Alfred Métraux


Alfred Métraux

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Infobox Scientist
name = Alfred Métraux
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caption = Alfred Métraux
birth_date = 1902
birth_place = Lausanne, Switzerland
death_date = April 12, 1963
death_place = Paris, France
residence = |citizenship =
nationality = Switzerland
ethnicity =
field = ethnography
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Alfred Métraux (1902 in Lausanne, Switzerland- April 12, 1963 in Paris, France), often described as "an ethnographer's ethnographer," was one of the most significant anthropologists and human rights leaders of the twentieth century.

Early life

Born in Lausanne, Switzerland, in 1902, he spent much of his childhood in Argentina where his father was a well known surgeon resident in Mendoza. He received his secondary and university education in Europe, at the Classical Gymnasium of Lausanne, the Ecole Nationale des Chartes in Paris, the Ecole Nationale des Langues Orientales (Diplome, 1925). The Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (Diplome, 1927) and the Sorbonne (Docteur es Lettres, 1928). He also studied in Sweden, in Goteborg’s Hogskola, and did research at the Goteborg Museum. Among his teachers were Marcel Mauss, Paul Rivet, and Erland von Nordenskiold. While he was still a student he entered into correspondence with Father John Cooper who introduced him to the American school of cultural anthropology. It is said that Father Cooper did not realize at first that his scholarly correspondent was only 19 and 20 years old. They actually met much later, when Metraux came to the United States; but Father Cooper seems to have had considerable influence on Alfred Metraux’s thought. Metraux combined in his work the best of both the European and the American tradition of historical anthropology.

Early career

His professional career was equally cosmopolitan. He founded and was the first director (1928 – 1934) of the Institute of Ethnology at the University of Tucuman, Argentina. In 1934-35, he led a French expedition to Easter Island, and in 1936 –38, he was a Fellow of the Bishop Museum in Honolulu. In 1939, he returned to Argentina and Bolivia for field research on a Guggenheim Fellowship. In 1940, upon his return to the United States from South America, he was in residence at Yale University with a renewal of his Guggenheim Fellowship. That next year, he worked with the Cross Cultural Survey (now the Human Relations Area Files) on South American data and was associated with such people as John Dollard, Leonard Bloomfield, and others of the Institute of Human Relations. In 1941, he joined the staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution. There, from 1941 to 1945, he played an important role in producing the monumental Handbook of South American Indians. Perhaps no other writer contributed as many pages to this work. As the editor, Julian Steward, acknowledges, “The extent of his (Metraux’s) contribution is by no means indicated by the large number of articles appearing under his name. With an unsurpassed knowledge of South American ethnology and ever generous of his time, his advice and help to the editor and contributors alike have been a major factor in the successful completion of the work.” (Vol. I, p.9). In addition, Metraux taught briefly at University of California, Berkeley (1938), the Excuela Nacional de Anthropologia, Mexico (1943), the Colegio de Mexico (1943), and the Facuidad Latino-Americanan de Ciencias Sociales, Santiago, Chile (1959-60). At the time of his death, he was Professor of South American Anthropology at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Paris.

Married life

Metraux was married three times. Each of his wives was in a different way a scientific collaborator. His first wife, Eva Spiro Metraux, translated anthropological materials from English to French. His second wife, Dr Rhoda Bubendey Metraux did research with him in Mexico, Argentina, and Haiti and was a well known anthropologist. More recently, he married Fernande Schulmann who accompanied him to Chile, Peru, and Brazil and who planned to work with him in Paraguay. He was survived also by his brother Guy Metraux (1919-2000) of Paris, his sister Vera Conne (1920--) of Lausanne, and by two sons: - Eric Metraux (1927-92) from his first marriage, and Daniel Alfred Metraux (1948-), the son of Rhoda Metraux.

UNESCO

In the early spring of 1945, Métraux went to Europe as a member of the United States Bombing Survey and he saw the physical and moral desolation of Europe. Although he had by then become a citizen of the United States, this experience seems to have reaffirmed, in a way, his traditional ties with Europe. It also strengthened his belief in the necessity for European unity and for the need of a firm basis for international, inter-cultural, and inter-racial understanding. His early view of war devastated Europe was important in his decision in 1946 to take a post on the secretariat of the United Nations. Thus, from 1946 until 1962, he worked for his ideals of international and inter-cultural understanding within the framework of international organization with only occasional excursions into academic life and into anthropological field research. In 1946 and 1947, he was a member of the Department of Social Affairs of the United Nations, but in 1947 he was assigned to UNESCO, and finally, in 1950, he became a permanent member of UNESCO’s Department of Social Science. As an international civil servant, he served the world and his profession well. He took part in the Hylean Amazon project in 1947-1948, led the UNESCO Marbial Valley (Haiti) anthropological survey from 1948 to 1950 with personnel from the international Labor Office, and studied the internal migrations of the Aymara and Quechua Indians in Peru and Bolivia (1954). He edited the series of pamphlets on The Race Question and Modern Thought and The Race Question and Modern Science, published by UNESCO since 1950. He also organized the research that led to a series of volumes on race relations in Brazil, such as “As relações raciais entre negros a brancos em São Paulo,” edited by Roger Bastide and Florestan Fernandes (São Paulo, 1955), Race and Class in Rural Brazil, edited by Charles Wagley (UNESCO, Paris, 1952), and others. At UNESCO, he was responsible for the participation of anthropologists in many important projects around the world, and he consistently emphasized the anthropological point of view in all of the many programs with which he was associated. Anthropology lost not only a productive scholar, but an effective translator of anthropological theory and knowledge into action.

Ethnography

Métraux valued field ethnography more than theory. He let the facts speak for themselves, and many of his facts modified anthropological theory. Yet, one felt that he was too restless and too eager to be on his way to produce detailed and lengthy field reports such as those of Curt Nimuendaju on the Brazilian . He was a sensitive field worker with many years of experience, and his articles on the Argentine Chaco and his book on Haitian Vodun indicate that he gathered careful and objective data in the field. He liked to think of himself as a field ethnologist. Any evening with him led to stories of nights around a fire with Argentine gauchos, his last stay with the semi-pacified Kayapo of Brazil, his period of residence on Easter Island, a Haitian vodun ceremony, or a Candomblé ceremony in Bahia which he had attended with his friend Pierre Verger.

Accomplishments

He published landmark studies of South American Indians including the Incas, Haitian voodoo and the ancient cultures of Easter Island. He participated in the framing of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and later as director of the Dept. of Social Sciences at [UNESCO] , he presided over a series of studies which resulted in several publications demonstrating the absence of scientific foundation to theories of racial superiority. The 1951 UNESCO Statement on the Nature of Race and Race Differences enshrined these findings. A dedicated anthropologist and humanitarian, he brought the brilliance of South American Indian cultures to light, solved the mysteries of Easter Island, taught the world about Voodoo, and defined the United Nations' stand against racism. His books include "Voodoo," "The History of the Incas" and "Easter Island"".

Death

Alfred Métraux died in Paris on April 12, 1963. He was one the world's foremost authorities on the South American Indian. His work and interests, however, ranged widely into other fields and other geographical areas. He was an influential teacher, a tireless field researcher, a productive writer, an efficient administrator, and an imaginative planner of projects in applied social science. Above all, he was a man of great erudition. "He was truly a citizen of the world."

External links

* [http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/information/biography/klmno/metraux_alfred.html Alfred Métraux Biography] at the Minnesota State University


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  • Alfred Métraux — (* 5. November 1902 in Lausanne; † 12. April 1963 in Chevreuse) ist ein Ethnologe schweizerischer Herkunft. Er wurde in Paris ausgebildet und erwarb die amerikanische Staatsbürgerschaft. Das Werk des Spezialisten der Völker Lateinamerikas sowie… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Alfred Metraux — Alfred Métraux Alfred Métraux, né le 5 novembre 1902 à Lausanne et mort le 12 avril 1963 à Paris, est un anthropologue d origine suisse formé à Paris qui obtiendra la nationalité américaine. Spécialiste des peuples d Amérique latine, d Haïti et… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Alfred Métraux — Alfred Métraux, né le 5 novembre 1902 à Lausanne et retrouvé mort le 11 avril 1963[1] dans une forêt de la vallée de Chevreuse est un anthropologue d origine suisse formé à Paris qui obtiendra la nationalité américaine. Spécialiste des peuples d… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • MÉTRAUX (A.) — MÉTRAUX ALFRED (1902 1963) Né à Lausanne, où il commença ses études après avoir vécu une partie de son enfance en Argentine (son père exerçait la médecine à Mendoza), Alfred Métraux poursuivit celles ci à Paris, à l’École des chartes, où il se… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Métraux — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Alfred Métraux (1902–1963), Ethnologe schweizerischer Herkunft Siehe auch: Métraux Services Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehr …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Métraux — (Alfred) (1902 1963) ethnologue français d origine suisse. Il consacra sa carrière à l étude des populations de l Amérique latine: la Religion des Tupi Guarani (1928), l île de Pâques (1941), le Vaudou haïtien (1958) …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Métraux —   [me tro], Alfred, französischer Ethnologe, * Lausanne 5. 11. 1902, ✝ Vallée de Chevreuse (Kanton Jura, Schweiz) 12. 4. 1963; lehrte an den Universitäten von Tucumán, an der Yale University, in Mexiko, Santiago de Chile, Berkeley und an der… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Métraux, Alfred — ▪ Swiss anthropologist born Nov. 5, 1902, Lausanne, Switz. died April 12, 1963, Paris, Fr.       Swiss anthropologist noted for his pioneering contributions to South American ethnohistory and the examination of African culture in Haiti.… …   Universalium

  • Métraux, Alfred — (1902–1963)    Swiss ethnographer of Vodou in Haiti and surveyor of Amazonian and Guyanese shamanism, conducting fieldwork in the late 1940s. Métraux was the author of Voodoo in Haiti (1959), a work still cited by more recent scholars of Haitian… …   Historical dictionary of shamanism

  • Rhoda Bubendey Métraux — Dr. Rhoda Bubendey Metraux (1914 ndash;2003), was a prominent anthropologist in the area of cross cultural studies, specializing in Haitian voodoo and the Iatmul of New Guinea. She collaborated with Alfred Metraux, on mutual studies of Voodoo in… …   Wikipedia


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