Infobox Ethnic group
Tu, Mongour, Chaaghaan mongghol
poptime=241,198 (2000 Census)
China: Qinghai, Gansu
Tibetan Buddhism, and some Taoismand shamanism
MongolsThe Monguor or Tu Zu (Simplified: 土; Pinyin: Tǔ) people are ethnically Xianbei(鲜卑). They were classified into Tu Nationality (土族) by the Chinese Government in 1953 and are known as "Monguor" or "Mangghuer" in the Western publications. They are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. They are distributed throughout the 31 provinces and regions of China, with a higher concentration in Qinghaiand GansuProvinces in the northwest.
Ethnonym and ethnic origins
Ethnically the “Tu” descended from the
Xianbei(鲜卑), a powerful nomadic people who descended from the Donghu in northeast China and played an important role in the Chinese and even the world’s history.
The name "Tu" was derived the name of
Tuyühun(吐谷浑, also written as 土谷浑), the older son of the King of Murong(慕容) of Xianbei, who was the first Khan to separate and undertake the great westward migration from the northeast in 284. They founded two powerful empires of Tuyühun and Tangut-Xixia in the northwest. "Tuyuhun" was the Chinese phonetic transcription of his original name, "Teihu": "hun" in his Chinese name was pronounced as "hu" in the ancient times. The "Tu" represented “the Tuyühun people” or “the people of the Tuyühun Kingdom.” The reference became increasingly simplied into “Tuhun” (吐浑) and “Tüihun” (退浑) between the years of 908 and 1042, the reference was simplified to people. The earliest record of the specific designation "Tu" dates to the early Song Dynasty, in 1001 CE, when the Northern Song official discussed defense strategies against the Tangut-Xixia Empire. The official classification as "Tu Nationality" (土族) took place in 1953, when most of the Chinese nationalities were classified.
Internationally the "Tu" are known as "Monguor", a term invented by the European catholics in the beginning of the twentith century. It is the pronunciation of "Mongol" in the Xianbei language characterized by the final "r" sound, and came from the self reference of some Tu in Huzhu and Datong as "Chaaghaan monguor" (White
Mongols) in contrast to their reference to the Mongolians as "Khara Monguor" (Black Mongols). The reference of "Chaaghaan" (White) came from their origins from the Murong Xianbei, who were historically referred to as the "Baibu Xianbei" due to their lighter skin in contrast to the other Xianbei groups (白部鲜卑, "White Section of the Xianbei"), [ Liu, Xueyao, 劉學銚, 1994. Xianbei shi lun (Xianbei History) 鮮卑史論. Taibei Shi 台北市, Nan tian shu ju (Nantian Press) 南天書局, p. 99] , [ Lü, Jianfu, 呂建福, 2002. Tu zu shi (The Tu History) 土族史. Beijing 北京, Zhongguo she hui ke xue chu ban she (Chinese Social Sciences Press) 中囯社会科学出版社. p. 15-16] , [ Wang, Zhongluo, 王仲荦, 2007. Wei jin nan bei chao shi (History of Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties) 魏晋南北朝史. Beijing 北京, Zhonghua shu ju (China Press) 中华书局, p. 257] . Because the Mongols also derived their ancestry from the Xianbei, the two groups share much similarities in the languages, and the parallel festival celebrations of "Nadun" among the Tu and "Nadam" among the Mongolians, and shamanism as part of their religious practices.
The Tu language is classified as one of the Mongolic language family; 85% of the Tu vocabulary is similar to the that of the Mongolian language (the remainder consists primarily of loanwords from Chinese and Tibetan).
The Tu religion is a harmonious blend of the
Tibetan Buddhism, Taoism, and Shamanism. In many Tu villages, a Buddhist temple and a Taoist shrine coexist. While Buddhist monks are common in most villages, Taoist priests and shamans are few and each serves a large area. The shaman's primary function is as a trancemedium during the Naduncelebration.
The Tu, whose culture and social organization reflects
Confucianism, have preserved ancient traditions, most characteristically demonstrated in the unique Nadunand Anzhao. Nadun is similar in name to Nadam celebrated by the Mongolians, but different in format and content. It is specifically held among the Tu people who live in the Sanchuan (Guanting) Region of Minhe County, on the border of Qinghai and Gansu Provinces by the Yellow River, whose subpopulation totaled 39,616. It is celebrated at the end of the harvest each year and lasts over two months across the Sanchuan area from the twelfth of the seventh month to the fifteenth of the ninth month by the Chinese lunar calendar, spanning a total of 63 days. Anzhao is traditional Tu dance predominantly held in Huzhu County, which has the largest Tu community of 62,780 people.
Traditional Tu weddings are incomparable affairs with elaborate rituals that encompass hundreds of wedding songs, called "daola," that are sung over days and nights with great variations in melody and contents.
Origins and History
The origins of the Tu are reflected in the local folktales that accounted the struggles the Tu ancestors,
Donghu(东胡), with the Wangmang(汪茫) people more than four thousand years ago in northeast China. About three to four thousand years ago, the Donghu developed into the state of a country formed by the coalitions of the Donghu, Wuheng(乌恒), and Xianbei(鲜卑). Among the northern Chinese ethnic groups, the Donghu was the earliest to evolve into the state of civilization and first developed bronze technology. They spoke proto-Mongolian language and were associated with the Upper Xiajiadian Culture [夏家店上层文化] , characterized by the practice of agriculture and animal husbandry in addition to handicrafts and bronze art. In the end of the third century B.C., the XiongnuMaodun (匈奴冒顿) attacked to destroy the Donghu.
Origins as the Murong of the Xianbei kingdom (2nd century BC)
After Donghu coalition was disintegrated, the Wuheng and Xianbei moved respectively to Mt. Wuheng and Mt. Xianbei. The Wuhuan moved to Mt. Wuhuan and engaged in continuous warfare against the Xiongnu on the west and China on the south. As the Wuhuan and Xiongnu were worn out from the lengthy battles, the Xianbei preserved their strength by moving northward. The Murong (慕容) Section of Xianbei resided towards the north, and because of their lighter skin, they were referred to as "Bai Bu" (白部, lit. "White Section") [ "Records of Former Yan", "Records of Former Qin", in "Sixteen Kingdoms Spring and Autumn": 十六国春秋, 前燕录, 前秦录)] , by the other Xianbei sections that resided in the west. In the first century, the Xianbei defeated the Wuhuan and northern Xiongnu, and developed into a powerful state, under the leadership of the first elected Khan
Tanshihuai(檀石槐). In 87 A.D., the Xianbei killed the king of the northern Xiongnu, Shanyu Youliu(单于优留), resulting in its thorough disintegration. Therefater the Xiongnu submitted under the Xianbei and self proclaimed to be Xianbei. The Xianbei took control of the vast grassland of Mongolia formerly occupied by the Xiongnu.
In 235 AD, the last Khan of Xianbei,
Kebineng(柯必能), was assassinated by the Chinese Cao Wei(曹魏) Kingdom and resulted in the disintegration of the XianbeiKingdom. Thereafter, the Xianbei pushed their way inside the Great Walland established extensive presence in China. During the Sixteen Kingdoms(304-439) period, the Xianbei founded six kingdoms, including the Former Yan(337-370), Western Yan(384-394), Later Yan(383-407), Southern Yan(398-410), Western Qin(385-430) and Southern Liang(397-414). These kingdoms were unified by the Tuoba Xianbeiwho established the Northern Wei(386-535) of the Northern Dynasties(386-581), in opposition to the Southern Dynasties(420-589) founded by the southern Chinese. In 534, the Northern Weisplit into the Eastern Wei(534-550) and Western Wei(535-556) Kingdoms. The former evolved into the Northern Qi(550-577), and the latter evolved into the Northern Zhou(557-581), which pushed the Southern Dynastiesto the south of the Yangtze River. In 581, the Prime Minister, Yang Jian, of the Northern Zhou, which was the last Xianbei kingdom of the Northern Dynasties, changed its national title into the Sui(581-618) Dynasty. The Suiannihilated the Southern Chen(557-589), the last kingdom of the Southern Dynasties, and unified the northern and southern China. The Tang(618-907) Dynasties succeeded the Suiand led China into the most prosperous state of civilization seen in the Chinese and world history. Contrary to the conventional beliefs that the Sui and Tang were founded by the Han ethnic group, these two powerful dynasties inherited the political structure of the Northern Weiand continued to be of Xainbei [ Chen, Yinke (陳寅恪), 1943, Tang dai zheng zhi shi shu lun gao (Manuscript of Discussions on the Political History of Tang Dynasty) 唐代政治史述論稿. Chongqing (重慶), Shang wu (商務)] [Chen, Yinke (陳寅恪) and Tang, Zhenchang (唐振常), 1997, Tang dai zheng zhi shi shu lun gao (Manuscript of Discussions on the Political History of Tang Dynasty) 唐代政治史述論稿. Shanghai [上海] , Shanghai gu ji chu ban she (Shanghai Ancient Literature Press)] 上海古籍出版社] . The Khitans who founded the subsequent Liao Dynasty (916-1125) and the Mongols who founded the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) also derived their ancestry from the Xianbei. Through these extensive political establishments, the Xianbei who stayed in China were immersed among the Chinese, whereas those who followed the Mongols into the northern grasslands were immersed among the Mongols.
After the Xianbei Kingdom disintegrated, the Murong section separated first, led by Mohuba (莫护跋), to submit under Wei. He was succeeded by his son
Muyan(木延) in 246, and grandson, Shegui (涉归), the latter of whom was appointed as the Xianbei Khan (单于). After She Gui died in 283, his brother, Nai (耐), first took the position of the Khan and, after being killed, was replaced by his younger son, Murong Gui (慕容廆). In 284, Tuyühun led Xianbei and Wuhuan from the Murong Section. The separation occurred during the Western Jin(265-316) which succeeded the Cao Wei(220-265) in northern China. Legends accounted that he separated due to the fight between his horses and those of Murong Wei. The actual cause was the intense struggle over the Khanate position. The fraction that supported Murong Wei into the Khanate position aimed at ruling over China, whereas Tuyühun intended to preserve the Xianbei culture and lifestyle. The disagreement resulted in Tuyühun to proclaim to be the Khan and undertook the long westward journey under the title of the Prince of Jin, followed by other Xianbei and Wuhuan groups.
Westward migration to Qinghai and Gansu (4th century AD)
Under the leadership of Tuyühun Khan, they "migrated westward 4,000 kilometers" [ "
Book of Song", "宋书"] , and while passing through western Liaoning and Mt. Bai, more Xianbei groups joined from the Duan (段）, Yuwen (宇文), and Bai (白) sections. At the Hetao Plains(河套平原)near Ordos(鄂尔多斯) in Inner Mongolia, they resided by Mt. Yin(阴山) for over thirty years, as the Tuoba Xianbei and Northern Xianbei joined through political and marriage alliances. In 315, they crossed the river and move southward to settle on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, thereby beginning their presence in the norhtwest China. They conquered the native peoples, who were summarily referred to as Qiang(羌) and included more than 150 loosely coordinated tribes, and established an Empire named to the honor of Tuyühun Khan. Two years later, Tuyühun Khan passed away in Linxia, Gansu, and his sixty sons inherited to further develop the Empire, by annihilating the Western Qin(385-430) and Xia(407-431) Kingdoms and annexing the Qinghai Xianbei, Tufa Xianbei, Qifu Xianbei and Haolian Xianbei from them. These Xianbei groups formed the core of the Empire and numbered about 3.3 million at their peak. The odest son of Tuyühun Yeyan(叶延) first succeeded him, and occupied the land of Xiqiang (西羌) through military conquest and established capital at Gansong(甘松, present south of Gansu), occupying a vast territory that covered the great Marshes of Gannan (甘南大草原) and Shaqiang (沙漒, present Hequ Marshes in northwest Sichuan), the upper and middle streams of the Tao River(洮河), and reached the Ruoergai Marshes(若尔盖草原, which transcends the present Gansu and Sichuan). After overtaking the Aba Grasslands (阿坝大草原), they expanded northwest along the Yellow River, Mt. Great Jishishan (大积石山, present Mt. Animaqing, 阿尼玛卿山) and Mt. Bailan (白兰山, present Mt. Bayankala, 巴颜喀拉山).
Tuyühun Empire and Expansion (4th-6th centuries AD)
The Tuyühun descendants carried out extensive military expeditions westward, reaching as far as Hetian in Xinjiang and the borders of Kashmir and Afghanistan, and established a vast empire that encompassed Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, northern Sichuan, eastern Shaanxi, southern Xinjiang, and most of Tibet, stretching 1,500 kilometers from the east to the west and 1,000 kilometers from the north to the south. They unified northwest China for the first time in history, developed the southern route of the Silk Road, and promoted cultural exchanges between the eastern and western territories, dominating the northwest for more than three and half centuries until the Empire was destroyed by the Tibetans in 670.
Achai (阿柴) developed diplomatic relationships with the Liu-Song (刘宋) Dynasty (420-479), and expanded southwest to the east of River Jinsha (金沙江), the middle and upper streams of
Yalong River(鸭砻江), Greater and Lesser Jinchuan (大小金川, present west of Sichuan), and the Qiang areas around the Dadu River(大渡河). He further expanded across Bailan to the other Qiang areas along the Tongtian River(通天河), and opened a route into the Xinu Kingdom (西女国, presently the Ali area in Tibet), current Lhasaand Nepal. In the northwest, he annexed the territories of Yifu (乙弗) and Qihan (契汗) and further expanded northward to reach the south of River Ruo(弱水, also known as Zhangye River, 张掖河). His son, Mugui (慕璝), brought the kingdom to its highest peak, by annexing West Qin (西秦) and eliminating Haolian Xia (郝连夏), and further expanding the territory to the upper streams of the Wei River(渭河, present central Gansu and Ningxia). At the southeast, the Kingdom extended to the Baishui River (白水江) area (present Yinping, Sichuan area). After his death in 436, his brother, Muliyan (慕利延), succeeded to be the Khan. In face of the growing and expanding North Wei(北魏) from the east, he undertook a famous westward campaign to eliminate the smaller kingdoms and to expand into the northwest of the present Tibet. After he died in 452, his son Shiyan succeeded him as Khan and further expanded to annex the south of the Great Chaidamu Basin(柴达木盆地) under his territory. Through these successful military conquests, he was able to expand into North Wei by 471.
Subsequently major changes took place in central China.
Yang Jian(杨坚) replaced the North Zhou(北周) with Sui Dynasty. The Tuyuhun leadership did not adapt with changes in foreign policy and engaged in decades of warfare with the Sui. By 576, internal conflicts developed within the kingdom and brought it to a gradual decline. The Tuyuhun Khan, Kualu (夸吕), repeatedly abolished his heirs, killing those who were deemed not loyal, and further sent troops to assault the Sui and provoked the Sui to send troops to attack the Kingdom. Turmoil ensued and portions of the kingdom abandoned Tuyuhun and surrendered to the Sui.
Tibet breaks away from the Tuyuhun kingdom (7th century)
Tang Dynastywas established, the Chinese defeated the Turks in the north. Because the Tuyuhun kingdom controlled the crucial trade routes between the east and the west, the kingdom became the immediate target of attack by the Tang. Meanwhile, as the Tuyuhun kingdom underwent a decline through internal conflicts under the changing international politics, the region called Tubo(吐蕃, later known as Tibet), located in the southwest of the Kingdom, developed rapidly and expanded northward, directly threatening the kingdom. Songzanganbu(松赞干布) united the entire Tubo region and moved its capital to present Lhasa. The exile Tuyuhun Khan, Dayan (达延), submitted himself under Tubo, which resorted to an excuse that Tuyuhun objected its marriage with the Tang and sent 200,000 troops to attack. Tuyuhun troops retreated to the Qinghai area, whereas Tubo went eastward to attack the Dangxiang groups and reached the southern Gansu. The Tang Government was shocked and sent five troops to fight. Although Tubo withdrew in response, Tuyuhun lost much of its territory in southern Gansu. Meanwhile, the Tuyuhun Government was split between the pro-Tubo and pro-Tang fractions, with the former increasingly becoming stronger. In the struggle between the different fractions, the pro-Tubo fractions corroborated with Tubo and brought the Tubo troops to attack the Kingdom. The Tang sent the famous general, Xue Rengui(薛仁贵), who led 100,000 troops to fight Tubo in Dafeichuan (大非川, present Gonghe County in Qinghai). They were annihilated by the ambush of 200,000 troops of Dayan and Tobu, which became the biggest debacle in the Tang history.
plit into eastern and western kingdoms (7th century)
After its fall, the Tuyühun Empire disintegrated into an Eastern Kingdom that existed in the Tang Dynasty and a Western Kingdom in Tibet until the Tibetan Empire fell in the ninth century. The east Tuyuhun was distributed on the eastern side of Mt. Qilian (祁连山) and increasingly migrated eastward to central China, particularly following the
An Shi Rebellionand the continued attacks of Tubo. The Anshi Turmoil shook the Tang Dynasty and caused its emperor to flee, during which Tubo overtook the entire territory of Tuyuhun. The former Khan and officials of Tuyuhun were forced to serve under the reign of Tubo until the internal turmoil developed within the Tubo Government and massive revolts brought an end to its ruling.
Following the fall of the Tuyuhun Kingdom, the Tuyuhun people underwent continuous diasporas and were widely distributed over the vast territory in the north of the Yellow River, which stretched from the northwest to the central and eastern parts of China that covered the present
Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Hebei, Henan, and ShandongProvinces. Through the later dynasties, many Tuyuhun descendants became high-ranking officials and military generals. After the Tang Dynasty fell, Liu Zhiyuan(刘知远) conspired to murder the highest Tu leader, Bai Chengfu(白承福), in 946, who was reportedly so wealthy that “his horses had silver mangers” [ Molè, Gabriella, 1970, The T'u-yü-hun from the Northern Wei to the time of the five dynasties. Roma, Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente. p. xxiv] . With the robbed wealth that included an abundance of property and thousands of fine horses, Liu established the Latter Han(947-950), which lasted only four years and became the shortest dynasty in the Chinese history. The incident took away the central leadership and stripped the opportunity for the Tu to restore the Tuyühun Kingdom.
Founding of the West Xia kingdom (11th century)
The Tangut-Xixia was established by the
Tuobadescendants who followed Tuyühun from the Mt. Yin. After the empire fell, the Tang Court “bestowed” Tuoba Chici(拓跋赤辞), who was the famous prince of the Tuyühun Kingdom and controlled the Dangxiang Qiang, with the imperial name of “Li.” The Complete Book of the Tang, Quan Tang Shu(全唐书), recorded that the Buddhist monk, Fa Lin, pointed out to the Tang Emperor, Li Shimin(李世民), that Li had descended from the Tuoba Xianbei[ Zhao, Wenrun (赵文润), 1994, Lun tang wen hua de hu hua qing xiang (On the nomadic tendencies of the Tang culture) 论唐文化的胡化倾向. Shaaxi shi fan da xue xue bao (Journal of Shaaxi Normal University) 陕西师范大学学报 23(4): 35-41. p. 36] . It is likely that the Tang emperors and the Tuoba of the Tuyühun Kingdom were from the same Xianbei descent, or the monk would not have dared to speak of it in front of the Tang emperor. In the end of the Tang Dynasty, Tuoba Chici brought troops to suppress the Huangchao Rebellionon behalf of the Tang court and took control of the Xia State(夏州), in northern Shaanxiin 881. After the Tang fell in 907, the Tuoba descendants formally declared resistance against the expanding Northern Songin 982 and proclaimed independence to establish the Tangut-XixiaEmpire in 1038.
The English reference of Tangut-Xixia derived from the combination of the Mongolian reference of “Tangut” and the Chinese reference as “Xixia” or “West Xia.” The Chinese reference derived from the location of the Empire on the western side of the Yellow River, in contrast to the Liao (916-1125) and Jin (1115-1234) on its east. The Mongolian usage of “Tangut” referred to the “Donghu people;” “-t” in Mongolian language means “people.” “Donghu” was a Chinese phonetic transcription whom the Mongols referred to as “Tünghu” [ Hao, Weimin (郝维民) and Qimudedaoerji (齐木德道尔吉), 2007, Neimenggu tong shi gang yao (Outline of Comprehensive History of Inner Mongolia) 内蒙古通史纲要. Beijing (北京), Renmin chu ban she (People's Press) 人民出版社. p. 17)] . By the time that the Mongols emerged in the thirteenth century, the only Donghu people who existed were the Tu people, the Xianbei of the Tuyühun Kingdom, the founders of the Xixia Kingdom. That the Mongols referred to Xixia as “Tangut” to represent the founding ethnic group of the Tu is consistent with the theories on the Mongol origins postulated by the Outer Mongolian scholars, who have held that the Mongols had descended from the Xiongnu, more specifically the eastern Xiongnu who spoke proto-Mongolian language, as opposed to the western Xiongnu who spoke proto-Turkish language. The Chinese scholars have characterized the Mongols as having descended from the Xianbei, as recorded as “Mengwu Shiwei” by the Northern Dynasties. “Mengwu” was a variant Chinese transcription of “Menggu” designated to the Mongols, and “Shiwei” was a variant transcription of the Xianbei, since the Xianbei was also recorded as “Sian-pie,” “Serbi,” “Sirbi” and “Sirvi” [ Zhang, Jiuhe (张久和), 1998, Yuan Menggu ren de li shi: Shiwei--Dada yan jiu (History of the Original Mongols: research on Shiwei-Dadan) 原蒙古人的历史: 室韦--达怛研究. Beijing (北京), Gao deng jiao yu chu ban she (High Education Press) 高等教育出版社. p. 27-28 ] . This equated the Mongols to be “Mongol Xianbei,” an interpretation that seems to be associated with the submission of the Xiongnu under the Xianbei. In 87 A.D., the Xianbei defeated the northern Xiongnu and killed their king, Shanyu Youliu, resulting in its thorough disintegration (Lü 2002:14), after which the Xiongnu submitted under the Xianbei and self proclaimed to be Xianbei [ Zhu, Hong (朱泓), 1994, Ren zhong xue shang de xiong nu, xian bei yu qi dan (The Xiongnu, Xianbei and Qidan in racial perspectives) 人种学上的匈奴、鲜卑与契丹. Bei fang wen wu (Northern Cultural Relics) 北方文物 38(2): 7-13. p. 8 ] . That the Mongolian usage of “Tangut” referred to the “Donghu people,” the Tu, validated the theories of Mongol descent from the Xiongnu postulated by the Outer Mongolian scholars. The term "Monguor" or "White Mongols" represented a reverse in the ethnonyms of the Xianbei and Xiongnu after the [Yuan Dynasty] in the thirteenth century.
The full title of the Tangut-Xixia Kingdom was “the Great Xia Kingdom of the White and High” (bai gao da xia guo 白高大夏国). The term “White,” or “bai,” was designated to the founding ethnic group, the Tu, which is consistent with the reference of them as “Chaaghaan,” or “White,” derived from their origins from the Murong Xianbei referred to as the “White Section.” The term “High,” or “gao,” is designated to the Qiang people who formed the majority population in Xixia. The “Qiang” were the native peoples conquered by Tuyühun after migrating to settle in the northwest. They initially rebelled but later their fate became intimately associated with the Xianbei, as they actively defended the kingdom when enemies attacked. The Qiang probably comprised the native Han and Tibetans, in addition to the
Miao/Hmong(苗)ancestors who were relocated to the northwest from central China after their Three Miao Kingdom(三苗国) was destroyed by the legendary Chinese Emperor Yu(禹) about four thousand years ago [ Wu, Xinfu (伍新福), 1999, Zhongguo Miao zu tong shi (The comprehensive history of the Chinese Hmong) 中国苗族通史, Guiyang (贵阳), Guizhou min zu chu ban she (Guizhou Nationalities Press) 贵州民族出版社. p. 25-30] . The autonyms of the Miao/Hmong included "Guoxiong" [ Cen, Xiuwen (岑秀文), 1993, Miaozu (The Miao Nationality) 苗族, Beijing (北京), Min zu chu ban she (民族出版社). p. 5 ] , "Gaoxiong," or "Gouxiong." The character “gao,” or “High” could have derived as a variant abbreviation of it. The Qiang people referred to Xixia as their “gao mi yao ,” or “High mi yao” Kingdom [ Li, Fanwen (李范文), 2005, Xixia tong shi (Comprehensive History of Xixia) 西夏通史, Beijing (北京) and Yinchuan (银川), Ren min chu ban she (People's Press) 人民出版社; Ningxia ren min chu ban she (Ningxia People's Press) 宁夏人民出版社. p. 42 ] . When “mi yao” is pronounced together, it is similar to “Miao.” This corroborated with the historical records that the relocated the Miao/Hmong ancestors formed the “Qiang” people and indicated that they believed the character “gao” or “High” in the national title of Xixia represented them. In addition to the Xianbei who ruled the Empire and the Qiang who formed the population base, the Xixia also comprised multiple other ethnic groups that included the Han, Tibetans, Uigurs, Khitans, Turks, and Mongols.
The Tangut-Xixia Empire inherited the political and social structures of the Tang and developed a unique and outstanding civilization characterized as “shining and sparkling” [Zhao, Yanlong (赵彦龙), 2005, Qian tan xi xia gong wen wen feng yu gong wen zai ti (A brief discussion on the writing style in official documents and documental carrier) 浅谈西夏公文文风与公文载体. Xi bei min zu yan jiu (NorthWest Minorities Research) 西北民族研究 45(2):78-84. p. 78] . It became the new kingdom for the Xianbei people who had lost their country, and earmarked permanent cultural imprints in northwest China. Through effective military organizations, the Xixia army inflicted extensive debacles against the Song and established a powerful stance against the
Liao(916-1125) and Jin(1115-1234), the last of which was founded by the Jurchens, the predecessors of the Manchuswho founded the Qing(1644-1912) Dynasty. The Xixia territory encompassed the present Ningxia, Gansu, eastern Qinghai, northern Shaanxi, northeastern Xinjiang, southwest Inner Mongolia, and southernmost Outer Mongolia, measuring about eight hundred thousand square kilometers [ Wang, Tianshun, (王天顺), 1993, Xi xia zhan shi (The Battle History of Xixia) 西夏战史. Yinchuan (银川), Ningxia ren min chu ban she (Ningxia People's Press) 宁夏人民出版社] , [ Bian, Ren (边人), 2005, Xi Xia:xiao shi zai li shi ji yi zhong de guo du (Xixia: the kingdom lost in the historical memories) 西夏:消逝在历史记忆中的国度. Beijing (北京), Wai wen chu ban she (Foreign Language Press) 外文出版社] , [ Li, Fanwen (李范文), 2005, Xixia tong shi (Comprehensive History of Xixia) 西夏通史, Beijing (北京) and Yinchuan (银川), Ren min chu ban she (People's Press) 人民出版社; Ningxia ren min chu ban she (Ningxia People's Press) 宁夏人民出版社] . In 1206, Gengis Khanunified the northern grasslands of Mongolia and led the Mongol troops to carry out six rounds of attacks against Xixia over twenty two years. As Xixia resisted vehemently, more and more Tu people crossed Mt. Qilianand joined the original Xianbei residents of Qinghai and Gansu in order to escape from the Mongol assaults, which gave rise to the current settlements of the Tu people. During the last round of attack, Gengis died. After the Kingdom was overrun in 1227, the Mongols caused devastating destructions on the Xixia architectures and written records, killed the last emperor, and massacred tens of thousands of civilians. The Xixia troops were incorporated into the Mongol army in their subsequent military conquests in central and southern China. Due to the extensive resistance of the Tu people against the Mongol attacks of Xixia, the Tu were initially suppressed by the Mongols, but toward the middle and later phase of the YuanDynasty (1271-1368), the Tu received equivalent treatment as the ruling Mongols and attained highest offices in the central court of the Yuan. After the Yuan fell, the Tu who followed the Mongols into the northern grassland were immersed among the Mongols.
The Tu culture today evolved as extensions from the Donghu, Xianbei, Tuyühun, Tang, and Xixia. Since the Tuyühun period, Confucianism served as the core ideology to govern the country, and the Chinese Buddhism and Shamanism functioned as the principle religions. In the Xixia kingdom, Confucianism was further strengthened, and Taoism was made into the national religion along with Buddhism. As the Tibetans Buddhism became more prevalent in the northwest, the Tu religious lives shifted from the Chinese Buddhism toward Tibetan Buddhism. After the Xixia Empire fell, its territory centered in Ningxia was fragmented by the successive establishments of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai, which increasingly weakened the political and military powers of the Tu. Through the
Ming(1368-1644) and Qing(1644-1912) Dynasties, the Tu have continued to play important roles in the national defense, political and religious affairs of China. Since the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the grasslands of the Tu were taken into the state possession, and their horses were either drafted into the national army or looted by the Mongols from the north, resulting in the eventual shift of the Tu lifestyles toward complete sedentary agriculture, supplemented by minimum animal husbandry. In the last two centuries, the Tu areas were encroached upon by increasing inland Chinese migrations. Throughout this period, the Tu have maintained a high degree of political autonomy and self governance under the local chiefdom system of Tu Si. Their political powers came to the ultimate decline when the Tu Si system was abolished in 1931, which exacerbated the Tu to loose their language. By the founding of PR China in 1949, only about fifty thousand of the Tu were left who maintained the Xianbei language, primarily in Qinghai and Gansu. During the Chinese classificatory campaigns carried out in the 1950s, those who could no longer speak the Xianbei language were classified into “Han,” those who followed the Mongols into the northern grassland were classified into Mongols, and those who adopted the Islamic religion were classified into Yugu and Dongxiang, in addition to Bao’an Nationalities. After another half a century, the Tu population increased to over two hundred thousand.
*Anonymous. 1977. Pater Lodewijk, Jozef, Maria Schram (1883-1971), Een Brugs missionaris en etnoloog. Haec Olim 21: 16-24.
*Dpal ldan bkra shis, Hu Jun, Hu Ping, Limusishiden (Li Dechun), Keith Slater, Kevin Stuart, Wang Xianzhen, and Zhu Yongzhong. 1996. Language Materials of China’s Monguor Minority: Huzhu Mongghul and Minhe Mangghuer. Sino-Platonic Papers No 69.
*Arienne M. Dwyer. 2005. Language Contact and Variation: A Discourse-based Grammar of Monguor. http://neh.gov/grants/guidelines/delsamples/mongour.pdf.
*Ethnologue. 09 January 2008. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mjg
*Feng Lide and Kevin Stuart. 1992. Interethnic Cultural Contact on the Inner Asian Frontier: The Gangou People of Minhe County, Qinghai. Sino Platonic Papers No 33.
*Hans-Rainer Kämpfe. 1974. Die soziale Rolle des 2. Pekinger Lcang skya qutuqtu Rol pa’i rdo rje (1717-1786): Beitrage zu einer Analyse anhand tibetischer und mongolischer Biographien. Bonn: Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität.
*Stefan Georg. 2003. Mongghul. IN Janhunen 2003:286-306.
*Hasibate, editor. 1986. Tuzu yu cidian [Tu Language Dictionary] . Mongolian Language Family Dialects Research Series Vol. 14. Huhehaote: Nei menggu renmin chubanshe [Inner Mongolia People’s Press] .
*J. Van Hecken. 1977. Schram, Lodewijk, Jozef, Maria, missionaris en etnoloog. Nationaal Biografisch Woordenboek 7:856-865.
*http://www.e-meld.org/school/case/monguor/storyofdata.html [Case Studies: Monguor Data Collection] .
*http://www.mpi.nl/DOBES/WebpageDobes1/DOBES/teams/Salar-Monguor/salar-monguorTemp.html [Salar and Monguor grammatical sketches; pictures and sound samples] .
*Hu Jun and Kevin Stuart. 1992. The Guanting Tu (Monguor) Wedding Ceremonies and Songs. Anthropos 87:109 132.
*Hu Jun and Kevin Stuart. 1992. Illness Among the Minhe Tu, Qinghai Province: Prevention and Etiology. Mongolian Studies 15:111 135.
*Jonathan N. Lipman. 1981. The Border World of Gansu, 1895-1935. Stanford University PhD dissertation. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.
*Juha Janhunen, editor. 2003. The Mongolic Languages. London: Routledge.
*Juha Janhunen. 2003. Shirongol and Shirongolic. Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia 8:83-89.
*Juha Janhunen. 2006. On the Shirongolic Names of Amdo. Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia 11:95-103.
*Juha Janhunen, Lionel Ha Mingzong and Joseph Tshe.dpag.rnam.rgyal. 2007. On the Language of the Shaowa Tuzu in the Context of the Ethnic Taxonomy of Amdo Qinghai. Central Asiatic Journal.
*Kenneth L. Field. 1997. A Grammatical Overview of Santa Mongolian. University of California, Santa Barbara PhD dissertation.
*Li Keyu. 1987. Mongghul Qidar Merlong [Mongghul-Chinese Dictionary] . Xining: Qinghai renmin chubanshe [Qinghai People’s Press] .
*Li Xuewei and Kevin Stuart. 1990. Population and Culture of the Mongols, Tu, Baoan, Dongxiang, and Yugu in Gansu. Mongolian Studies 12:71 93.
*Limusishiden and Kevin Stuart. 1994. ‘Caring for All the World’: The Huzhu Monguor (Tu) Pram (pp. 408-426) IN Edward H. Kaplan and Donald W. Whisenhunt, editors. Opuscula Altaica: Essays in Honor of Henry Schwarz. Bellingham: Western Washington University Press.
*Limusishiden and Kevin Stuart. 1995. Larinbuda and Jiminsu: A Monguor Tragedy. Asian Theatre Journal 12:2, 221-263.
*Limusishiden and Kevin Stuart. 1996. Review of Shilaode [Dominik Schröder] editor, translator, Li Keyu. Tuzu gesaer [Monguor Gesar] . Anthropos 91:297.
*Limusishiden and Kevin Stuart, editors. 1998. Huzhu Mongghul Folklore: Texts and Translations. München: Lincon Europa.
*Limusishiden and Kevin Stuart. 1999. Huzhu Mongghul Language Materials. Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskirja—
Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne88:261-264.
*Limsishiden and Kevin Stuart, editors. 2001. Huzhu Mongghul Texts: Chileb 1983 -1996 Selections. 2 vol. München: Lincom Europa.
*Liu, Xuezhao, 劉學銚, 1994. Xianbei shi lun 鮮卑史論. Taibei Shi 台北市, Nan tian shu ju 南天書局.
*Lu Jianfu (吕建福). 2002. "Tu Zu Shi" (土族史, The Tu History). Beijing (北京), Chinese Social Sciences Publishing House (中国社会科学出版社).
*Marina Illich. 2006. Selections from the Life of a Tibetan Buddhist Polymath: Chankya Rolpai Dorje (Lcang skya rol pa’i rdo rje), 1717-1786. Columbia University PhD dissertation.
*Missions de Scheut. 1920. Geschiedenis van de Christenheid Si-ning: 77-82 ; 110-116.
*Missions de Scheut. 1920. Lettres du P.Schram: 38-41.
*Missions de Scheut. 1920. Notes sur la prefecture chinoise d Si-ning (Koukounor): 79-85 &112-119.
*Missions de Scheut. 1921. De gelukkigste men's in Kansoe: 138.
*Missions de Scheut. 1921. L’Immaculee et les paiens de Chine: 201-220.
*Missions de Scheut. 1921. De zwarte ellende in Si-ning: 217-223.
*Gabriella Molè (1970). The Tu-yü-hun from the Northern Wei to the Time of the Five Dynasties. Serie Orientale Roma 41. Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estreme Oriente.
Antoine Mostaert. 1931. The Mongols of Kansu and their Language. Bulletin of the Catholic University of Peking 8:75-89.
*Antoine Mostaert. 1963-1964. Over Pater Louis Schram CICM. Haec Olim 15:103-108.
*Ngag dbang chos ldan (Shes rab dar rgyas) and Klaus Sagaster. 1967. Subud erike, “ein Rosenkranz aus Perlen”: die Biographie des 1. Pekinger lCang skya Khutukhtu, Ngag dbang blo bzang chos ldan. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
*Ngag dbang thub bstan dbang phyug and Hans-Rainer Kämpfe. 1976. Nyi ma’i ‘od zer/ Naran-u gerel: Die Biographie des 2. Pekingger lCang skya Qutugtu Rol pa’i rdo rje (1717-1786), Monumenta Tibetica Historica, Abteilung II: Vitae, Band 1. St. Augustin: VGH Wissenschaftsverlag.
*Kalsang Norbu (Skal bzang nor bu), Zhu Yongzhong, and Kevin Stuart. 1999. A Ritual Winter Exorcism in Gnyan Thog Village, Qinghai. Asian Folklore Studies 58:189-203.
*Gerard A. Postiglione, editor. 1999. China’s National Minority Education: Ethnicity, Schooling and Development. New York: Garland Press.
*G. N. Potanin. 1893. Tangutsko-tibetskaya okraïna Kitaya i Central’naya Mongoliya, vols. 1-2. St. Petersburg.
*G. N. Potanin. 1950. Tangutsko-tibetskaya okraina Kitaya i tsentral’naya Mongoliya (The Tangut-Tibetan frontier of China and Central Mongolia). Moscow. State Publisher. (An abridged edition of the 1893 version.)
*Qi Huimin, Limusishiden, and Kevin Stuart. 1997-1998. Huzhu Monguor Wedding Songs: Musical Characteristics. Parts I, II, III, IV. Chinese Music 20:1, 6-12, 14-17; 20:2, 32-37; 20:3, 43-52; 20:4, 68-71; 21:1, 10-13.
*Qi Huimin, Zhu Yongzhong, and Kevin Stuart. 1999. Minhe Mangghuer Wedding Songs: Musical Characteristics. Asian Folklore Studies 58:77-120.
*Louis Schram. 1912. Kansou. Missions en Chine et au Congo 149.
*Louis Schram. 1918. Catholic Missions. Ethnographic Notes 229-231.
*Louis Schram. 1927. Christelijke Kunst in China. Bulletin Catholique de Peking 668-376.
*Louis MJ Schram. 1932. Le mariage cez les T’ou-jen du Kan-sou [Marriage Among the Monguor of Gansu] . Variétés Sinologiques 58. [Available in an English translation (1962) by Jean H. Winchell in the Human Relations Area Files AE9] .
*Louis MJ Schram. 1954. The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan Frontier: Their Origin, History, and Social Organization. Philadelphia: Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 44:1.
*Louis MJ Schram. 1954. The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan Frontier: Part II. Their Religious Life. Philadelphia: Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 47:1.
*Louis MJ Schram. 1955. Two letters to Marguerite Hebert. Hebert (Raphael & Family) Papers Mss. 4769, Subseries 8. Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collections, Special Collections, Hill Memorial Library, Louisiana State University Libraries, Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University. [There are two letters in English (one three pages in length, the other four) from Schram to Marguerite Hebert, handwritten from Arlington, Virginia, in June and October 1955. One letter includes three typescript pages of reviews of Schram’s work by Joseph O. Baylen and Nicolas Poppe, and the other letter attaches two typescript pages of Lawrence Krader’s commentary. The letters reveal information about the people whom Schram knew in the Brusly, Louisiana area, especially the second. Schram asks about several families in particular and expresses concern as well as happiness regarding what Marguerite Hebert reveals about them and herself. Schram does mention that for over a year he has not been able to receive any news concerning the people he left behind in China. See: http://www.lib.lsu.edu/special/findaid/4769_inv.htm.]
*Louis MJ Schram. 1961. The Monguors of the Kansu-Tibetan Frontier: Part III. Records of the Monguor Clans. Philadelphia: Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 51:3.
*Louis Schram (Li Meiling, translator; Robert Fried and Heather Fried, proofreaders). 2006. 蒙 古 尔 部 族 的 组 织 meng gu er bu zu de zu zhi [Organization of the Monguor Clan] . 青 海 民 族 研 究 qing hai min zu yan jiu [Nationalities Research in Qinghai] . 1:29-36.
*Louis Schram (Li Meiling, translator; Robert Fried and Heather Fried, proofreaders). 2006. meng gu er bu zu de zu zhi 蒙古尔部族的组织 (xu yi) [Organization of the Monguor Clan (continuation of part 1)] . 青 海 民 族 研 究 qing hai min zu yan jiu) [Nationalities Research in Qinghai] . 2:10-14.
*Dominik Schröder. 1952/1953. Zur Religion der Tujen des Sininggebietes (Kukunor) [On the Religion of the Monguor of the Xining Region (Koknor)] . Anthropos 47:1-79, 620-658, 822-870; 48:202-249. [Available in an English translation (1962) by Richard Neuse IN Human Relations Area Files AE9.]
*Dominik Schröder. 1959. Aus der Volksdicntung der Monguor [From the Popular Poetry of the Monguor] ; 1. Teil: Das weibe Glücksschaf (Mythen, Märchen, Lieder) [Part 1. The White Lucky-Sheep (Myths, Fairytales, Songs)] . Asiatische Forschungen 6. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
*Dominik Schröder. 1964. Der dialekt der Monguor In B. Spuler, editor Mongolistik. (Handbuch der Orientalistik, 1. Abteilung, 5. Band, 2. Abschnitt). Leiden: EJ Brill.
*Dominik Schröder. 1970. Aus der Volksdichtung der Monguor [From the Popular Poetry of the Monguor] ; 2. Teil: In den Tagen der Urzeit (Ein Mythus vom Licht und vom Leben) [Part 2. In the Days of Primeval Times (A Myth of Light and Life)] . Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
*Keith Slater. Mangghuer In Janhunen 2003:307-324.
*Keith W. Slater. 2003. Minhe Mangghuer: A Mongolic Language of China’s Qinghai-Gansu Sprachbund. Curzon Asian Linguistic Series 2. London: RoutledgeCurzon.
*Albrecht de Smedt & Antoine Mostaert (1929-1931). Le dialecte monguor parlé par les Mongols du Kansou occidental, Ière partie: Phonétique. Anthropos 24: 145-166, 801-815; 25: 657-669, 961 973; 26: 253.
*Albrecht De Smedt & Antoine Mostaert (1933). Le dialecte monguor parlé par les Mongols du Kansou occidental, IIIe partie: Dictionnaire monguor-français. Pei-p’ing: Imprimerie de l’Université Catholique.
*Albrecht De Smedt & Antoine Mostaert (1945). Le dialecte monguor parlé par les Mongols du Kansou occidental, IIe partie: Grammaire. Monumenta Serica, Monograph 6. Peking.
*Elliot Sperling. 1997. A Note on the Chi-kya Tribe and the Two Qi Clans in Amdo. Les habitants du Toit du monde, Recherches sur la Haute Asie, 12:111-124.
*Kevin Stuart and Hu Jun. 1992. Death and Funerals Among the Minhe Tu (Monguor). Asian Folklore Studies 51:2, 67 87.
*Kevin Stuart and Hu Jun. 1993. ‘That All May Prosper’: The Monguor Nadun of the Guanting / Sanchuan Region. Anthropos 88:15-27.
*Kevin Stuart and Limusishiden, editors. 1994. China’s Monguor Minority: Ethnography and Folktales. Sino-Platonic Papers No 59.
*Sun Zhu, editor. 1990. Menggu yuzu yuyan cidian [Mongol Language Family Dictionary] . Xining: Qinghai renmin chubanshe [Qinghai People’s Press] .
*Thu’u bkwan (III) Blo bzang chos kyi nyi ma. 1989  . Lcang skya Rol pa’i rdo rje’i rnam thar. Lanzhou: Gansu’u mi rigs dpe skrun khang.
*Buljash Khojchievna Todaeva. 1959. Über die Sprache der Tung-hsiang. Acta Orientalia Hungarica 9: 273-310.
*Buljash Khojchievna Todaeva. 1961. Dunsyanskii yazyk. Moskva: Institut narodov Aziï AN SSSR.
*Buljash Khojchievna Todaeva. 1963. Einige Besonderheiten der Paoan-Sprache. Acta Orientalia Hungarica 16: 175-197.
*Buljash Khojchievna Todaeva. 1966. Baoan’skii yazyk. Moskva: Institut narodov Aziï AN SSSR.
*Buljash Khojchievna Todaeva. 1973. Mongorskii yazyk: Issledovanie, teksty, slovar [The Monguor Language: Analysis, Texts, and Glossary] . Moskva: Institut vostokovedeniya AN SSSR.
*Üjiyediin Chuluu (Wu Chaolu). 1994. Introduction, Grammar, and Sample Sentences for Monguor. Sino-Platonic Papers No 57.
*Wang Xianzheng and Kevin Stuart. 1995. ‘Blue Skies and Emoluments’: Minhe Monguor Men Sing I and II. Chinese Music 18(1):13-18; 18:(2):28-33.
*Wang Xianzheng, Zhu Yongzhong, and Kevin Stuart. 1995. ‘The Brightness of the World’: Minhe Monguor Women Sing. Mongolian Studies 18:65-83.
*Wang Xianzhen, writer; Zhu Yongzhong and Kevin Stuart, editors. 2001. Mangghuerla Bihuang Keli [Mangghuer Folktale Reader] . Chengdu, China-Chengdu Audio Press.
*www. 4corners.org [A site committed to making the Gospel of Jesus Christ available to the Tu (Monguor) people of northwest China in their own language—in this generation.]
*www.cybercities.com/t/westernyugur/new.htm [Several Monguor folktales.]
*www.tu.advocate.net [A site committed to converting Monguor to Christianity.]
*Xinhua. 8 May 2004. http://18.104.22.168/english/china_abc/minzu.htm.
*Zhaonasitu, editor. Tuzu yu jianchi [A Brief Account of the Monguor Language] . Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press] .
*Zhu Yongzhong and Kevin Stuart. 1996. Minhe Monguor Nadun Texts. CHIME 9:Autumn, 89-105.
*Zhu Yongzhong and Kevin Stuart. 1996. A Minhe Monguor Drinking Song. Central Asiatic Journal 40(2):283-289.
*Zhu Yongzhong and Kevin Stuart. 1997. Minhe Monguor Children’s Games. Orientalia Suecana XLV-XLVI:179-216.
*Zhu Yongzhong and Kevin Stuart. Education Among the Minhe Monguor IN Postiglione (1999).
*Zhu Yongzhong and Kevin Stuart. 1999. ‘Two Bodhisattvas From the East’: Minhe Monguor Funeral Orations. Journal of Contemporary China 8(20):179-188.
*Zhu Yongzhong, Üjiyediin Chuluu (Chaolu Wu), Keith Slater, and Kevin Stuart. 1997. Gangou Chinese Dialect: A Comparative Study of a Strongly Altaicized Chinese Dialect and Its Mongolic Neighbor. Anthropos 92:433-450.
*Zhu Yongzhong, Üjiyediin Chuluu (Chaolu Wu), and Kevin Stuart. 1995. The Frog Boy: An Example of Minhe Monguor. Orientalia Suecana XLII-XLIV:197-207.
*Zhu Yongzhong, Üjiyediin Chuluu, and Kevin Stuart. 1999. NI in Minhe Mangghuer and Other Mongol Languages. Archív Orientální 67 (3):323-338.
* [http://www.china.org.cn/e-groups/shaoshu/shao-2-tu.htm The Tu ethnic minority] (Chinese government site in English)
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