List of living languages in Europe


List of living languages in Europe

* Only living languages are listed - that is, languages that are currently spoken as a native tongue. The only exception to this rule is Latin, which is listed because it has official status in the Vatican.
* Only indigenous languages are listed. So Hindi in the United Kingdom or Turkish in Germany are not rendered in this list.
* The languages of the Roma (Gypsies) and Travellers are usually considered to be indigenous or at least listed as such, which is why they are rendered in this list.
* Sign languages are fully fledged forms of communication, with complex grammars and extensive lexicons, which is why sign languages are also included in this list.
* Note that the given numbers of speakers (or users in the case of sign languages) only concern the named countries; speakers who live outside of Europe or who are not indigenous in the countries where they live (e.g. Italian speakers in the United Kingdom) are not rendered.

* Concerning the borders of Europe:
** The generally accepted borders of Europe are: the Denmark Strait, between Iceland and Greenland, in the Northwest; the Ural Mountains in the East; the Caucasus Mountains, the Black Sea in the Southeast; and the Mediterranean Sea and the Straits of Gibraltar in the South.
* This list diverts from those borders in the following cases:
** Armenia and Cyprus geographically belong to Asia, but are often, for cultural reasons, considered a part of Europe. In this list they are treated as a part of Europe.
** In the South-west this list includes Ceuta and Melilla (the Spanish exclaves in Morocco), as well as the Canary Islands, the Azores, and Madeira.

Alphabetic list of living, indigenous languages in Europe

A

* Abaza ("Abaza") - North Caucasian, Northwest Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 35,000 speakers
* Abkhaz ("Absua") - North Caucasian, Northwest Caucasian
** Georgia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian and Georgian in the "de facto" independent republic of Abkhazia - 100,000 speakers

* Aghul ("Agul") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 17,500 speakers
* Akhvakh ("Axvax") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 3,500 speakers

* Albanian ("Shqip") - Indo-European, Illyrian
** Albania: official language - 3,185,000 speakers
** Bulgaria: minority language, not recognised - 2,500 speakers
** Greece: minority language, not recognised - 150,000 speakers
** Italy: minority language, not recognised - 280,000 speakers
** Kosovo: coofficial with Serbian - 1,485,000 speakers
** Montenegro: minority language, recognised - 53,000 speakers
** Republic of Macedonia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Macedonian in West Macedonia - 620,000 speakers
** Romania: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 4,000 speakers
** Serbia: minority language, recognised - 63,000 speakers
** Turkey: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 65,000 speakers
** Ukraine: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers

* Albanian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Albania: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 3,000 users

* Andi ("Qwannab") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 10,000 speakers

* Anglo-Romani ("Romanichal") - Indo-European, Germanic (?)
** United Kingdom: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 90,000 to 145,000 speakers

* Aragonese ("Aragonés") - Indo-European, Romance
** Spain: minority language, recognised - 10,000 speakers

* Archi ("Arči") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 1,000 speakers

* Armenian ("Hayeren") - Indo-European, Armenian
** Armenia: official language - 3,235,000 speakers
** Azerbaijan: minority language, not recognised (in the "de facto" independent republic of Nagorno Karabakh Armenian is the official language) - 120,000 speakers
** Bulgaria: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 27,000 speakers
** Cyprus: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 3,000 speakers
** Georgia: minority language, recognised - 448,000 speakers
** Greece: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 20,000 speakers
** Hungary: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 4,000 speakers
** Poland: non-territorial minority language, extinct in Poland since the 18th Century (Current minority of 8,000 Armenians in Poland, speak Polish)
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 532,000 speakers
** Turkey: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 70,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, recognised - 65,000 speakers

* Armenian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Armenia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 3,000 users

* Aromanian ("Armâneashti") - Indo-European, Romance
** Albania: minority language, not recognised - 50,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 350,000)
** Bulgaria: minority language, not recognised - 2,500 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 18,000)
** Greece: minority language, not recognised - 200,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 700,000)
** Republic of Macedonia: minority language, recognised - 8,500 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 50,000)
** Romania: minority language, not recognised - 120,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 150,000)
** Serbia: minority language, not recognised - 54,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 40,000)

* Asturian ("Asturianu") - Indo-European, Romance
** Spain: minority language, recognised - 690,000 speakers

* Austrian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Austria: non-territorial minority language, recognised since 2005 - 7,500 users

* Avar ("Avar Mac’") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Azerbaijan: minority language, not recognised - 44,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 556,000 speakers

* Azerbaijani ("Azərbaycan") - Altaic, Turkic
** Azerbaijan: official language - 8,400,000 speakers
** Iran: non official language - 30,000,000 speakers
** Georgia: minority language, recognised - 284,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 670,000 speakers
** Turkey: minority language, not recognised - ~800,000 speakers
** Kazakhstan: minority language, not recognised - ~80,000 speakers
** Germany: minority language, not recognised - ~55,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, not recognised - ~46,000 speakers
** Iraq: third language - ~1200,000 speakers

B

* Bagvalal ("Kvanada") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 2,000 speakers

* Balkan Romani ("Romani") - Indo-European, Indo-Aryan
** Albania: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 1,000 speakers
** Bosnia and Herzegovina: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 10,000 speakers
** Bulgaria: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 188,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 549,000)
** France: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 10,500 speakers
** Germany: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 3,500 speakers
** Greece: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 40,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 84,000)
** Hungary: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 130,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 234,000)
** Italy: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Kosovo: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 74,000 speakers
** Moldova: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 12,000 speakers
** Montenegro: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 3,000 speakers
** Republic of Macedonia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 25,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 43,000)
** Romania: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 100,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 245,000)
** Serbia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 20,000 speakers
** Turkey: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 25,000 speakers
** Ukraine: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 2,000 speakers

* Balkar ("Balkarlar") - Altaic, Turkic
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian and Kabardian in the autonomous republic of Kabardino-Balkaria - 85,000 speakers

* Baltic Romani ("Romá") - Indo-European, Indo-Arian
** Belarus: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 22,500 speakers
** Estonia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 500 speakers
** Latvia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 8,000 speakers
** Lithuania: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 10,000 speakers
** Poland: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 30,000 speakers
** Russia: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 20,000 speakers
** Ukraine: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 9,000 speakers

* Barranquenho - Indo-European, Romance
** Portugal - minority language, not recognised

* Bashkir ("Başqort") - Altaic, Turkic
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian in the autonomous republic of Bashkortostan - 972,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 1,375,000)

* Basque ("Euskara") - isolate
** France: minority language, not recognised - 90,000 speakers
** Spain: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Spanish in the autonomous community of the Basque Country, and in 61 municipalities in the autonomous community of Navarre - 580,000 speakers

* Bats ("Batsba Motjiti") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Georgia: minority language, not recognised - 3,400 speakers

* Belgian-French Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Belgium: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 4,000 users

* Belarusian ("Belaruskaja") - Indo-European, Slavic
** Belarus: coofficial with Russian - 7,878,000 speakers
** Latvia: minority language, recognised - 105,000 speakers
** Lithuania: minority language, recognised - 63,000 speakers
** Poland: minority language, recognised - 230,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 1,210,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, recognised - 440,000 speakers

* Bezhta ("Bežƛʼa") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 3,000 speakers

* Bohtan Neo-Aramaic ("Bohtan") - Afro-Asiatic, Semitic
** Georgia: minority language, not recognised - 1,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 100 speakers

* Bosnian ("Bosanski") - Indo-European, Slavic
** Albania: minority language, not recognised - 2,000 speakers
** Bosnia and Herzegovina: official language - 1,810,000 speakers
** Croatia: minority language, not recognised - 40,000 speakers
** Kosovo: minority language, not recognised - 15,000 speakers
** Montenegro: minority language, not recognised - 102,000 speakers
** Romania: minority language, not recognised - 10,000 speakers
** Serbia: minority language, not recognised - 134,000 speakers
** Slovenia: minority language, not recognised - 26,000 speakers
** Turkey: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 70,000 speakers

* Botlikh ("Botlix") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers

* Breton ("Brezhoneg") - Indo-European, Celtic
** France: minority language, not recognised - 515,000 speakers

* British Sign Language - deaf sign language
** United Kingdom: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 40,000 users

* Budukh ("Budux") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Azerbaijan: minority language, not recognised - 1,000 speakers

* Bulgarian ("Bălgarski") - Indo-European, Slavic
** Bulgaria: official language - 7,671,000 speakers
** Greece: minority language (Pomak), not recognised - 30,000 speakers
** Hungary: minority language, not recognised - 6,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 8,000)
** Moldova: minority language, recognised - 262,000 speakers
** Romania: minority language, not recognised - 500 speakers
** Serbia: minority language, recognised - 16,000 speakers
** Turkey: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 270,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, recognised - 234,000 speakers

* Bulgarian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Bulgaria: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 8,500 users

C

* Cappadocian ("Kapadokiká") - Indo-European, Greek
** Greece: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - number of speakers unknown, but surely in the hundreds (long thought to be extinct)

* Carpathian Romani ("Romungro") - Indo-European, Indo-Arian
** Czech Republic: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 100,000 speakers
** Hungary: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 3,000 speakers
** Poland: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 3,000 speakers
** Romania: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Slovakia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 350,000 speakers
** Ukraine: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 2,000 speakers

* Catalan ("Català") - Indo-European, Romance
** Andorra: official language - 31,000 speakers
** France: minority language, not recognised - 102,000 speakers
** Italy: minority language, not recognised - 17,000 speakers
** Spain: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Spanish in the autonomous communities of Catalonia, Valencia, and the Balearic Islands - 6,079,000 speakers

* Catalonian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Andorra: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - number of users unknown, but very small
** Spain: non-territorial minority language, not recognised- 18,000 users

* Chamalal ("Čamalal") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers

* Champenois - Indo-European, Romance
** France: minority language, not recognised -
** Wallonia: minority language, recognised -

* Chechen ("Noxçiyn Mott") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian in the autonomous republic of Chechnya - 957,000 speakers

* Chuvash ("Čövaš Čəlχi") - Altaic, Turkic
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian in the autonomous republic of Chuvashia - 1,640,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 1,804,000)

* Circassian ("Adəgăbză") - North Caucasian, Northwest Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, recognised; the Circassian dialect Adyghe is coofficial with Russian in the autonomous republic of Adygea; the Circassian dialect Cherkess is coofficial with Russian and Karachay in the autonomous republic of Karachay-Cherkessia - 174,000 speakers

* Cornish ("Kernewek") - Indo-European, Celtic
** United Kingdom: minority language, recognised - about 3,500 speakers

* Corsican ("Corsu") - Indo-European, Romance
** France: minority language, recognised - 25,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 295,000)
** Italy: minority language, not recognised - 6,000 speakers

* Crimean Tatar ("Qırımtatar tili, Qırım tili") - Altaic, Turkic
** Belarus: minority language, extinct in Belarus since the end of the 18th Century (there still is a minority of 5,000 Tatars in Belarus, but they speak Belarusian now)
** Bulgaria: minority language, not recognised - 6,000 speakers
** Lithuania: minority language, extinct in Lithuania since the end of the 18th Century (there still is a minority of 4,000 Tatars in Lithuania, but they speak Lithuanian now)
** Poland: minority language, extinct in Poland since the end of the 18th Century (there still is a minority of 5,000 Tatars in Poland, but they speak Polish now)
** Romania: minority language, recognised - 28,000 speakers
** Turkey: minority language, not recognised - 250,000 speakers (including Asia Minor)
** Ukraine: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian and Ukrainian in the autonomous republic of the Crimea - 272,000 speakers

* Croatian ("Hrvatski") - Indo-European, Slavic
** Austria: minority language, recognised - 45,000 speakers
** Bosnia and Herzegovina: minority language, recognised; official language in the Croatian cantons of the Muslim-Croat Federation - 700,000 speakers
** Croatia: official language - 3,750,000 speakers
** Hungary: minority language, recognised - 25,000 speakers
** Italy: minority language, not recognised - 2,500 speakers
** Montenegro: minority language, not recognised - 8,000 speakers
** Romania: minority language, recognised - 15,000 speakers
** Serbia: minority language, not recognised - 27,000 speakers
** Slovakia: minority language, not recognised - 10,000 speakers
** Slovenia: minority language, not recognised - 54,000 speakers

* Croatian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Croatia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 4,000 users

* Cypriot Maronite Arabic ("Sanna") - Afro-Asiatic, Semitic
** Cyprus: minority language, recognised - 1,300 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 6,000, the so-called Cypriot Maronites)

* Czech ("Česky") - Indo-European, Slavic
** Austria: minority language, recognised - 20,000 speakers
** Bulgaria: minority language, not recognised - 9,000 speakers
** Czech Republic: official language - 9,450,000 speakers
** Poland: minority language, not recognised - 3,000 speakers
** Serbia: minority language, recognised - 2,000 speakers
** Slovakia: minority language, recognised - 50,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, not recognised - 21,000 speakers

* Czecho-Slovakian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Czech Republic: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 9,500 users
** Slovakia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 users

D

*Dalecarlian ("Dalska", "Dalmaal", "Elfdalian") - Indo-European, Germanic
**Sweden: minority language, recognized - 1,500 speakers

* Danish ("Dansk") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Denmark: official language - 5,020,000 speakers
** Faroe Islands: coofficial with Faroese (though with a lower status) - 1,000 speakers
** Germany: minority language, recognised - 10,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 45,000)

* Danish Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Denmark: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 3,500 users

* Dargwa ("Dargva") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 370,000 speakers

* Dgèrnésiais - Indo-European, Romance
** Guernsey: minority language, recognised - 6,000 speakers

* Domari ("Domari") - Indo-European, Indo-Arian
** Turkey: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 20,000 speakers

* Dutch ("Nederlands") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Belgium: Official language in Flanders and Brussels, other official languages of Belgium are French and German, but these are not official in Flanders - 5,570,000 speakers
** France: minority language, not recognised - 60,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 75,000)
** Netherlands: official language - 16,300,000 speakers

* Dutch Sign Language - deaf sign language (also known as Sign Language of the Netherlands)
** Netherlands: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 15,000 users

E

* English ("English") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Gibraltar: official language - 29,000 speakers
** Guernsey: co-official with French (though with a higher status) - 45,000 speakers
** Isle of Man: co-official with Manx (though with a higher status) - 75,000 speakers
** Jersey: official language (with French), recognised - 89,000 speakers
** Malta: co-official with Maltese - 402,000 speakers
** Ireland: secondary language - 3,451,000 speakers
** United Kingdom: official language - 51,685,000 speakers [ [http://www.britannica.com/nations/United-Kingdom United Kingdom - Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ]

* Eonavian - Indo-European, Romance
** Spain: minority language, not recognised

* Erzya ("Eržaň Keľ") - Uralic, Mordvinic
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian and Moksha in the autonomous republic of Mordovia - 413,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 570,000)

* Esperanto ("Esperanto") - artificial language (now spoken as a mother tongue)
** France: minority language, not recognised - 200 to 2,000 speakers

* Estonian ("Eesti keel") - Uralic, Balto-Finnic
** Estonia: official language - 1,036,000 speakers
** Finland: minority language, not recognised - 6,000 speakers
** Latvia: minority language, recognised - 3,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 53,000 speakers

* Estonian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Estonia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 4,500 users

F

* Fala ("Fala") - Indo-European, Romance
** Spain: minority language, not recognised - 10,500 speakers

* Faroese ("Føroyskt") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Faroe Islands: coofficial with Danish (though with a higher status) - 44,000 speakers

* Finnish ("Suomi") - Uralic, Balto-Finnic
** Estonia: minority language, recognised - 9,000 speakers
** Finland: coofficial with Swedish - 4,649,000 speakers
** Norway: minority language, recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, recognised - no speakers (there are speakers of Ingrian, which is considered a Finnish dialect by the Russian government)
** Sweden: minority language, recognised - over 200,000 speakers

* Finnish Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Finland: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 5,000 users

* Flemish Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Belgium: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers

* Franco-Provençal ("Franco-Provençal") - Indo-European, Romance
** France: minority language, not recognised - 90,000 speakers
** Italy: minority language, recognised - 91,000 speakers
** Switzerland: minority language, not recognised - 30,000 speakers

* French ("Français") - Indo-European, Romance
** Andorra: minority language - 2,400 speakers
** Belgium: coofficial with Dutch and German - 4,000,000 speakers
** France: official language - 48,950,000 speakers
** Guernsey: coofficial with English (though with a lower status) - about 6,000 speakers
** Italy: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Italian in the autonomous Aosta Valley region - 44,000 speakers
** Jersey: official language Jersey Legal French - 15,000 speakers
** Luxembourg: coofficial with German and Luxembourgish - 13,000 speakers
** Monaco: official language - 20,000 speakers
** Switzerland: coofficial with German, Italian, and Romansh - 1,295,000 speakers

* French Sign Language - deaf sign language
** France: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 50,000 to 100,000 users
** Monaco: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - number of users unknown, but very small
* Friulian ("Furlan") - Indo-European, Romance
** Italy: minority language, some recognition - 547,000 speakers

G

* Gagauz ("Gagauz") - Altaic, Turkic
** Bulgaria: minority language, not recognised - 20,000 speakers
** Greece: minority language, not recognised - 1,000 speakers
** Moldova: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Moldovan in the autonomous republic of Gagauzia - 169,000 speakers
** Republic of Macedonia: minority language, not recognised - 2,000 to 8,000 speakers
** Romania: minority language, not recognised - 8,000 speakers
** Turkey: minority language, not recognised - 9,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, recognised - 156,000 speakers

* Galician ("Galego") - Indo-European, Romance
** Portugal: minority language, not recognised - 15,000 speakers
** Spain: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Spanish in the autonomous community of Galicia - 2,095,000 speakers

* Gallo - Indo-European, Romance
** France: minority language, not recognised -

* Georgian ("Kartuli") - South Caucasian
** Armenia: minority language, not recognised - 1,300 speakers
** Azerbaijan: minority language, recognised - 14,000 speakers
** Georgia: official language - 3,000,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 130,000 speakers

* German ("Deutsch") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Austria: official language - 7,550,000 speakers
** Belgium: coofficial with French and Dutch - 86,000 speakers
** Bulgaria: minority language, not recognised - 200 speakers
** Croatia: minority language, recognised - 2,000 speakers
** Czech Republic: minority language, not recognised - 50,000 speakers
** Denmark: minority language, recognised - 4,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 20,000)
** Estonia: minority language, recognised - 1,500 speakers
** France: minority language, some recognition - 1,300,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 1,880,000)
** Germany: official language - 74,931,000 speakers
** Hungary: minority language, recognised - 250,000 speakers
** Italy: minority language, recognised; co-official with Italian and Ladin in the autonomous region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol - 322,000 speakers
** Latvia: minority language, not recognised - 1,000 speakers
** Liechtenstein: official language - 30,000 speakers
** Lithuania: minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Luxembourg: coofficial with French and Luxembourgish - 9,000 speakers
** Moldova: minority language, not recognised - 3,800 speakers
** Poland: minority language, some recognition - 500,000 speakers
** Romania: minority language, recognised - 28,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 543,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 954,000, including Siberia)
** Serbia: minority language, recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Slovakia: minority language, not recognised - 6,000 speakers
** Slovenia: minority language, not recognised - 1,500 speakers
** Switzerland: coofficial with French, Italian, and Romansh - 4,441,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, not recognised - 38,500 speakers

* German Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Germany: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 50,000 users

* Ghodoberi ("Ğodoberi") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 3,000 speakers

* Greek ("Élliniká ") - Indo-European, Greek
** Albania: minority language, recognised - 65,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 175,000)
** Bulgaria: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 11,000 speakers
** Cyprus: coofficial with Turkish - 762,000 speakers ( [http://homepages.fh-giessen.de/~hg8429/klassifikationen/Indogermanisch.doc#Griechisch see] )
** France: minority language, extinct on Corsica since 1982 (there still is a minority of 1,000 Greeks on Corsica, but they speak French and Corsican now)
** Germany: minority language, recognised - 372,000 speakers
** Greece: official language - 10,552,000 speakers ( [http://homepages.fh-giessen.de/~hg8429/klassifikationen/Indogermanisch.doc#Griechisch see] )
** Hungary: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 6,000 speakers
** Italy: minority language, not recognised - 22,500 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 30,000)
** Romania: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Turkey: minority language, not recognised - 4,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 6,000)

* Greek Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Greece: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 43,000 users

* Gruzinic ("Kivruli") - South Caucasian
** Georgia: minority language, not recognised - 20,000 speakers

* Gutnish ("Gutnisko") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Sweden: minority language, not recognised - 3,000 speakers

H

* Hinukh ("Hinux") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 200 speakers

* Hungarian ("Magyar") - Uralic, Ugric
** Austria: minority language, recognised - 70,000 speakers
** Croatia: minority language, recognised - 20,000 speakers
** Hungary: official language - 10,100,000 speakers
** Romania: minority language, recognised - 1,500,000 speakers
** Serbia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Serbian in the province of Vojvodina - 286,000 speakers
** Slovakia: minority language, recognised - 600,000 speakers
** Slovenia: minority language, recognised, official language in areas with Hungarian majority - 9,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, recognised - 187,000 speakers

* Hungarian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Hungary: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 60,000 users

* Hunzib ("Gunzib") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 2,000 speakers

I

* Iberian Romani ("Caló") - Indo-European, Romance
** France: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 10,000 to 20,000 speakers
** Portugal: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Spain: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 65,000 to 170,000 speakers

* Icelandic ("Íslenska") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Iceland: official language - 265,000 speakers

* Icelandic Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Iceland: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 300 users

* Ingrian ("Inkerin Kieli") - Uralic, Balto-Finnic
** Estonia: minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 27,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 47,000)

* Ingush ("Ğalğaj") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian in the autonomous republic of Ingushetia - 238,000 speakers

* Irish ("Gaeilge") - Indo-European, Celtic
** Ireland: first official language of the state - 1,650,000 speakers
** United Kingdom: recognised, co-official language in Northern Ireland along with English - 165,000 speakers

* Irish Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Ireland: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 3,300 users
** United Kingdom: used in Northern Ireland by a large minority of the deaf community. (NB Northern Irish Sign Language and British sign language also used.)

* Istriot ("Istriot") - Indo-European, Romance
** Croatia: minority language, not recognised - 1,000 speakers

* Istro-Romanian ("Vlăşeşte") - Indo-European, Romance
** Croatia: minority language, not recognised - 500 to 1,000 speakers

* Italian ("Italiano") - Indo-European, Romance
** Croatia: minority language, recognised - 30,000 speakers
** France: minority language, not recognised - 95,000 speakers
** Italy: official language - 55,133,000 speakers
** San Marino: official language - 24,500 speakers
** Slovenia: minority language, recognised - 4,000 speakers
** Switzerland: coofficial with German, French, and Romansh - 525,000 speakers
** Vatican City: coofficial with Latin (though with a higher status) - 500 speakers

* Italian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Italy: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 55,000 users
** San Marino: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - number of users unknown, but very small

* Italkian ("Italkian") - Indo-European, Romance
** Italy: non-territorial minority language, hast útstoarn, not recognised - minder as 100 speakers

* Izhorian ("Ižoran Keeli") - Uralic, Balto-Finnic
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 302 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 820; data from 1989)

J

* Jakati ("Jakati") - Indo-European, Indo-Arian
** Russia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 50,000 speakers
** Ukraine: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 60,000 speakers

* Jèrriais - Indo-European, Romance
** Jersey: minority language, recognised - 3,000 speakers

* Juhuri ("Juhuri") - Indo-European, Iranian
** Azerbaijan: minority language, not recognised - 24,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 7,000 speakers

K

* Kabardian ("K’èbèrdeibzè") - North Caucasian, Northwest Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian and Balkar in the autonomous republic of Kabardino-Balkaria - 385,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 397,000)

* Kalmyk ("Qalmaq") - Altaic, Mongolian
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian in the autonomous republic of Kalmykia - 162,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 174,000)

* Kalo Finnish Romani ("Fíntikka Rómma") - Indo-European, Indo-Arian
** Finland: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 6,000 speakers
** Sweden: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 2,000 speakers

* Karachay ("Qaraçay") - Altaic, Turkic
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian and Cherkess dialect of Circassian in the autonomous republic of Karachay-Cherkessia - 159,000 speakers

* Karaim ("Qaray") - Altaic, Turkic
** Lithuania: minority language, recognised - 535 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 3,400; data from 1979)
** Poland: minority language, extinct in Poland (there still is a minority of 200 Karaites in Poland, but they speak Polish now)
** Russia: minority language, extinct in Russia (there still is a minority of 500 Karaites in Russia, but they speak Russian now)
** Ukraine: minority language, not recognised - 8 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 6,000; data from 1979)

* Karata ("Kirdi") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers

* Karelian ("Karjalan Kielii") - Uralic, Balto-Finnic
** Finland: minority language, not recognised - 10,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian in the autonomous republic of Karelia - 35,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 57,000)

* Kashubian ("Kaszëbski") - Indo-European, Slavic
** Poland: minority language, not recognised - 3,500 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 200,000)

* Khalaj ("Khalaj") - Indo-European, Iranian
** Azerbaijan: minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers

* Khinalug ("Xinalug") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Azerbaijan: minority language, not recognised - 1,500 speakers

* Khwarshi ("Xwarš") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 3,000 speakers

* Komi ("Komi Kyv") - Uralic, Permic
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian in the autonomous republic of Komi - 262,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 342,000)
*Komi-Permyak ("Komi-Permjacköj") - Uralic, Permic
**Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian in Komi-Permyak Okrug - 116,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 151,000)
*Krymchak ("Qırımçaklar") - Altaic, Turkic
**Ukraine: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 250 speakers

* Kryts ("Kryz") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Azerbaijan: minority language, not recognised - 6,000 speakers (data from 1975)

* Kumyk ("Kumuklar") - Altaic, Turkic
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 282,000 speakers

* Kurdish ("Kurmanji") - Indo-European, Iranian
** Armenia: minority language, recognised - 58,000 speakers
** Azerbaijan: minority language, not recognised - 20,000 speakers

L

* Ladin ("Ladin") - Indo-European, Romance
** Italy: minority language, recognised - 30,000 speakers

* Ladino ("Sefardí") - Indo-European, Romance
** Albania: non-territorial minority language, possibly extinct in Albania, not recognised - number of speakers unknown, but very small
** Bosnia and Herzegovina: non-territorial minority language, possibly extinct in Bosnia and Herzegovina, not recognised - number of speakers unknown, but very small
** Bulgaria: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 1,000 speakers
** Greece: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 6,000 speakers
** Kosovo: non-territorial minority language, probably extinct in Kosovo, not recognised - number of speakers unknown, but very small
** Macedonia: non-territorial minority language, possibly extinct in Macedonia, not recognised - number of speakers unknown, but very small
** Serbia: non-territorial minority language, probably extinct in Serbia, not recognised - probably no speakers remaining
** Spain: non-territorial minority language, probably extinct in Spain, not recognised - number of speakers unknown, but very small
** Turkey: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 8,000 speakers

* Lak ("Lakku Maz") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 120,000 speakers

* Latin ("Lingua Latina") - Indo-European, Italic
** Vatican City: coofficial with Italian (though with a lower status) - no native speakers

* Latvian ("Latviešu") - Indo-European, Baltic
** Belarus: minority language, not recognised - 1,000 speakers
** Estonia: minority language, recognised - 3,000 speakers
** Latvia: official language - 1,400,000 speakers
** Lithuania: minority language, recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 29,000 speakers

* Latvian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Latvia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 1,500 users

* Leonese ("Llïonés")- Indoeuropean, Romance
** Spain: minority language, recognised - 53,000 speakers
** Portugal: minority language, not recognised - 2,000 speakers

* Lezgian ("Lezgi Č’al") - Northeast Caucasian
** Azerbaijan: minority language, not recognised - 171,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 257,000 speakers

* Limburgish ("Limburgs") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Belgium: minority language, not recognised - 585,000 speakers
** Netherlands: minority language, recognised - 830,000 speakers

* Lithuanian ("Lietuviškai") - Indo-European, Baltic
** Belarus: minority language, not recognised - 10,000 speakers
** Latvia: minority language, recognised - 35,000 speakers
** Lithuania: official language - 2,965,000 speakers
** Poland: minority language, recognised - 30,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 70,000 speakers

* Lithuanian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Lithuania: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 3,500 users

* Livonian ("Līvõ Kēļ") - Uralic, Balto-Finnic
** Latvia: minority language, recognised - 35 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 2,000; data from 1990)

* Livvi ("Livvi") - Uralic, Balto-Finnic
** Finland: minority language, not recognised - 2,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 40,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 70,000)

* Lomavren ("Boša") - Indo-European, Armenian
** Armenia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 30,000 speakers
** Azerbaijan: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 10,000 speakers
** Russia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers

* Lorrain language - Indo-European, Romance
** France: minority language, not recognised -
** Wallonia: minority language, recognised (as "Gaumais") -

* Low Saxon ("Low German", "Nedersassies", "Plattdüütsch") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Denmark: minority language, not recognised - 1,500 speakers
** Germany: minority language, not recognised - 10,000,000 speakers
** Netherlands: minority language, recognised - 1,566,000 speakers
** Poland: minority language, not recognised - number of speakers unknown, at most a few thousands

* Ludic ("Lyydi") - Uralic, Balto-Finnic
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 10,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 18,000)

* Luxembourgish ("Lëtzebuergesch") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Belgium: minority language, some recognition - 24,000 speakers
** France: minority language, not recognised - 40,000 speakers
** Germany: minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Luxembourg: coofficial with French and German - 309,000 speakers

* Lyons Sign Language - deaf sign language
** France: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 users

M

* Macedonian ("Makedonski") - Indo-European, Slavic
** Albania: minority language, recognised - 30,000 speakers
** Bulgaria: minority language, not recognised - 230,000 speakers
** Greece: minority language, not recognised - 105,000 speakers
** Hungary: minority language, not recognised - 4,000 speakers
** Republic of Macedonia: official language - 1,194,000 speakers
** Serbia: minority language, not recognised - 14,000 speakers

* Maghrebi Arabic ("Maghribi") - Afro-Asiatic, Semitic
** Spain: minority language, not recognised - 26,000 speakers

* Maltese ("Malti") - Afro-Asiatic, Semitic
** Malta: coofficial with English - 402,000 speakers

* Maltese Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Malta: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 350 users

* Manx ("Gaelg") - Indo-European, Celtic
** Man: coofficial with English (though with a lower status) - 27 speakers (data from 2001)

* Mari ("Marij Jəlme") - Uralic, Cheremissic
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian in the autonomous republic of Mari El - 594,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 661,000)

* Megleno-Romanian ("Vlaheshte") - Indo-European, Romance
** Greece: minority language, not recognised - 12,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 15,000)
** Republic of Macedonia: minority language, not recognised - 1,000 speakers
** Romania: minority language, not recognised - 1,200 speakers

* Megrelian ("Margaluri") - South Caucasian
** Georgia: minority language, not recognised - 500,000 speakers

* Mirandese ("Mirandes") - Indo-European, Romance
** Portugal: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Portuguese in the municipality of Miranda do Douro - 15,000 speakers

* Moksha ("Mokšaň Käľ") - Uralic, Mordvinic
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian and Erzya in the autonomous republic of Mordovia - 372,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 513,000 )

* Moldovan ("Moldovenească") - Indo-European, Romance (literary form shared with Romanian)
** Moldova: official language - 2,520,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, recognised - 250,000 speakers

* Monastic Sign Language - auxiliary sign language
** Vatican City: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - number of users unknown

* Monégasque ("Munegasc") - Indo-European, Romance (actually a dialect of Italian)
** Monaco: semi-official language - 5,700 speakers

* Montenegrin ("Crnogorski") - Indo-European, Slavic
** Montenegro: official language

N

*Nenets ("Njenjocja Vada") - Uralic, Samoyedic
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian in Nenets, Yamalo-Nenets, and Taymyr Autonomous Okrugs - 26,300 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 35,000, including Siberia)
* Nogai ("Nogaylar") - Altaic, Turkic
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 68,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 76,000)

* Norman - Indo-European, Romance
** France: minority language, not recognised -

* Northern Ireland Sign Language - deaf sign language
** United Kingdom: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 1,400 users

* North Frisian ("Friisk") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Germany: minority language, recognised - 10,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 62,000)

* Norwegian ("Norsk") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Norway: official language - 4,100,000 speakers
** Sweden: minority language, not recognised - 50,000 speakers

* Norwegian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Norway: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 4,000 users

O

* Occitan ("Occitan") - Indo-European, Romance
** France: minority language, not recognised - 1,500,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 6,750,000)
** Italy: minority language, not recognised - 50,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 100,000)
** Monaco: minority language, not recognised - 4,500 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 6,000)
** Spain: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Spanish and Catalan in the autonomous community of Catalonia - 3,400 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 5,500)

* Ossetic ("Iron Avžag") - Indo-European, Iranian
** Georgia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian and Georgian in the "de facto" independent republic of South Ossetia - 164,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian in the autonomous republic of North Ossetia - 407,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 472,000)

P

* Palityan ("Palitjanski") - Indo-European, Slavic (possibly a dialect of Bulgarian)
** Romania: minority language, recognised - 12,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 25,000)

* Picard - Indo-European, Romance
** France: minority language, not recognised -

* Poitevin - Indo-European, Romance
** France: minority language, not recognised -

* Polari ("Polari") - unclassified (probably only spoken as a second language)
** United Kingdom: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - number of speakers unknown

* Polish ("Polski") - Indo-European, Slavic
** Belarus: minority language, recognised - 413,000 speakers
** Czech Republic: minority language, recognised - 50,000 speakers
** Hungary: minority language, not recognised - 21,000 speakers
** Ireland: minority language, pending recognition - 4,000-100,000 speakers (est)
** Lithuania: minority language, recognised - 255,000 speakers
** Latvia: minority language, recognised - 57,000 speakers
** Poland: official language - 35,370,000 speakers
** Romania: minority language, not recognised - 10,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 94,000 speakers
** Slovakia: minority language, recognised - 50,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, recognised - 1,200,000 speakers

* Polish Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Poland: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 50,000 speakers

* Pontic ("Pontiaká") - Indo-European, Greek
** Armenia: minority language, not recognised - 1,000 speakers
** Azerbaijan: minority language, not recognised - 300 speakers
** Georgia: minority language, not recognised - 15,000 speakers
** Greece: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 325,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 65,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, not recognised - 10,000 speakers

* Portuguese ("Português") - Indo-European, Romance
** Portugal: official language - 9,563,000 speakers
** Spain: minority language, not recognised - 3,600 speakers

* Portuguese Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Portugal: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 8,000 users

Q

* Quinqui ("Quinqui") - unclassified
** Spain: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 40,000 speakers

R

* Rifi ("Tr̂ifect") - Afro-Asiatic, Berber
** Spain: minority language, not recognised - 23,000 speakers

* Romanian ("Română") - Indo-European, Romance
** Bulgaria: minority language, not recognised - 500 speakers
** Hungary: minority language, recognised - 100,000 speakers
** Moldova: official language - 2,500,000 speakers (see also Moldovan language)
** Romania: official language - 19,988,000 speakers
** Serbia: minority language, recognised - 34,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, recognised - 400,000 speakers

* Romanian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Romania: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 22,000 users

* Romano-Greek ("Romani") - Indo-European, Greek (?)
** Greece: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers

* Romano-Serbian ("Romani") - Indo-European, Slavic (?)
** Serbia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 4,000 speakers

* Romansh ("Rumantsch") - Indo-European, Romance
** Switzerland: coofficial with German, French, and Italian - 35,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 72,000)

* Russian ("Russki") - Indo-European, Slavic
** Armenia: minority language, recognised - 14,660 speakers
** Azerbaijan: minority language, recognised - 141,000 speakers
** Belarus: coofficial with Belarusian - 1,129,000 speakers
** Bulgaria: minority language, not recognised - 18,000 speakers
** Estonia: minority language, recognised - 413,000 speakers
** Finland: minority language, recognised - 3,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 5,000, the so-called 'Old Russians' - not counting the 'New Russians', or new immigrants)
** Georgia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Georgian and Abkhaz in the "de facto" independent republic of Abkhazia; coofficial with Georgian and Ossetic in the "de facto" independent republic of South Ossetia - 372,000 speakers
** Latvia: minority language, recognised - 862,000 speakers
** Lithuania: minority language, recognised - 344,000 speakers
** Moldova: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Moldovan and Ukrainian in the "de facto" independent republic of Transnistria - 572,000 speakers
** Poland: minority language, recognised - 25,000 speakers
** Russia: official language - 117,270,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Ukrainian and Crimean Tatar in the autonomous republic of fan the Crimea - 11,335,000 speakers

* Russian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Armenia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - number of users unknown, but very small
** Azerbaijan: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 users
** Belarus: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 9,400 users
** Bulgaria: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - number of users unknown, but small
** Estonia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 450 users
** Georgia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 1,000 users
** Latvia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 1,000 users
** Lithuania: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 350 users
** Moldova: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 3,800 users
** Russia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 140,000 users
** Ukraine: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 11,000 users

* Ruthenian ("Rusyn") - Indo-European, Slavic
** Croatia: minority language, recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Hungary: minority language, not recognised - 10,000 speakers
** Poland: minority language, not recognised - 65,000 speakers
** Romania: minority language, not recognised - 20,000 speakers
** Serbia: minority language, recognised - 25,000 speakers
** Slovakia: minority language, recognised - 128,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, not recognised - 720,000 speakers

* Rutul ("Rutul") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 20,000 speakers

* Sami ("Sámegiella") - Uralic, Samic
** Finland: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Finnish in 3 municipalities (though with a lower status) - 2,550 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 4,700)
** Norway: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Norwegian in 6 municipalities - 16,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 43,000)
** Sweden: minority language, recognised - 5,900 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 15,000)
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 693 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 1,900; data from 1995)

* Sardinian ("Sardu") - Indo-European, Romance
** Italy: minority language, not recognised - 1,300,000 speakers

* Sater Frisian ("Seeltersk") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Germany: minority language, recognised - 2,250 speakers

* Scots ("Scots") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Ireland: minority language, not recognised - 3,000 speakers
** United Kingdom: minority language in both Northern Ireland and Scotland, recognised - 1,530,000 speakers

* Scottish Gaelic ("Gàidhlig") - Indo-European, Celtic
** United Kingdom: minority language, recognised; coofficial with English in the autonomous Western Isles - 59,000 speakers

* Serbian ("Srpski") - Indo-European, Slavic
** Albania: minority language, not recognised - 10,000 speakers
** Bosnia and Herzegovina: official language, recognised - 1,440,000 speakers
** Bulgaria: minority language, not recognised - 9,000 speakers
** Croatia: minority language, recognised - 410,000 speakers
** Hungary: minority language, recognised - 10,000 speakers
** Kosovo: coofficial with Albanian - 169,000 speakers
** Montenegro: official language - 395,000 speakers
** Republic of Macedonia: minority language, recognised - 44,000 speakers
** Romania: minority language, recognised - 65,000 speakers
** Russia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Germany: minority language, not recognised - 750,000
** Switzerland: minority language, not recognised - 200,000
** Austria: minority language, not recognised - 340,000
** Serbia: official language - 6,655,000 speakers
** Slovenia: minority language, not recognised - 50,000 speakers
** Ukraine: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers

* Sercquiais - Indo-European, Romance
** Sark: minority language, recognised - 15 speakers

* Shelta ("Sheldru") - Indo-European, Celtic (?)
** Ireland: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 6,000 speakers
** United Kingdom: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 30,000 speakers

* Sicilian ("Sicilianu") - Indo-European, Romance
** Italy: minority language, not recognised - 5,000,000 speakers

* Silesian ("Ślůnski") - Indo-European,
** Czech Republic: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Poland: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 1,200,000 speakers
** Germany: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 600,000 speakers

* Sinte ("Sinti") - Indo-European, Indo-Arian
** Austria: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 500 speakers
** Belarus: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 1,000 speakers
** Croatia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 25,000 speakers
** Czech Republic: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 1,500 speakers
** France: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 30,000 speakers
** Germany: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 30,500 speakers
** Hungary: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 3,000 speakers
** Italy: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 14,000 speakers
** Kosovo: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 11,000 speakers
** Netherlands: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 1,000 speakers
** Poland: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Russia: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Serbia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 20,000 speakers
** Slovenia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 2,500 speakers
** Switzerland: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 21,000 speakers

* Slovak ("Slovenčina", Slovenský) - Indo-European, Slavic
** Austria: minority language, recognised - 2,000 speakers
** Croatia: minority language, recognised - 4,000 speakers
** Czech Republic: minority language, recognised - 300,000 speakers
** Hungary: minority language, recognised - 12,000 speakers
** Poland: minority language, recognised - 38,000 speakers
** Romania: minority language, recognised - 34,000 speakers
** Serbia: minority language, recognised - 57,000 speakers
** Slovakia: official language - 3,990,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, recognised - 12,000 speakers

* Slovenian ("Slovenščina") - Indo-European, Slavic
** Austria: minority language, recognised - 48,000 speakers
** Croatia: minority language, not recognised - 15,000 speakers
** Hungary: minority language, recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Italy: minority language, recognised - 100,000 speakers
** Slovenia: official language - 1,834,000 speakers

* Sorbian ("Serbski") - Indo-European, Slavic
** Germany: minority language, recognised - 69,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 205,000)

* Spanish ("Español") - Indo-European, Romance
** Andorra: minority language, recognised - 25,000 speakers
** Gibraltar: vernacular language, not recognised - 29,000 speakers
** Spain: official language - 45,145,000 speakers

* Spanish Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Spain: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 20,000 users

* Svan ("Lushnu") - South Caucasian
** Georgia: minority language, not recognised - 15,000 speakers

* Swedish ("Svenska") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Estonia: minority language, recognised - 800 speakers
** Finland: coofficial with Finnish - 295,000 speakers
** Sweden: official language - 7,658,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, not recognised - 500 speakers

* Swedish Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Sweden: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 8,000 users

* Swiss-French Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Switzerland: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 1,000 users

* Swiss-German Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Switzerland: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 6,000 users

* Swiss-Italian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Switzerland: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 200 users

T

* Tabasaran ("Tabasaran Ĉ̣al") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 96,000 speakers

* Taleshi ("Talysh") - Indo-European, Iranian
** Azerbaijan: minority language, not recognised - 70,000 to 800,000 speakers

* Tat ("Tat") - Indo-European, Iranian
** Azerbaijan: minority language, not recognised - 11,000 speakers

* Tatar ("Tatarça") - Altaic, Turkic
** Azerbaijan: minority language, not recognised - 30,000 speakers
** Estonia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 2,000 speakers
** Finland: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 900 speakers
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian in the autonomous republic of Tatarstan - 6,143,000 speakers (including 5,361,000 ethnic Tatars)
** Ukraine: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 91,000 speakers

* Tavringer Romani ("Rommani") - Indo-European, Germanic (?)
** Norway: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 6,000 speakers
** Sweden: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 25,000 speakers

* Tindi ("Tindal") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 6,700 speakers

* Traveller Danish ("Rotwelsch") - Indo-European, Germanic (?)
** Denmark: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 2,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 15,000 to 20,000)

* Traveller Norwegian ("Rodi") - Indo-European, Germanic (?)
** Norway: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 5,000 speakers

* Traveller Scottish ("Cant") - unclassified
** United Kingdom: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 4,000 speakers

* Tsakhur ("Caxur") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Azerbaijan: minority language, not recognised - 13,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 7,000 speakers

* Tsakonian ("Tsakōniká") - Indo-European, Greek
** Greece: minority language, not recognised - 300 speakers (data from 1981)

* Tsez ("Cez mec") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 15,000 speakers
* Turkish ("Türkçe") - Altaic, Turkic
** Bosnia and Herzegovina: minority language, not recognised - 2,000 speakers
** Bulgaria: minority language, recognised - 765,000 speakers
** Cyprus: coofficial with Greek - 183,000 speakers
** Georgia: minority language, not recognised - 25,000 speakers
** Greece: minority language, not recognised - 150,000 speakers
** Kosovo: minority language, recognised - 11,000 speakers
** Republic of Macedonia: minority language, recognised - 200,000 speakers
** Romania: minority language, recognised - 150,000 speakers
** Serbia: minority language, not recognised - 3,000 speakers
** Turkey: official language - 70,000,000 speakers

* Turkish Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Turkey: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 70,000 users

* Turkmen ("Türkmen") - Altaic, Turkic
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 10,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 17,000, the so-called Kuban Turkmens, north of the Caucasus Mountains)

* Tver Karelian ("Karjalan Kieli") - Uralic, Balto-Finnic
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 15,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 31,000)

U

* Udi ("Udi") - North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian
** Azerbaijan: minority language, not recognised - 5,700 speakers

* Udmurt ("Udmurt Kyl") - Uralic, Permic
** Russia: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian in the autonomous republic of Udmurtia - 550,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 728,000)

* Ukrainian ("Ukrayins’ka") - Indo-European, Slavic
** Belarus: minority language, recognised - 291,000 speakers
** Hungary: minority language, recognised - 300,000 speakers
** Moldova: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Russian and Moldovan in the "de facto" independent republic of Transnistria - 595,000 speakers
** Poland: minority language, recognised - 1,500,000 speakers
** Romania: minority language, recognised - 67,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 4,365,000 speakers
** Serbia: minority language, recognised - 23,000 speakers
** Slovakia: minority language, recognised - 100,000 speakers
** Ukraine: official language - 35,900,000 speakers

* Ukrainian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Ukraine: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 35,000 users

* Urum ("Urum") - Altaic, Turkic
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 2,000 speakers
** Ukraine: minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers

V

* Valencian Sign Language ("Llengua de Signes en la Comunitat Valenciana") - Signed language.
** Spanish Sign Language : territorial minority language in Valencian Country, legally granted - About 10,000 speakers (mostly as deaf persons)

* Veps ("Vepsän Keľ") - Uralic, Balto-Finnic
** Russia: minority language, recognised - 7,200 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 14,000)

* Venetian ("Vèneto") - Indo-European, Romance
** Italy: minority language, recognised - 2,000,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 4,400,00)
** Slovenia: minority language, not recognised - 2,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of ?)
** Croatia: minority language, not recognised - ? speakers (out of an ethnic population of ?)

* Vlakh Romani ("Romanés") - Indo-European, Indo-Arian
** Albania: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 60,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 75,000)
** Belgium: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 500 speakers
** Bosnia and Herzegovina: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 40,000 speakers
** Bulgaria: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 500 speakers
** France: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 10,000 speakers
** Germany: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 6,500 speakers
** Greece: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 1,000 speakers
** Hungary: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 to 20,000 speakers
** Italy: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 4,000 speakers
** Moldova: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Netherlands: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 1,000 speakers
** Norway: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 500 speakers
** Poland: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Portugal: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 500 speakers
** Romania: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 200,000 to 250,000 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 1,250,000)
** Russia: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 2,000 speakers
** Serbia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 22,000 speakers
** Slovakia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 500 speakers
** Sweden: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 1,500 speakers
** Ukraine: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 3,000 speakers
** United Kingdom: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 1,000 speakers

* Võro-Seto ("Võro-Seto") - Uralic, Balto-Finnic
** Estonia: minority language, some recognition - 74,000 speakers
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 3,000 speakers

* Votic ("Vaďďā Tšēli") - Uralic, Balto-Finnic
** Russia: minority language, not recognised - 15 speakers (out of an ethnic population of 62; data from 1989)

W

* Walloon ("Wallon") - Indo-European, Romance
** Belgium: minority language, some recognition - 823,000 speakers
** France: minority language, not recognised - 2,000,000 speakers

* Welsh ("Cymraeg") - Indo-European, Celtic
** United Kingdom: minority language, recognised; coofficial with English in Wales - 750,000 speakers

* Welsh Romani ("Romma") - Indo-European, Indo-Arian
** United Kingdom: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 30,000 speakers

* West Frisian ("Frysk") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Netherlands: minority language, recognised; coofficial with Dutch in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) - 360,000 to 700,000 speakers

* Wymysorys ("Wymysöryś") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Poland: minority language, not recognised - 100 speakers (data from 2003)

Y

* Yeniche ("Yeniche") - Indo-European, Germanic (?)
** Austria: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 80,000 to 100,000 speakers
** France: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 10,000 to 33,000 speakers
** Germany: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 180,000 to 245,000 speakers
** Netherlands: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 2,000 speakers
** Switzerland: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 90,000 to 120,000 speakers

* Yiddish ("Yidiš") - Indo-European, Germanic
** Armenia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 1,000 speakers
** Austria: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 1,000 speakers
** Azerbaijan: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 7,000 speakers
** Belarus: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 112,000 speakers
** Belgium: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 20,000 speakers
** Croatia: non-territorial minority language, possibly extinct in Croatia, not recognised - number of speakers unknown, but very small
** Czech Republic: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 2,000 speakers
** Denmark: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 2,000 speakers
** Estonia: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 500 speakers
** Finland: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 500 speakers
** France: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 120,000 speakers
** Georgia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Germany: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 10,000 speakers
** Hungary: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 30,000 speakers
** Ireland: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - number of speakers unknown, but very small
** Latvia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 20,000 speakers
** Lithuania: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 2,000 speakers
** Luxembourg: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - number of speakers unknown, but very small
** Moldova: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 22,000 speakers
** Netherlands: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 2,000 speakers
** Norway: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 400 speakers
** Poland: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 1,500 speakers
** Romania: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 15,000 speakers
** Russia: non-territorial minority language, recognised; it is coofficial with Russian in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast - 245,000 speakers (including Siberia)
** Slovakia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 750 speakers
** Slovenia: non-territorial minority language, possibly extinct in Slovenia, not recognised - number of speakers unknown, but very small
** Sweden: non-territorial minority language, recognised - 5,000 speakers
** Switzerland: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 4,000 speakers
** Ukraine: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 200,000 speakers
** United Kingdom: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 30,000 speakers

* Yugoslavian Sign Language - deaf sign language
** Bosnia and Herzegovina: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 4,000 users
** Croatia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 500 users
** Kosovo: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 1,600 users
** Montenegro: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 600 users
** Republic of Macedonia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 1,800 users
** Serbia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 10,000 users
** Slovenia: non-territorial minority language, not recognised - 2,000 users

ee also

*Languages of Europe

References


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