[cite web| last =Traynor | first =Kirsten | title =Ancient Cave Painting Man of Bicorp | publisher =MD Bee | url =http://www.mdbee.com/articles/cavepainting.html
format =Web article | accessdate =2008-03-12 ] ]
Beekeeping (or apiculture, from
Latin"", bee) is the maintenance of honey beecolonies, commonly in hives, by humans. A beekeeper(or apiarist) keeps bees in order to collect honeyand beeswax, for the purpose of pollinating crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary.
History of beekeeping
Globally, there are more than 20,000 species of wild bees, including many which are solitary or which rear their young in burrows and small colonies, like
mason bees and bumblebees. Beekeeping, or apiculture, is concerned with the practical management of the social species of honey bees, which live in large colonies of up to 100,000 individuals. In Europeand America the species universally managed by beekeepers is the Western honey bee("Apis mellifera"), which has several sub-species or regional varieties, such as the Italian bee("Apis mellifera ligustica" ), European dark bee("Apis mellifera mellifera"), and the Carniolan honey bee("Apis mellifera carnica"). In the tropics, other species of social bee are managed for honey production, including " Apis cerana".
All of the "Apis mellifera" sub-species are capable of inter-breeding and hybridizing. Many bee breeding companies strive to selectively breed and hybridize varieties to produce desirable qualities: disease and parasite resistance, good honey production, swarming behaviour reduction, prolific breeding, and mild disposition. Some of these hybrids are marketed under specific brand names, such as the
Buckfast Beeor Midnite Bee. The advantages of the initial F1 hybrids produced by these crosses include: hybrid vigor, increased honey productivity, and greater disease resistance. The disadvantage is that in subsequent generations these advantages may fade away and hybrids tend to be very defensive and aggressive.
Other bee-breeders are trying to resurrect original native varieties such as the British Black, the French Black or the Danish Black bee on the grounds of preserving
biodiversityand producing more gentle bees. This native bee movement is notable in the UK (British Isles Bee Breeding Association; BIBBA), in Ireland (Galtee Bee Breeding Group), and in Denmark.
Wild honey harvesting
Collecting honey from wild bee colonies is one of the most ancient human activities and is still practiced by aboriginal societies in parts of Africa, Asia, Australia, and South America. Some of the earliest evidence of gathering honey from wild colonies is from rock painting, dating to around 13,000 BC. Gathering honey from wild bee colonies is usually done by subduing the bees with smoke and breaking open the tree or rocks where the colony is located, often resulting in the physical destruction of the colony.
Domestication of wild bees
At some point humans began to domesticate wild bees in artificial hives made from hollow logs, wooden boxes, pottery vessels, and woven straw baskets or "skeps." The
domesticationof bees was well developed in Egyptand sealed pots of honey were found in the grave goods of Pharaohs such as Tutankhamun. Beekeeping was also documented by the Roman writers Virgil, Gaius Julius Hyginus, Varro, and Columella. Aspects of the lives of bees and beekeeping are discussed at length by Aristotle. Archaeologist Amihai Mazarof Jerusalem's Hebrew Universitysaid that findings in the ruinsof the city of Rehov(with 2,000 residents at that time, Israelitesand Canaanites) include 30 intact hives, 900 B.C., and evidencethat an advanced honey industryexisted in the Holy Landat the time of the Bibleor 3,000 years ago. The beehives -- made of strawand unbaked clay-- were found in orderly rows, with 100 hives. Ezra Marcus, expertof Haifa University, said the finding was a glimpse of ancientbeekeeping seen in texts and ancient artfrom the Near East. Religiouspractice was evidenced by an altardecorated with fertility figurinesfound alongside the hives. [cite web| last =Friedman | first =Mattie | title =Archaeologists Discover Ancient Beehives | publisher =Live Science
url =http://www.livescience.com/animals/070904_ap_ancient_beehive.html | format =Web article
accessdate =2008-03-12 ] [The definitive book on the history of beekeeping is "The World History of Beekeeping and Honey Hunting" by
Eva Crane, Routledge 1999, ISBN-10: 0415924677, ISBN-13: 978-0415924672, 720pp.]
tudy of honey bees
For several thousand years of human beekeeping, human understanding of the
biologyand ecologyof bees was very limited and riddled with superstitionand folklore. Ancient observers thought that the queen beewas in fact a male, called "the king bee," and they had no understanding of how bees actually reproduced. It was not until the 18th century that European natural philosophers undertook the scientific study of bee colonies and began to understand the complex and hidden world of bee biology. Preeminent among these scientific pioneers were Swammerdam, René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, Charles Bonnet, and the blind Swiss scientist Francois Huber. Swammerdam and Réaumur were among the first to use a microscope and dissection to understand the internal biology of honey bees. Réaumur was among the first to construct a glass walled observation hive to better observe activities within hives. He observed queens laying eggs in open cells, but still had no idea of how a queen was fertilized; nobody had ever witnessed the mating of a queen and drone and many theories held that queens were "self-fertile," while others believed that a vapor or "miasma" emanating from the drones fertilized queens without direct physical contact. Huber was the first to prove by observation and experiment that queens are physically inseminated by drones outside the confines of hives, usually a great distance away.
Following Réaumur's design, Huber built improved glass-walled observation hives and sectional hives which could be opened, like the leaves of a book, to inspect individual wax combs; this greatly improved the direct observation of activity within a hive. Although he became blind before he was twenty, Huber employed a secretary, Francois Burnens, to make daily observations, conduct careful experiments, and to keep accurate notes over a period of more than twenty years. Huber confirmed that a hive consists of one queen who is the mother of all the female workers and male drones in the colony. He was also the first to confirm that mating with drones takes place outside of hives and that queens are inseminated by a number of successive matings with male drones, high in the air at a great distance from their hive. Together, he and Burnens dissected bees under the
microscopeand were among the first to describe the ovaries and spermatheca, or sperm store, of queens as well as the penisof male drones. Huber is universally regarded as "the father of modern bee-science" and his "Nouvelles Observations sur Les Abeilles (or "New Observations on Bees, [http://books.google.com/books?id=cQwAAAAAQAAJ&printsec=titlepage&dq=Nouvelles+Observations+sur+Les+Abeilles#PPP5,M1] ) revealed all the basic scientific truths for the basics of the biology and ecology of honeybees.
Invention of the movable comb hive
Early forms of honey collecting entailed the destruction of the entire colony when the honey was harvested. The wild hive was crudely broken into, using smoke to suppress the bees, the
honeycombs were torn out and smashed up — along with the eggs, larvae and honey they contained. The liquid honey from the destroyed brood nest was crudely strained through a sieve or basket. This was destructive and unhygienic, but for hunter-gatherersocieties this did not matter, since the honey was generally consumed immediately and there were always more wild colonies to exploit. However, in settled societies, the destruction of the bee colony meant the loss of a valuable resource; this drawback persisted until the 19th Century, which made beekeeping both inefficient and something of a "stop and start" activity. There could be no continuity of production and no possibility of selective breeding, since each bee colony was destroyed at harvest time, along with its precious queen. During the medieval period abbeys and monasteries were centers of beekeeping, since beeswax was highly prized for candles and fermented honey was used to make alcoholic meadin areas of Europe where vines would not grow.
The 19th Century saw a revolution in beekeeping practice through the invention and perfection of the movable comb hive by Lorenzo Lorraine Langstroth, an Italian immigrant to the United States. Langstroth was the first person to make practical use of Huber's earlier discovery that there was a specific spatial measurement between the wax combs, later called "the bee space", which bees would not block with wax, but kept as a free passage. Having determined this "bee space" (between 5 and 8 mm), Langstroth then designed a series of wooden frames within a rectangular hive box, carefully maintaining the correct space between successive frames, and found that the bees would build parallel honeycombs in the box without bonding them to each other or to the hive walls. This enables the beekeeper to slide any frame out of the hive for inspection, without harming the bees or the comb, protecting the eggs, larvae and pupae contained within the cells. It also meant that combs containing honey could be gently removed and the honey extracted without destroying the comb. The emptied honey combs could then be returned to the bees intact for refilling. Langstroth's classic book, " [http://openlibrary.org/b/OL7148643M The Hive and Honey-bee] ", published in 1853, described his rediscovery of the bee space and the development of his patent movable comb hive.
The invention of the movable-comb-hive fostered the growth of commercial honey production on a large scale in both Europe and the USA.
Evolution of hive designs
Langstroth's design for moveable comb hives was seized upon by apiarists and inventors on both sides of the Atlantic and a wide range of moveable comb hives were designed and perfected in
England, France, Germanyand the United States. Classic designs evolved in each country: Dadant hives and Langstroth hives are still dominant in the USA; in France the De-Layens trough-hivebecame popular and in the UK a British National Hivebecame standard as late as the 1930s although in Scotland the smaller Smith hive is still popular. In some Scandinavian countries and in Russia the traditional trough hive persisted until late in the 20th Century and is still kept in some areas. However, the Langstroth and Dadant designs remain ubiquitous in the USA and also in many parts of Europe, though Sweden, Denmark, Germany, France and Italyall have their own national hive designs. Regional variations of hive evolved to reflect the climate, floral productivity and the reproductive characteristics of the various subspecies of native honey bee in each bio-region.
The differences in hive dimensions are insignificant in comparison to the common factors in all these hives: they are all square or rectangular; they all use moveable wooden frames; they all consist of a floor, brood-box, honey-super, crown-board and roof. Hives have traditionally been constructed of
cedar, pine, or cypresswood, but in recent years hives made from injection molded dense polystyrenehave become increasingly important.
Hives also use queen excluders between the brood-box and honey supers to keep the queen from laying eggs in cells next to those containing honey intended for consumption. Also, with the advent in the 20th century of mite pests, hive floors are often replaced for part of (or the whole) year with a wire mesh and removable tray.
Pioneers of practical and commercial beekeeping
The 19th Century produced an explosion of innovators and inventors who perfected the design and production of beehives, systems of management and husbandry, stock improvement by
selective breeding, honey extractionand marketing. Preeminent among these innovators were: L. L. Langstroth, Revered as the "father of American apiculture", no other individual has influenced modern beekeeping practice more than Lorenzo Lorraine Langstroth. His classic book "The Hive and Honey-bee" was published in 1853. Moses Quinby, often termed 'the father of commercial beekeeping in the United States', author of "Mysteries of Bee-Keeping Explained". Amos Root, author of the "A B C of Bee Culture" which has been continuously revised and remains in print to this day. Root pioneered the manufacture of hives and the distribution of bee-packages in the United States.
A.J. Cook, author of "The Bee-Keepers' Guide; or Manual of the Apiary", 1876.
Dr. C.C. Millerwas one of the first entrepreneurs to actually make a living from apiculture. By 1878 he made beekeeping his sole business activity. His book, "Fifty Years Among the Bees", remains a classic and his influence on bee management persists to this day.
Major Francesco De Hruschka was an Italian military officer who made one crucial invention that catalyzed the commercial honey industry. In 1865 he invented a simple machine for extracting honey from the comb by means of centrifugal force. His original idea was simply to support the comb in a metal framework and then spin it around within a container to collect the honey as it was thrown out by centrifugal force. This meant that honeycombs could be returned to the hive undamaged but empty — saving the bees a vast amount of work, time and materials. This single invention greatly improved the efficiency of honey harvesting and catalysed the modern honey industry.
Fixed frame hives
There are considerable regional variations in the type of hive in which bees are kept. A hive is a set of rectangular wooden boxes filled with moveable wood or plastic frames, each of which holds a sheet of wax or plastic foundation. The bees build cells upon the sheets of foundation to create complete honeycombs. Foundation comes in two cell-sizes: worker foundation, which enables the bees to create small, hexagonal worker cells; and drone foundation, which allows the bees to build much larger drone cells, for the production of male bees.
The bottom box, or brood chamber, contains the queen and most of the bees; the upper boxes, or supers, contain just honey. Only the young nurse bees can produce wax flakes which they secrete from between their abdominal plates; they build honeycomb using the artificial wax foundation as a starting point, after which they may raise brood or deposit honey and pollen in the cells of the comb. These frames can be freely manipulated and honey supers with frames full of honey can be taken and extracted for their honey crop.
Movable frame hives
In the USA, the
Langstroth hiveis commonly used. The Langstroth was the first successful top-opened hive with movable frames, and other designs of hive have been based on it. Langstroth hive was however a descendant of Jan Dzierzon’s Polish hive designs. In the United Kingdom, the most common type of hive is the British National Hive, but it is not unusual to see some other sorts of hive (Smith, Commercial and WBC, rarely Langstroth). Straw skeps, bee gums, and unframed box hives are now unlawful in most US states, as the comb and brood cannot be inspected for diseases. However, straw skeps are still used for collecting swarms by hobbyists in the UK, before moving them into standard hives.
Top bar hives
A few hobby beekeepers are adopting various
top bar hives of the type commonly found in Africa. These have no frames and the honey filled comb is not returned to the hive after extraction, as it is in the Langstroth hive. Because of this, the production of honey in a top bar hive is only about 20% that of a Langstroth hive, but the initial costs and equipment requirements are far lower. Top-bar hives also offer some advantages in interacting with the bees and the amount of weight that must be lifted is greatly reduced. Top Bar Hives are being widely used in developing countries in Africa and Asia as a result of the 'Bees For Development' program. [cite web| last =Gregory | first =Pam
title =Better beekeeping in top-bar hives| publisher =Bees For Development
format =Web article | accessdate =2008-03-12 ]
While knowledge of the bees is the first line of defense, most beekeepers also wear some protective clothing. Novice beekeepers usually wear gloves and a hooded suit or hat and veil. Experienced beekeepers sometimes elect not to use gloves because they inhibit delicate manipulations. The face and neck are the most important areas to protect, so most beekeepers will at least wear a veil.
Defensive bees are attracted to the breath, and a sting on the face can lead to much more pain and swelling than a sting elsewhere, while a sting on a bare hand can usually be quickly removed by fingernail scrape to reduce the amount of venom injected.
The protective clothing is generally light coloured (but not colourful) and of a smooth material. This provides the maximum differentiation from the colony's natural predators (bears, skunks, etc.) which tend to be dark-colored and furry.
Smoke is the beekeeper's third line of defense. Most beekeepers use a "smoker" — a device designed to generate smoke from the incomplete combustion of various fuels. Smoke calms bees; it initiates a feeding response in anticipation of possible hive abandonment due to fire. Smoke also masks alarm pheromones released by guard bees or when bees are squashed in an inspection. The ensuing confusion creates an opportunity for the beekeeper to open the hive and work without triggering a defensive reaction. In addition, when a bee consumes honey the bee's abdomen distends, supposedly making it difficult to make the necessary flexes to sting, though this has not been tested scientifically.
Smoke is of questionable use with a swarm, because swarms do not have honey stores to feed on in response. Usually smoke is not needed, since swarms tend to be less defensive, as they have no stores to defend, and a fresh swarm will have fed well from the hive.
Many types of fuel can be used in a smoker as long as it is natural and not contaminated with harmful substances. These fuels include hessian, pine needles, corrugated cardboard, and mostly rotten or punky wood. Some beekeeping supply sources also sell commercial fuels like pulped paper and compressed cotton, or even aerosol cans of smoke.
Some bee keepers are using "liquid smoke" as a safer, more convenient, alternative. It is a water-based solution that is sprayed onto the bees from a plastic spray bottle.
Beekeeping in the United States
Development of beekeeping in the United States
John Harbison, originally from
Pennsylvania, successfully brought bee keeping to the US west coast in the 1860s, in an area now known as Harbison Canyon, California, and greatly expanded the market for honey throughout the country.
Beekeeping was traditionally practiced for the bees'
honeyharvest, although nowadays crop pollination service can often provide a greater part of a commercial beekeeper's income. Other hive products are pollen, royal jelly, and propolis, which are also used for nutritional and medicinal purposes, and beeswax, which is used in candle making, cosmetics, wood polish, and for modelling. The modern use of hive products has changed little since ancient times. Western honey bees are not native to the Americas. American, Australian, and New Zealandcolonists imported honey bees from Europe, partly for honey and partly for their usefulness as pollinators. The first honey bee species imported were likely European dark bees. Later Italian bees, Carniolan honey bees and Caucasian bees were added.
Western honey bees were also brought to the
Primorsky Kraiin Russiaby Ukrainian settlers around 1850s. These Russian honey bees that are similar to the Carniolan beewere imported into the U.S. in 1990. The Russian honey bee has shown to be more resistant to the bee parasites " Varroa destructor" and " Acarapis woodi".
Before the 1980s, most U.S. hobby beekeepers were farmers or relatives of a farmer, lived in rural areas, and kept bees with techniques passed down for generations. The arrival of tracheal mites in the 1980s and
varroa mites and small hive beetles in the 1990s led to the discontinuation of the practice by most of these beekeepers as their bees could not survive among these new parasites.
Asia, other species of "Apis" exist which are used by local beekeepers for honey and beeswax. Non-"Apis" species of honey bees, known collectively as melipolines or stingless bees, have also been kept from antiquity in Australiaand Central America, although these traditions are dying, and some of the meliponine species used are endangered.
Types of beekeepers
Beekeepers generally categorize themselves as:
* Commercial beekeeper — Beekeeping is the primary source of income.
* Sideliner — Beekeeping is a secondary source of income.
Hobbyist — Beekeeping is not a significant source of income.
Some southern U.S. and southern hemisphere (
New Zealand) beekeepers keep bees primarily to raise queens and package bees for sale. In the U.S., northern beekeepers can buy early spring queens and 3- or 4-pound packages of live worker bees from the South to replenish hives that die out during the winter, although this is becoming less practical due to the spread of the Africanized bee.
In cold climates commercial beekeepers have to migrate with the seasons, hauling their hives on trucks to gentler southern climates for better wintering and early spring build-up. Many make "nucs" (small starter or nucleus colonies) for sale or replenishment of their own losses during the early spring. In the U.S. some may pollinate squash or
cucumbers in Florida or make early honey from citrus groves in Florida, Texasor California. The largest demand for pollination comes from the almondgroves in California. As spring moves northward so do the beekeepers, to supply bees for tree fruits, blueberries, strawberries, cranberries and later vegetables. Some commercial beekeepers alternate between pollination service and honey production but usually cannot do both at the same time.
Northern Hemisphere, beekeepers may harvest honey from July until October, according to the honey flows in their area. Good management requires keeping the hive free of pests and disease, and ensuring that the bee colony has room in the hive to expand. Chemical treatments, if used for parasite control, must be done in the off-season to avoid any honey contamination. Success for the hobbyist also depends on locating the apiary so bees have a good nectar sourceand pollen sourcethroughout the year.
Southern Hemisphere, beekeeping is an all-the-year-round enterprise, although in cooler areas (to the south of Australia and New Zealand) the activity may be minimal in the winter (May to August). Consequently, the movement of commercial hives is more localized in these areas.
Bee rentals and migratory beekeeping
After the winter of 1907, US beekeeper Nephi Miller decided to try moving his hives to different areas of the country to increase their productivity during winter. Since then, "migratory beekeeping" has become widespread in America. It is a crucial element of US agriculture, which could not produce anywhere near its current levels with native pollinators alone. Beekeepers earn much more from renting their bees out for pollination than they do from honey production.
One major US beekeeper reports moving his hives from
Idahoto Californiain January to prepare for almondpollination in February, then to apple orchards in Washingtonin March, to North Dakotatwo months later for honey production, and then back to Idaho by November — a journey of several thousands of miles. Others move from Floridato New Hampshireor to Texas. About two thirds of US domestic bees visit California for the almond bloom in February.
Keepers in Europe and Asia are generally far less mobile, with bee populations moving and mingling within a smaller geographic extent (although some keepers do move longer distances, it is much less common). This wider spread and intermingling in the US has resulted in far greater losses from "Varroa" mite infections in recent years. [cite news
title=The Silence of the Bees
publisher=High Country News
A colony of bees consists of three castes of bee:
*a queen, which is normally the only breeding female in the colony;
*a large number of female
worker bees, typically 30,000–50,000 in number;
*a number of male drones, ranging from thousands in a strong hive in spring to very few during dearth or cold season.
The queen is the only sexually mature female in the hive and all of the female worker bees and male drones are her offspring. The queen may live for up to three years or more and may be capable of laying half a million eggs or more in her lifetime. At the peak of the breeding season, late spring to summer, a good queen may be capable of laying 3,000 eggs in one day, more than her own body weight. This would be exceptional however; a prolific queen might peak at 2,000 eggs a day, but a more average queen might lay just 1500 eggs per day. The queen is raised from a normal worker egg, but is fed a larger amount of
royal jellythan a normal worker bee, resulting in a radically different growth and metamorphosis. The queen influences the colony by the production and dissemination of a variety of pheromones or 'queen substances'. One of these chemicals suppresses the development of ovaries in all the female worker bees in the hive and prevents them laying eggs.
Mating of queens
The queen emerges from her cell after 15 days of development and she remains in the hive for 3-7 days before venturing out on a mating flight. Her first orientation flight may only last a few seconds, just enough to mark the position of the hive. Subsequent mating flights may last from 5 minutes to 30 minutes, and she may mate with a number of male drones on each flight. Over several matings, possibly a dozen or more, the queen will receive and store enough
spermfrom a succession of drones to fertilize hundreds of thousands of eggs. If she does not manage to leave the hive to mate — possibly due to bad weather or being trapped within part of the hive — she will remain infertile and become a 'drone layer', incapable of producing female worker bees, and the hive is doomed.
Mating takes place at some distance from the hive and often several hundred feet up in the air; it is thought that this separates the strongest drones from the weaker ones - ensuring that only the fastest and strongest drones get to pass on their genes.
Fertilized and non-fertilized eggs
Having achieved a successful mating, the queen will begin to lay eggs for the first time a few days later. The vast majority of eggs she lays will be fertilized eggs and will produce female worker bees. If she lays an unfertilized egg it will develop into a male drone. How the colony decides how many workers will be raised versus how many drones will be raised is not fully understood.
Female worker bees
Almost all the bees in a hive are female worker bees. At the height of summer when activity in the hive is frantic and work goes on non-stop, the life of a worker bee may be as short as 6 weeks; in late autumn, when no brood is being raised and no
nectaris being harvested, a young bee may live for 16 weeks, right through the winter. During its life a worker bee performs different work functions in the hive which are largely dictated by the age of the bee.
*Denmark: beekeeping.com [ [http://www.beekeeping.com/countries/denmark.htm Apiservices - Beekeeping - Apiculture - Denmark/Danemark ] ] (1996)
*Arab countries: beekeeping.com [ [http://www.beekeeping.com/articles/us/arab_countries.htm The Future of Bees and Honey Production in Arab Countries ] ] (1997)
*USA: University of Arkansas National Agricultural Law Center [http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/RS20759.pdf] (2002), Agricultural Marketing Resource Center [ [http://www.agmrc.org/agmrc/commodity/livestock/beesapiculture/ Bees ] ] (2006)
*Serbia: http://www.pcela.co.yu/pcelarstvoSrbiaE.htm [ [http://www.pcela.co.yu/pcelarstvoSrbiaE.htm Back ] ]
Images of harvesting honey
* Western honey bee life cycle
* [http://www.masterbeekeeper.org/ Dyce Laboratory for Honey Bee Studies] Cornell University
* [http://exhibits.mannlib.cornell.edu/beekeeping/ A Buzz About Bees: 400 Years of Bees and Beekeeping] E. F. Phillips Beekeeping Collection at Cornell University; Mann Library online virtual exhibit
* [http://www.cornwallhoney.co.uk/ Cornwall Honey] Beekeepers in the UK
* [http://www.abfnet.org/ The American Beekeeping Federation]
* [http://www.bbka.org.uk/ The British Beekeepers' Association]
* [http://www.ibra.org.uk/ International Bee Research Association]
* [http://www.apicultura.com/apimondia/ The international federation of beekeepers associations] ,
* In the United Kingdom, [http://www.dave-cushman.net/bee/other.html a similar web resource] offers free construction drawings for all British standard hive equipment, including the British Standard Hive, the Smith Hive, WBC Hive, Glen Hive, the Langstroth, German National and Dadant hive.
* [http://www.hartfordadvocate.com/article.cfm?aid=8256 "Let it Bee"] Connecticut rediscovers the joys of bee keeping in this "Hartford Advocate" article
* [http://pollennation.blip.tv/#424386 "Pollen Nation" A documentary about commercial, itinerant beekeepers in the US]
* [http://www.lauratyler.com/sister_bee.php Documentary "Sister Bee" Laura Tyler portrays beekeeping in this documentary about six women beekeepers from Boulder County, Colorado. The 30-minute film considers the women's various perspectives on what, for some, is just a hobby, for others is a career in beekeeping]
* [http://www.beekeeping-guide.com/how-to-start-beekeeping.html How To Start Beekeeping]
* [http://www.beecluster.org/ Kozhikode Bee-keeping Cluster]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
beekeeping — /bee kee ping/, n. the rearing and breeding of honeybees; apiculture. [1830 40; BEE1 + KEEPING] * * * or apiculture Care and manipulation of honeybees to enable them to produce and store more honey than they need so that the excess can be… … Universalium
beekeeping — [[t]bi͟ːkiːpɪŋ[/t]] N UNCOUNT Beekeeping is the practice of owning and taking care of bees … English dictionary
beekeeping — noun see beekeeper … New Collegiate Dictionary
beekeeping — noun The practice or profession of keeping and caring for bees. Syn: apiculture See Also: beekeeper … Wiktionary
beekeeping — bee|keep|ing [ bi,kipıŋ ] noun uncount the activity of raising BEES and collecting their HONEY ╾ bee|keep|er noun count … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
beekeeping — n. occupation of raising bees … English contemporary dictionary
beekeeping — UK [ˈbiːˌkiːpɪŋ] / US [ˈbɪˌkɪpɪŋ] noun [uncountable] the activity of raising bees and collecting their honey Derived word: beekeeper noun countable Word forms beekeeper : singular beekeeper plural beekeepers … English dictionary
beekeeping — noun the cultivation of bees on a commercial scale for the production of honey • Syn: ↑apiculture • Derivationally related forms: ↑apicultural (for: ↑apiculture), ↑apiculturist (for: ↑ … Useful english dictionary
Beekeeping in Ireland — Contents 1 Organisations 2 Publications 3 See also 4 See also 5 … Wikipedia
List of topics in beekeeping — This is a list of topics concerning beekeeping and honey bees.*Africanized bee a hybrid bee with characteristics unsuitable for beekeeping *Apiary a yard where beehives are kept *Apicology ecology of bees *Apiology scientific study of bees *Bee a … Wikipedia