August Krogh


August Krogh

Infobox Scientist
name = August Krogh
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image_size =150px
caption = August Krogh
birth_date = November 15, 1874
birth_place =
death_date = September 13, 1949
death_place =
residence = |citizenship =
nationality = Danish
ethnicity =
field = zoophysiology
work_institutions = University of Copenhagen
alma_mater =
doctoral_advisor =
doctoral_students =
known_for = Krogh Principle
author_abbrev_bot =|author_abbrev_zoo =
influences =
influenced =
prizes = Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
religion = |footnotes = |

Schack August Steenberg Krogh (November 15, 1874 – September 13, 1949) was a Danish professor with partly Romani background (Romani mother [ [http://www.bookrags.com/biography/august-krogh-wap/ August Krogh Biography | World of Anatomy and Physiology ] ] ) at the department of zoophysiology at the University of Copenhagen from 1916-1945. He contributed a number of fundamental discoveries within several fields of physiology, and is famous for developing the Krogh Principle.

In 1920 August Krogh was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the mechanism of regulation of the capillaries in skeletal muscle. Krogh was first to describe the adaptation of blood perfusion in muscle and other organs according to demands through opening and closing the arterioles and capillaries.

Krogh was a pioneer in comparative studies on animals. He wrote his thesis on the respiration through the skin and lungs in frogs: "Respiratory Exchange of Animals", 1915. Later Krogh took on studies of water and electrolyte homeostasis of aquatic animals and he published the books: "Osmotic Regulation" (1939) and "Comparative Physiology of Respiratory Mechanisms" (1941). In addition Krogh contributed more than 200 research articles in international journals. He was a constructor of scientific instruments of which several had considerable practical importance, "e.g." the spirometer and the apparatus for measuring basal metabolic rate.

Krogh brought insulin to Denmark shortly after its discovery in 1922 by Banting and Best in Toronto. Together with Hagedorn, Krogh made decisive contributions to establishing a Danish production of insulin by ethanol extraction of the hormone from the pancreatic glands of pigs.

Much of Krogh's work was carried out in collaboration with his wife, Marie Krogh (1874-1943), a renowned scientist in her own right.

In 1910 August Krogh founded the first laboratory for animal physiology (zoophysiology) at the University of Copenhagen. It was located in a small townhouse in central Copenhagen (at Ny Vestergade 11). The laboratory was considerably enlarged in 1928, when it moved to a new building at Juliane Maries Vej 28-32 called The Rockefeller Complex(it was financed by the Rockefeller Foundation). The building also gave place to the institutes of medical physiology and biophysics, and to the institute for the theory of gymnastics (exercise physiology). Today, the disciplines of animal physiology, exercise physiology, and some of the biochemical subdisciplines under the Faculty of Science are based at the August Krogh Institute, a building inaugurated in 1970.

Torkel Weis-Fogh, an eminent pioneer on the study of insect flight, was a student of August Krogh's.

(description partly taken from Copenhagen University)

References

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Larsen
first=Erik Hviid
authorlink=
year=2007|month=Aug.
title= [August Krogh (1874-1949): 1920 Nobel Prize]
journal=Ugeskr. Laeg.
volume=169
issue=35
pages=2878
publisher= |location = Denmark| issn = | pmid = 17877986
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Zimmer
first=Heinz-Gerd
authorlink=
year=2006|month=May.
title=August Krogh
journal=Clinical cardiology
volume=29
issue=5
pages=231–3
publisher= |location = United States| issn = 0160-9289| pmid = 16739398
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =
doi = 10.1002/clc.4960290514

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Larsen
first=E H
authorlink=
year=2001|month=Dec.
title= [August Krogh and the laboratory of animal physiology situated at Ny Vestergade 11]
journal=Ugeskr. Laeg.
volume=163
issue=51
pages=7240–8
publisher= |location = Denmark| issn = 0041-5782| pmid = 11797555
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Kardel
first=T
authorlink=
year=1999|month=Dec.
title= [About the seven little devils who changed physiology. August and Marie Krogh on pulmonary gas exchange]
journal=Ugeskr. Laeg.
volume=161
issue=51
pages=7112–6
publisher= |location = DENMARK| issn = 0041-5782| pmid = 10647306
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Schmidt-Nielsen
first=B
authorlink=
year=1984|month=Aug.
title=August and Marie Krogh and respiratory physiology
journal=
volume=57
issue=2
pages=293–303
publisher= |location = UNITED STATES| issn = 0161-7567| pmid = 6381437
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Krebs
first=H A
authorlink=
year=1975|month=Oct.
title=The August Krogh Principle: "For many problems there is an animal on which it can be most conveniently studied"
journal=J. Exp. Zool.
volume=194
issue=1
pages=221–6
publisher= |location = UNITED STATES| issn = 0022-104X| pmid = 811756
doi = 10.1002/jez.1401940115
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Poulsen
first=J E
authorlink=
year=1975|month=
title=The impact of August Krogh on the insulin treatment of diabetes and our present status
journal=Acta Med. Scand. Suppl.
volume=578
issue=
pages=7–14
publisher= |location = SWEDEN| issn = 0365-463X| pmid = 1098401
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Dejours
first=P
authorlink=
year=1975|month=
title=August Krogh and the physiology of respiration
journal=Scandinavian journal of respiratory diseases
volume=56
issue=6
pages=337–46
publisher= |location = DENMARK| issn = 0036-5572| pmid = 769148
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Sulek
first=K
authorlink=
year=1967|month=Oct.
title= [Nobel prize for August Krogh in 1920 for his discovery of regulative mechanism in the capillaries]
journal=Wiad. Lek.
volume=20
issue=19
pages=1829
publisher= |location = POLAND| issn = 0043-5147| pmid = 4870667
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
year=1967|month=Feb.
title=August Krogh (1874-1949) the physiologist's physiologist
journal=JAMA
volume=199
issue=7
pages=496–7
publisher= |location = UNITED STATES| issn = 0098-7484| pmid = 5335475
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =
doi = 10.1001/jama.199.7.496
author = ,

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=KENEZ
first=J
authorlink=
year=1965|month=Jan.
title= [The Capillaries And Krogh.]
journal=Orvosi hetilap
volume=106
issue=
pages=177–8
publisher= |location = HUNGARY| issn = 0030-6002| pmid = 14275297
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=REHBERG
first=P B
authorlink=
year=1951|month=Nov.
title=August Krogh, November 15, 1874-September 13, 1949
journal=The Yale journal of biology and medicine
volume=24
issue=2
pages=83–102
publisher= |location = Not Available| issn = 0044-0086| pmid = 14901880
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=DRINKER
first=C K
authorlink=
year=1950|month=Jul.
title=August Krogh: 1874-1949
journal=Science
volume=112
issue=2900
pages=105–7
publisher= |location = Not Available| issn = 0036-8075| pmid = 15442251
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =
doi = 10.1126/science.112.2900.105

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=LILJESTRAND
first=G
authorlink=
year=1950|month=Mar.
title=Krogh, August
journal=Acta Physiol. Scand.
volume=20
issue=2-3
pages=109–16
publisher= |location = Not Available| issn = 0001-6772| pmid = 15413515
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
year=1950|month=Feb.
title= [Deaths of C. M. Wenyon, Clifford Dobell and A. Krogh.]
journal=C. R. Seances Soc. Biol. Fil.
volume=144
issue=3-4
pages=160–1
publisher= |location = Not Available| issn = 0037-9026| pmid = 15420871
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

See also

* Krogh Principle
* Comparative physiology

External links

* [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1920/krogh-bio.html August Krogh biography on Nobel Prize website]


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