). 75 Years of DC Comics The Art of Modern Mythmaking. Taschen America. p. 454. ISBN 9783836519816. "[Marv Wolfman and George Pérez] created a title that would be DC's sales leader throughout the 1980s." 
  4. ^ Teen Titans (1976) at the Grand Comics Database
  5. ^ The name "Wonder Girl" itself had been regularly used for a variety of flashback tales of Wonder Woman's childhood exploits.
  6. ^ "Teen Titans #4: 'The Secret Olympic Heroes' (August 1966)". Grand Comics Database. http://www.comics.org/details.lasso?id=20249. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  7. ^ "Teen Titans #11: 'Monster Bait!' (October 1967)". Grand Comics Database. http://www.comics.org/details.lasso?id=21341. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  8. ^ a b "Teen Titans #19: 'Stepping Stones for a Giant Killer' (February 1969)". Grand Comics Database. http://www.comics.org/details.lasso?id=22452. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  9. ^ "Teen Titans #28: 'Blindspot' (August 1970)". Grand Comics Database. http://www.comics.org/details.lasso?id=23636. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  10. ^ "Teen Titans #29: 'Captives!' (October 1970)". Grand Comics Database. http://www.comics.org/details.lasso?id=23763. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  11. ^ "Teen Titans #30: 'Some Call It Noise' (December 1970)". Grand Comics Database. http://www.comics.org/details.lasso?id=23885. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  12. ^ Teen Titans #25
  13. ^ Teen Titans #26
  14. ^ Teen Titans #6
  15. ^ Teen Titans #21
  16. ^ Teen Titans #32
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  18. ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1980s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. "[The New Teen Titans] went on to become DC's most popular comic team of its day. Not only the springboard for the following month's The New Teen Titans #1, the preview's momentous story also featured the first appearance of future DC mainstays Cyborg, Starfire, and Raven." 
  19. ^ a b "Comics Buyer's Guide Fan Awards Archives". CBGextra.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-16. http://web.archive.org/web/20080516031527/http://www.cbgxtra.com/default.aspx?tabid=42&view=topic&forumid=34&postid=147. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
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  21. ^ The New Teen Titans: The Judas Contract. June 1991. ISBN 978-0930289348. http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/asin/093028934X. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  22. ^ Tales of the Teen Titans #44 (July 1984)
  23. ^ The New Teen Titans vol. 2, #1-5 (August 1984 – February 1985)
  24. ^ The New Teen Titans #8 (June 1981)
  25. ^ The New Teen Titans #38 (January 1984)
  26. ^ Tales of the Teen Titans #50 (February 1985)
  27. ^ "George Pérez signs contract with DC, Takes leave of absence from Titans". The Comics Journal (92): 16. August 1984. 
  28. ^ The New Titans #73
  29. ^ The New Titans #74
  30. ^ The New Titans #77
  31. ^ a b The New Titans #0
  32. ^ The New Titans #116
  33. ^ The New Titans #121
  34. ^ The New Titans #122
  35. ^ The New Titans #123
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  37. ^ Teen Titans Spotlight On: Starfire #1 (August 1986)
  38. ^ Teen Titans Spotlight at the Comic Book DB. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
  39. ^ Teen Titans Spotlight On: Teen Titans #21 at the Comic Book DB. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
  40. ^ "Sean McKeever Leaves Teen Titans With #71". Newsarama. March 19, 2009. http://www.newsarama.com/comics/030919-Titans-McKeever.html. 
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  42. ^ "C2E2: DC Nation". Comic Book Resources. April 16, 2010. http://www.comicbookresources.com/?page=article&id=25783. 
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External links


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