Exchangeable image file format


Exchangeable image file format
Filename extension .JPG, .TIF, .WAV
Developed by JEITA, CIPA
Initial release 1995 (1995)
Latest release 2.3 / 26 April 2010; 18 months ago (2010-04-26)
Extended from TIFF, JPEG, WAV
Extended to DCF

Exchangeable image file format (Exif) is a standard that specifies the formats for images, sound, and ancillary tags used by digital cameras (including smartphones), scanners and other systems handling image and sound files recorded by digital cameras. The specification uses the following existing file formats with the addition of specific metadata tags: JPEG DCT for compressed image files, TIFF Rev. 6.0 (RGB or YCbCr) for uncompressed image files, and RIFF WAV for audio files (Linear PCM or ITU-T G.711 μ-Law PCM for uncompressed audio data, and IMA-ADPCM for compressed audio data).[1] It is not supported in JPEG 2000, PNG, or GIF.

This standard consists of the Exif image file specification and the Exif audio file specification.

Contents

Background

Exif was created by the Japan Electronic Industries Development Association (JEIDA). Version 2.1 of the specification is dated June 12, 1998, and the latest, version 2.3 dated April 2010, was jointly formulated by JEITA and CIPA. Though the specification is not currently maintained by any industry or standards organization, its use by camera manufacturers is nearly universal.

The metadata tags defined in the Exif standard cover a broad spectrum:

  • Date and time information. Digital cameras will record the current date and time and save this in the metadata.
  • Camera settings. This includes static information such as the camera model and make, and information that varies with each image such as orientation (rotation), aperture, shutter speed, focal length, metering mode, and ISO speed information.
  • A thumbnail for previewing the picture on the camera's LCD screen, in file managers, or in photo manipulation software.
  • Descriptions and copyright information.

Technical

The Exif tag structure is borrowed from TIFF files. On several image specific properties, there is a large overlap between the tags defined in the TIFF, Exif, TIFF/EP, and DCF standards. For descriptive metadata, there is an overlap between Exif and IPTC Information Interchange Model info, which also can be embedded in a JPEG file.

When Exif is employed for JPEG files, the Exif data are stored in one of JPEG's defined utility Application Segments, the APP1 (segment marker 0xFFE1), which in effect holds an entire TIFF file within. When Exif is employed in TIFF files (also when used as "an embedded TIFF file" mentioned earlier), the TIFF Private Tag 0x8769 defines a sub-Image File Directory (IFD) that holds the Exif specified TIFF Tags. In addition, Exif also defines a Global Positioning System sub-IFD using the TIFF Private Tag 0x8825, holding location information, and an "Interoperability IFD" specified within the Exif sub-IFD, using the Exif tag 0xA005.

Formats specified in Exif standard are defined as folder structures that are based on Exif-JPEG and recording formats for memory. When these formats are used as Exif/DCF files together with the DCF specification (for better interoperability among devices of different types), their scope shall cover devices, recording media, and application software that handle them.

Geolocation

The Exif format has standard tags for location information. Currently, a few cameras and a growing number of mobile phones have a built-in GPS receiver that stores the location information in the Exif header when the picture is taken. Some other cameras have a separate GPS receiver that fits into the flash connector or hot shoe. Recorded GPS data can also be added to any digital photograph on a computer, either by correlating the time stamps of the photographs with a GPS record from a hand-held GPS receiver or manually using a map or mapping software. The process of adding geographic information to a photograph is known as geocoding. Photo sharing communities like Panoramio, locr or Flickr equally allow their users to upload geocoded pictures or to add geolocation information online.

Most of Nokia's Nseries mobile phones (such as the N95) are equipped with a GPS receiver, and using Location Tagger,[2] a piece of software from Nokia Beta Labs. All captured images are tagged with corresponding GPS coordinates when a GPS signal is available. The second generation of iPhone (known as the iPhone 3G) by Apple Inc. is also equipped with a GPS receiver, and uses the receiver to geotag photographs taken with the device. Subsequent generations (the iPhone 3GS, 4 & 4S) also support this feature. The first generation iPhone is not equipped with GPS, and uses a service provided by Skyhook to triangulate and approximate the location at which the picture was taken using nearby cellular phone towers and WiFi hot-spot signal strength data. The Skyhook service provides approximate GPS location information which is then added to the Exif data associated with the picture. Also mobile phones with the Android operating system as well as BlackBerry smartphones with a camera and builtin GPS or Bluetooth GPS addons can geotag images with the included camera application.

Program support

Exif data are embedded within the image file itself. While many recent image manipulation programs recognize and preserve Exif data when writing to a modified image, this is not the case for most older programs. Many image gallery programs also recognise Exif data and optionally display it alongside the images.

Software libraries, such as libexif[3] for C and Exiv2[4] for C++, Metadata Extractor[5] for Java, or Image::ExifTool[6] for Perl, parse Exif data from files and read/write Exif tag values.

Problems

Apart from not being a maintained standard, the Exif format has a number of drawbacks, mostly relating to its use of legacy file structures.

  • The derivation of Exif from the TIFF file structure using offset pointers in the files means that data can be spread anywhere within a file, which means that software is likely to corrupt any pointers or corresponding data that it doesn't decode/encode. For this reason most image editors damage or remove the Exif metadata to some extent upon saving.[7]
  • The standard defines a MakerNote tag, which allows camera manufacturers to place any custom format metadata in the file. This is used increasingly by camera manufacturers to store myriad camera settings not listed in the Exif standard, such as shooting modes, post-processing settings, serial number, focusing modes, etc. As this tag format is proprietary and manufacturer-specific, it can be prohibitively difficult to retrieve this information from an image (or properly preserve it when rewriting an image). Some manufacturers encrypt portions of the information; for example, Nikon encrypts the detailed lens data in their newer MakerNote data versions.[8]
  • The standard only allows TIFF or JPEG files — there is no provision for a "raw" file type which would be a direct data dump from the sensor device. This has caused camera manufacturers to invent many proprietary, incompatible "raw" file formats. To solve this problem, Adobe developed the DNG format (a TIFF-based raw file format), in hopes that manufacturers would standardize on a single, raw file format.
  • The Exif standard specifically states that color depth is always 24 bits.[9] However, many modern cameras, such as the Nikon D70 which captures 36 bits of color per pixel, can capture significantly more. Since Exif/DCF files cannot represent this color depth, many manufacturers have developed proprietary, non-compatible Raw image formats.
  • Some digital cameras can also capture video. The Exif standard has no provision for video files.
  • Exif is very often used in images created by scanners, but the standard makes no provisions for any scanner-specific information.
  • Photo manipulation software sometimes fails to update the embedded thumbnail after an editing operation, possibly causing the user to inadvertently publish compromising information.[10]
  • Exif metadata are restricted in size to 64 kB in JPEG images because according to the specification this information must be contained within a single JPEG APP1 segment. Although the FlashPix extensions allow information to span multiple JPEG APP2 segments, these extensions are not commonly used. This has prompted some camera manufacturers to develop non-standard techniques for storing the large preview images used by some digital cameras for LCD review. These non-standard extensions are commonly lost if a user re-saves the image using image editor software, possibly rendering the image incompatible with the original camera that created it.
  • There is no way to record time-zone information along with the time, thus rendering the stored time ambiguous.
  • There is no field to record readouts of a camera's accelerometers or inertial navigation system. Such data could help to establish the relationship between the image sensor’s XYZ coordinate system and the gravity vector (i.e., which way is down in this image). It could also establish relative camera positions or orientations in a sequence of photos.
  • Since the Exif tag contains information about the photo, it can pose a privacy issue. For example, a photo taken with a GPS-enabled camera can reveal the exact location it was taken, which is undesirable in some situations. By removing the Exif tag with software such as ExifTool before publishing, the photographer can avoid possible problems.

Related standards

Metadata Working Group was formed by a consortium of companies in 2006 (according to their web page) or 2007 (as stated in their own press release). It released its first document on 24 September 2008,[11] giving recommendations concerning the use of Exif, IPTC and XMP metadata in images.

Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) was created by Adobe Systems to be a better metadata format for photography and image processing. However, it is generally unsupported in cameras.

Viewing and editing Exif data

In the original release of Windows XP, a subset of the Exif information may be viewed by right clicking on an image file and clicking properties; from the properties dialog click the Summary tab and then the Advanced button. However, this can damage certain Exif headers if changes are applied.[12] As of the release of Service Pack 3, Windows XP still shows evidence of corrupting Exif tags when modifying JPG file properties via the file properties window.[13]

In Windows Mobile (Pocket PC), freeware XnView Pocket can display the Exif data.

On Mac OS X 10.4 and above, this information may be viewed in the Finder by doing Get Info on a file and expanding the More Info section.

On Unix systems using the GNOME desktop environment, a subset of Exif data can be seen by right clicking the file in the Nautilus file manager and selecting properties. In KDE, it can be seen by right clicking in the Dolphin file manager, selecting "Properties" and then "Information".[citation needed] It is also possible to view and edit Exif data in digiKam photo management program.[14] Most Unix image viewers give the full set of Exif data.

There are many software tools available which allow both viewing and editing of Exif data. The Opanda IExif Viewer is a free stand-alone application for viewing Exif data and also a plug-in for Internet Explorer and Firefox on Windows platforms. EXIFeditor is another free application that allows editing of EXIF information. It allows examination of detailed Exif data online by right clicking on an image.[15] FxIF and Exif Viewer are multi-platform extensions for Firefox that display Exif data in the image properties dialog. This feature is native in the web browser Opera, under image properties.

Retrieval of detailed Exif data not usually displayed by other programs can be accomplished using ExifTool which runs in Perl, and is available for all platforms.

For AmigaOS/MorphOS, SView5 as well as .NET covers a lot of the previously mentioned functionality.

To deal with the privacy problems that Exif may pose to those who share their photographs with others, specialized metadata removal tools which can remove Exif exist.[16]

Example

Konqueror screenshot showing Exif data

The following table shows Exif data for a photo made with a typical digital camera. Notice that authorship and copyright information is generally not provided in the camera's output, so it must be filled in during later stages of processing.

Tag Value
Manufacturer CASIO
Model QV-4000
Orientation (rotation) top - left [8 possible values[17]]
Software Ver1.01
Date and Time 2003:08:11 16:45:32
YCbCr Positioning centered
Compression JPEG compression
x-Resolution 72.00
y-Resolution 72.00
Resolution Unit Inch
Exposure Time 1/659 sec.
FNumber f/4.0
ExposureProgram Normal program
Exif Version Exif Version 2.1
Date and Time (original) 2003:08:11 16:45:32
Date and Time (digitized) 2003:08:11 16:45:32
ComponentsConfiguration Y Cb Cr -
Compressed Bits per Pixel 4.01
Exposure Bias 0.0
MaxApertureValue 2.00
Metering Mode Pattern
Flash Flash did not fire.
Focal Length 20.1 mm
MakerNote 432 bytes unknown data
FlashPixVersion FlashPix Version 1.0
Color Space sRGB
PixelXDimension 2240
PixelYDimension 1680
File Source DSC
InteroperabilityIndex R98
InteroperabilityVersion (null)

FlashPix extensions

The Exif specification also includes a description of FPXR (FlashPix-Ready) information which may be stored in APP2 of JPEG images using a structure similar to that of a FlashPix file.[18] These FlashPix extensions allow meta information to be preserved when converting between FPXR JPEG images and FlashPix images. FPXR information may be found in images from some models of digital cameras by Kodak and Hewlett-Packard.[19] Below is an example of the FPXR information found in a JPEG image from a Kodak EasyShare V570 digital camera:

Tag Value
Code Page 1200
Used Extension Numbers 1
Extension Name Screen nail
Extension Class ID 10000230-6FC0-11D0-BD01-00609719A180
Extension Persistence Invalidated By Modification
Extension Create Date 2003:03:29 17:47:50
Extension Modify Date 2003:03:29 17:47:50
Creating Application Picoss
Extension Description Presized image for LCD display
Storage-Stream Pathname /.Screen Nail_bd0100609719a180
Screen Nail (124498 bytes of data containing 640x480 JPEG preview image)

Exif audio files

The Exif specification describes the RIFF file format used for WAV audio files, and defines a number of tags for storing meta information such as artist, copyright, creation date, and more in these files.[20] The following table gives an example of Exif information found in a WAV file written by the Pentax Optio WP digital camera:

Tag Value
Encoding Microsoft PCM
Num Channels 1
Sample Rate 7872
Avg Bytes Per Sec 7872
Bits Per Sample 8
Date Created 2005:08:08
Exif Version 0220
Related Image File IMGP1149.JPG
Time Created 16:23:35
Make PENTAX Corporation
Model PENTAX Optio WP
MakerNote (2064 bytes of data)

MakerNote data

The 'MakerNote' tag contains image information normally in a proprietary binary format. Some of these manufacturer-specific formats have been decoded:

  • OZHiker: Agfa, Canon, Casio, Epson, Fujifilm, Konica/Minolta, Kyocera/Contax, Nikon, Olympus, Panasonic, Pentax/Asahi, Ricoh, Sony [21]
  • Kamisaka: Canon, Casio, FujiFilm, ISL, KDDI, Konica/Minolta, Mamiya, Nikon, Panasonic, Pentax, Ricoh, Sigma, Sony, WWL[22]
  • X3F Info: Sigma/Foveon[23]
  • ExifTool: Canon, Casio, FujiFilm, GE, HP, JVC/Victor, Kodak, Leaf, Minolta/Konica-Minolta, Nikon, Olympus/Epson, Panasonic/Leica, Pentax/Asahi, Reconyx, Ricoh, Samsung, Sanyo, Sigma/Foveon, Sony[24]
  • Olypedia: Olympus[25]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Standard of the Camera & Imaging Products Association, CIPA DC-008-Translation-2010, Exchangeable image file format for digital still cameras: Exif Version 2.3". http://www.cipa.jp/english/hyoujunka/kikaku/pdf/DC-008-2010_E.pdf. Retrieved 2011-04-13 
  2. ^ "Nokia Location Tagger for S60". http://betalabs.nokia.com/betas/view/location-tagger. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  3. ^ "The libexif C EXIF for C". http://libexif.sourceforge.net/. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  4. ^ "Exiv2 Image Metadata Library". Andreas Huggel. http://www.exiv2.org/. Retrieved 2009-02-12. 
  5. ^ "Metadata Extractor". Drew Noakes. http://www.drewnoakes.com/code/exif/. Retrieved 2011-02-18. 
  6. ^ "Image::ExifTool Perl library". Phil Harvey. http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/. Retrieved 2009-02-12. 
  7. ^ "TIFF Revision 6.0". Adobe. 1992-06-03. http://partners.adobe.com/public/developer/en/tiff/TIFF6.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-07. 
  8. ^ "Nikon Tags: Nikon LensData01 Tags". Phil Harvey. 2008-01-25. http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/TagNames/Nikon.html#LensData01. Retrieved 2008-01-28. 
  9. ^ (JEITA CP-3451) Section 4.4.3: Pixel Composition and Sampling
  10. ^ Maximillian Dornseif (2004-12-17). "EXIF Thumbnail in JPEG images". disLEXia 3000 blog. http://blogs.23.nu/disLEXia/stories/5751. Retrieved 2008-01-28. 
  11. ^ "Guidelines for Handling Image Metadata". Metadata Working group. 2008-09-24. http://www.metadataworkinggroup.org/specs/. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  12. ^ "Nikon also warn about Windows XP". Digital Photography Review. 2001-12-14. http://www.dpreview.com/news/0112/01121402nikonxpwarnings.asp. Retrieved 2008-01-28. 
  13. ^ "Should XPComment changes affect Exif Byte Order and File Mod Time?". 2010-02-15. http://www.webcitation.org/5nfrK96yR. Retrieved 2010-02-19. 
  14. ^ "digiKam has a new Kipi Plugin to edit pictures metadata". digikam.org. 2006-10-17. http://www.digikam.org/drupal/node/148. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  15. ^ "Opanda IExif is a professional Exif viewer for your D40, D40x & D60 Pictures". Digital Photography Review. 2008-02-19. http://nikond40blog.blogspot.com/2008/02/opanda-iexif-is-professional-exif.html. Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  16. ^ For example BatchPurifier LITE, ExifCleaner, Exif Tag Remover, and JPEG & PNG Stripper
  17. ^ JPEG Rotation and EXIF Orientation / Digital Cameras with Orientation Sensors etc.
  18. ^ (JEITA CP-3451) Section 4.7.2: Interoperability Structure of APP2 in Compressed Data
  19. ^ Phil Harvey (18 March 2011). "FlashPix Tags". http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/TagNames/FlashPix.html. Retrieved 29 March 2011. 
  20. ^ (JEITA CP-3451) Section 5: Exif Audio File Specification
  21. ^ Evan Hunter. "EXIF Makernotes - Reference Information". OZHiker. http://ozhiker.com/electronics/pjmt/jpeg_info/makernotes.html. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  22. ^ "Exif MakerNote 解析カイセキ情報" (in (Japanese)). Kamisaka. http://homepage3.nifty.com/kamisaka/makernote. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  23. ^ "SIGMA and FOVEON EXIF MakerNote Documentation". x3f.info. Archived from the original on 2007-08-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20070805234644/http://www.x3f.info/technotes/FileDocs/MakerNoteDoc.html. Retrieved 2008-03-26. 
  24. ^ "ExifTool Tag Names". Phil Harvey. 2008-01-18. http://owl.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/TagNames. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  25. ^ "Olympus Makernotes" (in German). Olypedia. http://olypedia.de/Olympus_Makernotes. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 

External links


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