Charles de Freycinet


Charles de Freycinet
Charles de Freycinet
43rd Prime Minister of France
In office
28 December 1879 – 23 September 1880
Preceded by William Waddington
Succeeded by Jules Ferry
46th Prime Minister of France
In office
30 January 1882 – 7 August 1882
Preceded by Léon Gambetta
Succeeded by Charles Duclerc
51st Prime Minister of France
In office
7 January 1886 – 16 December 1886
Preceded by Henri Brisson
Succeeded by René Goblet
57th Prime Minister of France
In office
17 March 1890 – 27 February 1892
Preceded by Pierre Tirard
Succeeded by Émile Loubet
Personal details
Born 14 November 1828
Died 14 May 1923(1923-05-14) (aged 94)
Political party None

Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet (French pronunciation: [ʃaʁl də fʁɛjsinɛ]; 14 November 1828 – 14 May 1923) was a French statesman and Prime Minister during the Third Republic; he belonged to the Opportunist Republicans faction. He was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences, and in 1890, the fourteen member to occupy seat the Académie française.

Contents

Biography

Early years

He was born at Foix (Ariège) and educated at the École Polytechnique. He entered the government service as a mining engineer (see X-Mines). In 1858 he was appointed traffic manager to the Compagnie de chemins de fer du Midi, a post in which he showed a remarkable talent for organization, and in 1862 returned to the engineering service, attaining in 1886 the rank of inspector-general. He was sent on several special scientific missions, including one to the UK, on which he wrote a notable Mémoire sur le travail des femmes et des enfants dans les manufactures de l'Angleterre (1867).

Government service

On the establishment of the Third Republic in September 1870, he offered his services to Léon Gambetta, was appointed prefect of the department of Tarn-et-Garonne, and in October became chief of the military cabinet. It was mainly his powers of organization that enabled Gambetta to raise army after army to oppose the invading Germans. He showed himself a strategist of no mean order; but the policy of dictating operations to the generals in the field was not attended with happy results. The friction between him and General d'Aurelle de Paladines resulted in the loss of the advantage temporarily gained at Orleans, and he was responsible for the campaign in the east, which ended in the destruction of the army of Charles Denis Bourbaki.

In 1871 he published a defence of his administration under the title of La Guerre en province pendant le siège de Paris. He entered the Senate in 1876 as a follower of Gambetta, and in December 1877 became minister of public works in the cabinet of Jules Armand Stanislaus Dufaure. He carried a great scheme for the gradual acquisition of the railways by the state and the construction of new lines at a cost of three milliards, and for the development of the canal system at a further cost of one milliard. He retained his post in the ministry of William Henry Waddington, whom he succeeded in December 1879 as prime minister and minister for foreign affairs. He passed an amnesty for the Communards, but in attempting to steer a middle course (between the Catholics and the anti-clericalists) on the question of the religious associations, he lost Gambetta's support, and resigned in September 1880.

In January 1882 he again became prime minister and foreign minister. His refusal to join England in the bombardment of Alexandria was the death-knell of French influence in Egypt. He attempted to compromise by occupying the Isthmus of Suez, but the vote of credit was rejected in the Chamber by 417 votes to 75, and the ministry resigned. He returned to office in April 1885 as foreign minister in Henri Brisson's cabinet, and retained that post when, in January 1886, he succeeded to the premiership.

He came to power with an ambitious programme of internal reform; but apart from settling the question of the exiled pretenders, his successes were chiefly in the sphere of colonial extension. In spite of his unrivalled skill as a parliamentary tactician, he failed to keep his party together, and was defeated on 3 December 1886. In the following year, after two unsuccessful attempts to construct new ministries, he stood for the presidency of the republic; but the radicals, to whom his opportunism was distasteful, turned the scale against him by transferring the votes to Marie François Sadi Carnot.

Minister of War

In April 1888 he became minister of war in Charles Floquet's cabinet—the first civilian since 1848 to hold that office. His services to France in this capacity were the crowning achievement of his life, and he enjoyed the conspicuous honour of holding his office without a break for five years through as many successive administrations—those of Floquet and Pierre Tirard, his own fourth ministry (March 1890 – February 1892), and the Émile Loubet and Alexandre Ribot ministries. To him were due the introduction of the three-years' service and the establishment of a general staff, a supreme council of war, and the army commands. His premiership was marked by heated debates on the clerical question, and it was a hostile vote on his Bill against the religious associations that caused the fall of his cabinet. He failed to clear himself entirely of complicity in the Panama scandals, and in January 1893 resigned the ministry of war.

In November 1898 he once more became minister of war in the Charles Dupuy cabinet, but resigned office on 6 May 1899.

Prime Minister of France

1st Ministry

Changes
  • 17 May 1880 – Ernest Constans succeeds Lepère as Minister of the Interior and Worship.

2nd Ministry

  • Charles de Freycinet – President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Jean-Baptiste Billot – Minister of War
  • René Goblet – Minister of the Interior
  • Léon Say – Minister of Finance
  • Gustave Humbert – Minister of Justice and Worship
  • Jean Bernard Jauréguiberry – Minister of Marine and Colonies
  • Jules Ferry – Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts
  • François de Mahy – Minister of Agriculture
  • Henri Varroy – Minister of Public Works
  • Adolphe Cochery – Minister of Posts and Telegraphs
  • Pierre Tirard – Minister of Commerce

3rd Ministry

  • Charles de Freycinet – President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Georges Boulanger – Minister of War
  • Ferdinand Sarrien – Minister of the Interior
  • Marie François Sadi Carnot – Minister of Finance
  • Charles Demôle – Minister of Justice
  • Théophile Aube – Minister of Marine and Colonies
  • René Goblet – Minister of Public Instruction, Fine Arts, and Worship
  • Jules Develle – Minister of Agriculture
  • Charles Baïhaut – Minister of Public Works
  • Félix Granet – Minister of Posts and Telegraphs
  • Édouard Locroy – Minister of Commerce and Industry
Changes
  • 4 November 1886 – Édouard Millaud succeeds Baïhaut as Minister of Public Works

4th Ministry

  • Charles de Freycinet – President of the Council and Minister of War
  • Alexandre Ribot – Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Ernest Constans – Minister of the Interior
  • Maurice Rouvier – Minister of Finance
  • Armand Fallières – Minister of Justice and Worship
  • Jules Roche – Minister of the Colonies and of Commerce and Industry
  • Édouard Barbey – Minister of Marine
  • Léon Bourgeois – Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts
  • Jules Develle – Minister of Agriculture
  • Yves Guyot – Minister of Public Works

Publications

  • Traité de mécanique rationnelle (1858)
  • De l'analyse infinitésimale (1860, revised ed., 1881)
  • Des pentes économiques en chemin de fer (1861)
  • Emploi des eaux d'égout en agriculture (1869)
  • Principes de l'assainissement des villes (1870)
  • Traité d'assainissement industriel (1870)
  • Essai sur la philosophie des sciences (1896)
  • La Question d'Égypte (1905)
  • Contemporain: 'Pensées contributed under the pseudonym of Alceste"

References

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Michel Graëff
Minister of Public Works
1877–1879
Succeeded by
Henri Varroy
Preceded by
William Waddington
Prime Minister of France
1879–1880
Succeeded by
Jules Ferry
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1879–1880
Succeeded by
Jules Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire
Preceded by
Léon Gambetta
Prime Minister of France
1882
Succeeded by
Charles Duclerc
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1882
Preceded by
Jules Ferry
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1885–1886
Succeeded by
Émile Flourens
Preceded by
Henri Brisson
Prime Minister of France
1886
Succeeded by
René Goblet
Preceded by
François Auguste Logerot
Minister of War
1888–1893
Succeeded by
Julien Léon Loizillon
Preceded by
Pierre Tirard
Prime Minister of France
1890–1892
Succeeded by
Émile Loubet
Preceded by
Charles Chanoine
Minister of War
1898–1899
Succeeded by
Camille Krantz
Preceded by
Minister of State
1915–1916
Succeeded by

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Charles De Freycinet — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Freycinet. Charles de Freycinet …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Charles de freycinet — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Freycinet. Charles de Freycinet …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Charles de Freycinet — Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet (* 14. November 1828 in Foix (Ariège); † 14. Mai 1923 in Paris) war ein französischer Politiker. Charles de Freycinet (um 1910) Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Charles de Freycinet — Charles de Freycinet. Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet, nacido el 14 de noviembre de 1828 en Foix, y fallecido el 14 de mayo de 1923 en París, fue un político e ingeniero francés, activo durante la Tercera República Francesa, en la que ocupó …   Wikipedia Español

  • Charles de Freycinet — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Freycinet. Charles de Freycinet Charles de Freycinet …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Gouvernement Charles de Freycinet (3) — Régime Troisième République Président du Conseil Charles de Freycinet Début 7 janvier 1886 Fin 3 décembre 1886 Durée …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Gouvernement Charles de Freycinet (1) — Régime Troisième République Président du Conseil Charles de Freycinet Début 28 décembre 1879 Fin 19 septembre 1880 Durée …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Gouvernement Charles de Freycinet (2) — Régime Troisième République Président du Conseil Charles de Freycinet Début 30 janvier 1882 Fin 29 juillet 1882 Durée …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Gouvernement Charles de Freycinet (4) — Régime Troisième République Président du Conseil Charles de Freycinet Début 17 mars 1890 Fin 18 février 1892 Durée …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Gouvernement charles de freycinet (3) — Gouvernements de la France Précédent : Gouvernement Henri Brisson (1) 6 avril 1885 …   Wikipédia en Français


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